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Notes  and  Queries,  Jan.  31,  1903. 


JfleDtum  of  Intercommunication 



"  When   found,  make  a  note  of."— CAPTAIN  CUTTLE. 

JULY — DECEMBER,  1902. 




Notes  and  Queries,  January  31, 1903. 






9th  S.  X.  JULY  5,  1902. 


LOS  DON,  SATURDAY,  JULY  5,  1903. 

CONTENTS.— No.  236. 

NOTES :— Hvnan  on  Birth  of  Edward  VII.— Verses  for  a 
Prince  of  Wales— Cowley,  1— Living  Memory  of  Corona- 
tion of  George  IV.,  3— Gleek— "  Cigar  "— "  Sheregrig."  4 
—Inaccurate  Allusions — Pound's  Day — "  Met,"  5— Took's 
Court— "  Autocrat "  in  Russian— Scotch  Literary  Church- 
men, fi. 

QUERIES  :— Orange  Blossoms,  6— Papal  Provisions— Wood- 
house —  Napper  Tandy  —  Follett  —  Grace  before  Meat — 
'  Bataille  Loquifer'— "Cockledumditt"— Past  Tenee,  7— 
Schaw  of  Gospetry— Cantership— Stuart  Portraits— Glad- 
stone—  Browne  Quotation  —  Howe  —  "  A-sailing  by  the 
night" — "Pec  saetna,"  8  —  Lovel :  De  Hautville  — May 
Cats,  9. 

REPLIES  :—"  Meresteads,"  9  —  "Hopeful":  "Sanguine" 
— Nicknames  for  Colonies — Barras— Afnsworth,  10— Iron 
Duke — Nottingham  —  "Ploughing  his  lonely  furrow" — 
Westminster  City  Motto— Tennis— Patmore  Quotation — 

*  Cigarettes  —  Shakespeare  v.  Bacon,  11  —  "  Prospicimus 
modo" — Week,  12—  Kennett's  Father — "Only  too  thank- 
ful " — "  The  " — "  Box  Harry,"  13 — Eccleston— Heuskarian 
Rarity— "  Bar  sinister,"  14  —  School  Rules  —  Nanoleon's 
Last  Years,  15  —  Willughby's  'Ornithology' — "Hop  the 
twig"— '  Aylwin* — Latin  Verses— West  Bourne.  16 — Boon 
for  Bookworms  —  "  Lutes  of  amber"  — "Buff  Week"— 
Wren's  Mallet,  17— Comma  Misplaced— Yarrow  Unvisited 
—Pole,  18. 

NOTES  ON  BOOKS  :— Paton's  '  Early  History  of  Syria  and 
Palestine  ' — Duff's  'Theology  and  Ethics  of  the  Hebrews  ' 
-'Transactions  of  the  Glasgow  Archaeological  Society'— 
'  Miscellanea  Genealogica  et  Heraldic*.' 



AT  this  moment,  in  which  the  thoughts  of 
the  nation  are  centred  upon  King  Edward, 
the  following  hymn  written  on  the  occasion 
of  his  birth  will  be  read  with  interest.  The 
author  of  it  was  Henry  Fothergill  Chorley, 
who  was  connected  with  the  Athenceum  for 
thirty-five  years. 

Thou  that  from  Thy  throne  of  splendour, 

Where  the  angels  humbly  bow, 
With  an  eye  of  mercy  tender, 

Lookest  down  on  worlds  below  ; 
Deign  with  gracious  ear  to  gather 

Ev'ry  heart  of  England's  prayer ; 
King  of  Kings  !  of  parents  Father, 
Bless  the  Mother  in  the  Heir  ! 

Lord,  whose  love  paternal  heedeth 

Monarch's  triumph,  peasant's  sleep, 
Grant  him  all  that  pilgrim  needeth 

On  a  heav'nward  path  so  steep : 
Truth,  to  Fear  and  Flatt'ry  stranger ; 

Valour,  noblest  deeds  to  dare  ; 
O  through  empire's  toil  and  danger, 

Bless  the  Mother  in  the  Heir. 

Crown  his  youth  with  ail  the  pleasure 

Health  and  Strength  and  Joy  bestow ; 
Crown  his  age  with  richer  treasure, 

Love,  that  grateful  myriads  owe  : 
Be  his  reign  in  future  story 

Traced  with  words  of  record  fair ; 
God  !  to  England's  peace  and  glory, 

Bless  the  Mother  in  the  Heir ! 

J.  S.  S. 

OF  WALES  (1555). 

"THE  time,"  says  Fox  in  his  'Acts  and 
Monuments,'  "was  thought  to  be  nigh  that 
this  young  master  should  come  into  the 
world."  Bells  were  rung,  bonfires  and  pro- 
cessions made  in  London  and  all  over  the 
kingdom.  The  rumour,  however,  turned  out 
to  be  a  false  one.  Fox  tells  us  that  *'  there 
was  a  cradle  very  sumptuously  and  gorgeously 
trimmed,  upon  the  which  cradle  for  the  child 
appointed,  these  verses  were  written  both  in 
Latin  and  English  : — 

Quam  Mariiesobolem,  Deus  optime,  summe,  dedisti, 
Anglis  incolumem  redde,  tuere,  rege. 

The  child  which  thou  to  Mary,  0  Lord  of  might ! 

hast  send  [sic], 
To  England's  joy,  in  health  preserve,— keep,  and 

defend ! " 

'  J.  S.  S. 


THE  fourth  edition  of  this  celebrated 
writer's  English  works  was  published  in 
1674.  I  have  a  copy  of  it  before  me,  which 
is  of  exceptional  interest,  because  it  is  en- 
riched witn  numerous  marginal  notes,  written 
partly  just  after  the  death  of  Thomas  Oray, 
to  whom  the  annotator  refers  as  "  our  late 
poet,"  and  from  whom  he  quotes  more  than 
once.  Gray  died  in  1771.  The  notes  are 
subscribed  with  a  capital  "H,"  and  as  the 
writer  informs  us  that  all  those  pieces  (in- 
variably spelt  peices)  to  which  the  letter  is 
affixed  are  included  "in  Dr.  Hurd's  edition 
of  Cowley's  'Select  Works,"  1772,"  I  am  more 
than  inclined  to  think  that  this  is  one  of  the 
very  books  Dr.  Hurd  himself  used  in  making 
his  selection,  and  that  the  marginalia  are 
in  his  own  handwriting.  But  I  have  other 
and  stronger  reasons  for  arriving  at  this 
interesting  conclusion.  Dr.  Samuel  Johnson 
has  the  following  sentence  in  his  life  of 
Cowley  :  "  Jonson  and  Donne,  as  Dr.  Hurd 
remarks,  were  then  in  the  highest  esteem." 
I  have  been  unable  to  consult  what  is  printed 
in  the  '  Select  Works,'  but  this  is  what  I  find 
written  in  the  margin  of  p.  33  of  the  '  Pin- 
darique  Odes,'  on  which  the  famous  one  to 
"Brutus"  begins.  The  note,  which  I  give 
exactly  as  I  find  it,  is  as  follows  : — 

"The  subject  of  this  ode  seems  to  have  been 
chosen  by  the  poet  for  ye  sake  of  venting  his  indig- 
nation against  Cromwell.— It  has  been  generally 
supposed  y'  Mr.  Cowley  had  no  ear  for  harmony, 
&  even  no  taste  of  elegant  expression.  And  we  wa 
be  apt  to  think  so  from  his  untun'd  verse,  and 
rugged  style :  but  y"  case  was  only  this :  Donne  and 
Jonson  were  the  favorite  poets  of  y"  time,  &  there- 
fore ye  models,  on  wch  our  poet  was  ambitious  to 
form  himself.  But  unhappily  these  poets  affected 

NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        ID*  s.  x.  JULY  5, 1902. 

harsh  numbers  and  uncouth  expression ;  and  w' 
they  affected  easily  came  to  be  Iqok'd  upon  as 
Beauties.  Even  Milton  himself,  in  his  yonger 
days,  fell  into  this  delusion,  (bee  his  poem  on 
Shakespear.)  But  ye  vigour  of  his  genius,  or,  per- 
haps, his  course  of  life,  wch  led  him  out  of  y"  high- 
road of  fashion,  enabled  him,  in  good  time,  to  break 
through  the  state  of— exemplar  vitiis  imitabile.* 
The  Court,  wch  had  worse  things  to  answer  for, 
kept  poor  Cowley  eternally  in  it.  He  foresoke  y" 
Conversation  (says  Dr.  Sprat,  who  design'd  him  a 
compliment  in  ye  observation),  but  never  the  Lan- 
guage of  the  Court.  H." 

Dr.  Hurd,  it  will  be  noticed,  exhibits  some 
carelessness  in  spelling;  but  as  the  memoranda 
were  intended  for  his  own  eye,  we  are  not 
called  upon  to  be  censorious.  If,  however, 
he  had  read  with  attention  Sprat's  '  Account 
of  the  Life  and  Writings  of  Mr.  Abraham 
Cowley,'  prefixed  to  this  edition,  he  would 
not  have  stumbled  over  the  word  "  forsook," 
for  this  is  how  the  biographer  writes  :  "  He 
forsook  the  Conversation,  but  never  the 
Language,  of  the  City  and  Court." 

It  is  well  known  that  Dr.  Johnson  was 
acquainted  with  this  selection  of  Cowley's 
works.  Boswell  informs  us  that  in  a  con- 
versation in  1776  "  he  expressed  his  disappro- 
bation of  Dr.  Hurd,  for  having  published  a 
mutilated  edition  under  the  title  of  '  Select 
Works  of  Abraham  Cowley,1 "  but  two  years 
afterwards  "he  seemed  to  be  in  a  more 
indulgent  humour,"  for  he  said  : — 

"I  was  angry  with  Hurd  about  Cowley,  for 
having  published  a  selection  of  his  works:  but, 
upon  oetter  consideration,  I  think  there  is  no 
impropriety  in  a  man's  publishing  as  much  as  he 
chooses  of  any  author,  if  he  does  not  put  the  rest 
out  of  the  way.  A  man,  for  instance,  may  print 
the  Odes  of  Horace  alone." 

There  can  be  no  doubt  that  Johnson  was 
considerably  indebted  to  Kurd's  annotations. 
He  works  out  the  latter's  reference  to  Donne 
and  Ben  Jonson  as  follows  in  his  remarks 
on  the  "  metaphysic  style  "  : — 

"This  kind  of  writing,  which  was,  I  believe, 
borrowed  from  Marino  and  his  followers,  had  been 
recommended  by  the  example  of  Donne,  a  man 
of  very  extensive  and  various  knowledge,  and  by 
Jonson,  whose  manner  resembled  that  of  Donne 
more  in  the  ruggedness  of  his  lines  than  in  the 
cast  of  his  sentiments." 

Further  on  he  says  :  "  But  I  have  found  no 
traces  of  Jonson  in  his  works  :  to  emulate 
Donne  appears  to  have  been  his  purpose." 
Few  persons  will  be  found  to  allow  Jonson 
to  be  enrolled  among  the  "metaphysic 
poets  " ;  nor  will  they  admit  that  his  style 
is  rugged  and  that  he  "affected  harsh 
numbers  and  uncouth  expression."  Untuned 
numbers  he  avoided  in  his  own  poems,  and 

*  Horace,  '  Epist.,'  I.  19, 1.  17. 

condemned  in  his  friends',  as  we  learn  from 
Drummond  "  that  Donne,  for  not  keeping 
of  accent,  deserved  hanging ;  that  Donne 
himself,  for  not  being  understood,  would 
perish."  It  is  curious  to  find  that  Johnson's 
condemnation  passed  on  this  writer  for  "  that 
familiarity  with  religious  images  and  that 
light  allusion  to  sacred  things,  by  which 
readers  far  short  of  sanctity  are  frequently 
offended,"  had  been  uttered  long  before  in 
far  stronger  language  by  his  great  name- 
sake, when  he  said  to  Drummond  "  that 
Donne's  '  Anniversary '  was  profane  and  full 
of  blasphemies."  His  life  of  Cowley  proves 
that  Dr.  Johnson  was  well  acquainted  with 
Donne's  works,  but  it  appears  doubtful 
whether  he  had  done  much  more  than  dip 
into  those  of  Ben  Jonson.  In  the  very  com- 
plete index  to  Boswell's  'Life'  Jonson's  name 
is  not  once  found,  nor  does  it  occur  in  '  The 
Journal  of  a  Tour  to  the  Hebrides.'  It  is, 
however,  once  mentioned  in  the  life  of 
Milton,  and  twice  in  that  of  Dryden ;  but 
from  these  instances  we  can  scarcely  infer 
that  the  great  critic  was  well  acquainted 
with  Ben  Jonson's  works,  for  his  remarks 
are  little  more  than  an  echo  of  what  those 
two  writers  have  themselves  said.  On  the 
whole,  it  does  not  seem  rash  to  assume  that 
Dr.  Johnson  adopted  Kurd's  opinion  re- 
garding Shakespeare's  friend,  though  with 
some  hesitation,  as  one  cannot  help  thinking 
from  his  rather  contradictory  statements. 
In  one  particular  he  disagrees  with  Hurd, 
who  considered  Milton's  poem  on  Shake- 
speare to  be  written  in  the  style  of  Donne 
and  Cowley  ;  but  Johnson  says :  "  Milton 
tried  the  metaphysic  style  only  in  his  lines 
upon  Hobson  the  carrier." 

Who  shall  decide  when  doctors  disagree  ? 
We  have  enough  of  them  mentioned  in  this 
note.  Though  Shakespeare,  Ben  Jonson,  and 
Milton  did  not  bear  the  title,  Donne,  Sprat, 
and  Hurd  were  Doctors  of  Divinity,  Cowley 
was  a  Doctor  of  Physic,  and  Samuel  Johnson 
of  Laws. 

I  have  confined  myself  to  a  single  annota- 
tion, but  there  are  others  in  the  volume,  which 
Cowley's  critic  had  evidently  studied  with 
attention,  and  used  with  advantage  in  what 
he  is  reported  to  have  regarded  as  the  best  of 
his  'Lives  of  the  Poets.'  It  is,  no  doubt,  an 
admirable  study,  and  contains  some  of  his 
choicest  writing,  especially  that  golden  pas- 
sage beginning  with  the  words  ' '  Language 
is  the  dress  of  thought,"  but  it  is  much  more 
the  criticism  of  a  school  of  poets  than  of  one 
particular  member  of  it.  By  accumulating 
so  many  specimens  of  the  fantastic  genius  of 
Donne  and  Cleveland,  and  bracketing  them 

9*  s.  x.  JULY  5, 1902.]         NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 

with  those  he  quotes  from  Cowley,  Johnson 
(unwittingly,  I  believe)  almost  extinguished 
the  reputation  of  a  poet  who  was,  Dryden 
says,  "  the  darling  of  my  youth."  The  critic 
is  so  intent  on  parading  the  faults  of  the 
writer  before  our  eyes  that  we  are  persuaded 
his  poems  are  unworthy  of  notice.  This  is 
most  unjust,  for  Cowley  has  very  considerable 
merits  which  deserve  recognition ;  and,  in 
any  case,  his  works  will  repay  a  diligent 
study,  as  may  be  shown  elsewhere. 

Dr.  Hurd's  marginalia  in  the  volume  men- 
tioned are  written  with  very  great  care,  and 
are  confined  to  those  pieces  which  he  printed 
in  his  '  Selections.'  He  has  traced  all  the 
Latin  quotations  to  their  sources,  and  has 
many  interesting  references  to  Shakespeare, 
Ben  Jonson,  Donne,  Clarendon,  Milton,  Dry- 
den,  Addison,  Pope,  and  Gray,  the  last  of 
whom  died  when  Kurd  was  getting  near  the 
end  of  his  task.  Though  an  admirer  of  Cowley, 
Hurd  is  not  blind  to  his  faults,  which  he  con- 
demns, but  attributes  to  the  vitiated  taste  of 
the  times.  That  he  is  the  annotator  I  have 
not  the  least  doubt,  for  the  following  reason, 
which  seems  decisive.  The  editor  of  this 
volume,  "  the  courtly  Sprat,"  as  Johnson  has 
once  called  him,  has  given  only  three  speci- 
mens of  Cowley's  Latin  muse.  One  is  his 
4  Elegia  Dedicatoria '  to  Cambridge  Uni- 
versity, another  is  the  version  of  the  first 
book  of  the  '  Davideis,'  and  the  third  is  the 
strange  little  poem  'Epitaphium  Vivi  Auc- 
toris,'  which  is  printed  on  the  last  page.  On 
the  blank  leaf  is  written  the  following  trans- 
lation of  the  lines,  which  is,  I  think,  better 
than  Henry  Morley's,  given  in  his  edition  of 
Cowley's  'Essays':— 


Here,  stranger,  in  this  humble  nest, 

Here  Cowley  sleeps  ;  here  lies, 
Scap'd  all  the  toils,  that  life  molest, 

And  its  superfluous  joys. 

Here,  in  no  sordid  poverty, 

And  no  inglorious  ease, 
He  braves  the  world  &  can  defy 

Its  frowns  and  flatteries. 

The  little  earth,  he  asks,  survey  : 

Is  he  not  dead,  indeed  ? 
"  Light  lie  that  earth,"  good  stranger,  pray, 

"  Nor  thorn  upon  it  breed  ! " 

With  flow'rs,  fit  emblem  of  his  fame, 

Compass  your  poet  round  ; 
With  now'rs  of  ev'ry  fragrant  name 

Be  his  warm  ashes  crown'd  !— H. 

I  have  given  the  lines  exactly  as  they  are 
written  and  punctuated.  They  are,  we  are 
told  below,  "  Translated  in  Dr.  Hurd  s  edition 

of  Cowley's '  Select  Works,'  1772."  Dr.  Richard 
Hurd,  it  may  be  mentioned,  was  born  in  1720, 
and  after  being  successively  Bishop  of  Lich- 
field  and  Coventry,  and  of  Worcester,  died  in 
1808.  His  name  is  found  several  times  in  these 
notes,  but  always  in  the  third  person.  With 
the  following  comments  on  the  Latin  text  of 
the  above  poem  I  will  bring  this  paper  to  an 

"  Epitaphium  vivi  authoris]  The  conceit  of  a 
living  death,  was  quite  in  the  taste  of  our  author.— 
Vita  gaudet  mortua  floribus]  The  application  is 
the  juster,  &  prettier,  because  of  ye  Poet's  singular 
passion  for  gardens  &  flowers  (on  which  subject  he 
had  written  a  latin  Poem  in  six  Books) :  and  then, 
according  to  the  poetical  creed, 

vivo  quse  cura— 
— eadem  sequitur  tellure  repostum. 

Virg.  En.  6,  564.* 

—I,  pedes  qu6  t'e  rapiunt,  et  Aurse  ! 
'  Forgot  his  Epic,  nay  Pindaric  art ;' 
'  But  still  I  love  the  language  of  his  heart.' 


These  are  the  last  words  written  in  the 
volume.  Any  doubt  as  to  the  identity  of  the 
annotator  will  be  removed  when  I  state  that 
his  name  is  thus  given,  "R.  Hurd,"  in  the 
margin  of  the  page  just  before  the  second 
quotation,  and  that  the  handwriting  is  every- 
where the  same.  *  JOHN  T.  CURRY. 

NATION REJOICINGS.  —  In  the  Launceston 
Weekly  News  of  7  June  appeared  a  letter  from 
Mr.  R.  Robbins,  a  former  member  of  the  local 
Town  Council,  but  now  resident  in  London, 
giving  his  recollections  of  the  rejoicings  held 
in  the  borough  at  the  last  three  coronations — 
those  of  George  IV.  in  1821,  William  IV.  in 
1831,  and  Victoria  in  1838.  This  venerable 

Smtleman  —  who  has  lived  to  witness  the 
iamond  Jubilee  procession  of  her  late 
Majesty  in  1897  from  the  Parliamentary 
stand  at  Westminster,  and  expected  to  see 
the  royal  progress  of  their  present  Majesties 
through  the  capital  in  1902  from  a  point  of 
vantage  in  Fleet  Street — wrote : — 

"  Launceston  since  I  can  remember  has  more  than 
held  its  own  in  showing  its  loyalty  to  the  house  of 
Hanover,  both  the  old  town  and  St.  Stephens,  at 
the  coronation  of  George  IV.  and  William  IV., 
when  they  were  separate  boroughs,  each  returning 
two  representatives  to  Westminster,  and  each  con- 
tinued their  loyalty  as  strong  as  ever  at  the  coro- 
nation of  Victoria  after  the  borough  had  lost  three 
members.  St.  Stephens  for  the  last  three  corona- 
tions held  their  own  festivities.  They  were  then  a 
separate  borough,  and  had  a  large  trade  of  their 
own,  but  time  has  changed  this,  and  revolutionized 
their  political  and  commercial  system  since  they 

*  A  pardonable  slip;  it  should  be  654.  Virgil's 
words  are  very  skilfully  adapted  to  Cowley's  case, 
I  think. 


s.  x.  JULY  5,  1902. 

have  been  under  the  municipal  borough  of  Launce- 

ston I  first  saw  the  light  of  day  in  1817  in  the 

hamlet  of  St.  Thomas,  and  heard  the  church  bells 
of  Launceston  and  St.  Thomas,  to  remind  them  of 
the  coronation  of  George  IV.  on  19  July,  1821,  when 
the  people  of  the  hamlet  and  St.  Mary  Magdalene 
sat  down  together  at  a  public  dinner  on  the  Middle 
Walk.  I  well  remember  the  table  at  which  my 
parents  and  three  sisters  sat.  It  was  at  Miss 
Rowe's,  of  High  Street,  the  late  Sir  William  Rowe's 
aunt.  There  was  dancing  and  a  f ugee  in  the  even- 
ing. There  was  no  public  dinner  or  tea  given  at 
the  coronation  of  William.  IV.,  but  the  working 
classes  were  well  supplied,  each  family  receiving  so 
many  pounds  of  beef  per  head,  and  a  fugee  in  the 
Broad  Street  in  the  evening;  while  there  was  a 
trades'  procession  at  Queen  Victoria's  coronation." 
The  word  fugee,  in  the  above  account,  was 
strange  to  me,  and  Mr.  Robbins,  upon  my 
inquiring  its  meaning,  explained  that  a,  fugee 
was  the  firing  in  the  air  of  guns  and  blunder- 
busses, there  being  in  his  early  days  no  fire- 
works in  the  country  except  sky-rockets  and 
squibs.  I  would  suggest  that  it  is  a  corrup- 
tion of  feu  dejoie,  a  phrase  likely  to  be  heard 
at  Launceston,  where,  as  Mr.  Robbins  him- 
self has  shown  (8th  S.  v.  34),  some  French 
words  had  remained  in  common  use  because 
a  number  of  prisoners  of  war  had  been  de- 
tained there  in  the  early  part  of  the  nine- 
teenth century.  DUNHEVED. 

GLEEK. — The  earliest  quotation  in '  H.E.D.' 
for  gleek,  an  old  game  at  cards,  is  dated  1533. 
It  occurs  earlier,  in  1532,  in  Roy's  '  Rede  Me, 
and  be  not  Wrothe,'  ed.  Arber,  p.  117  : — 
In  carde-playinge  he  is  a  good  greke 
And  can  skyll  of  post  and  glyeke. 

In  the  Supplement  to  my  larger  '  Dictionary ' 
I  refer  to  Warton,  who  quotes  a  poem  by 
W.  Forrest  to  the  effect  that  Catharine  of 
Arragon  played  at  gleeke  before  her  marriage 
in  1509.  WALTER  W.  SKEAT. 

"  CIGAR."— '  N.E.D.'  justifies  its  title  to  be 
a  new  as  well  as  an  historical  dictionary  by 
its  multitudinous  dates.  Few  of  its  readers 
would  know  when  the  word,  or  thing,  coffee 
first  came  into  England  but  for  its  date  of 
1636.  The  word  cigar,  set  down  as  first 
printed  in  an  English  book  in  1735,  is  an 
instance,  perhaps,  more  noteworthy.  That 
the  word  was  then  believed  to  be  new  is 
implied  in  'N.E.D.'s'  first  mention.  "Seegars," 
says  its  first  citation,  "  are  Leaves  of  Tobacco 
rolled  up  in  such  Manner  that  they  serve 
both  for  a  Pipe  and  Tobacco  itself through- 
out New  Spain,"  &c. 

This  quotation  I  have  also  used  to  show 
that 'N.E.D.'  surpasses  all  other  works  of  its 
class  in  the  quality  no  less  than  the  number 
of  its  citations.  They  are  from  sources  that 
must  be  new  to  almost  all  its  readers.  The 

one  above  given  is  from  a  book  which  is  not 
found  in  the  catalogues  of  three  out  of  the 
four  largest  libraries  in  and  near  Boston. 

After  all,  cigar,  as  treated  by  'N.E.D.,' 
needs  an  American  supplement  for  several 
reasons.  Thus  Colman,  as  cited  by  '  N.E.D.,' 
implies  that  sagars  (sic)  were  well  known  in 
1787,  while  a  letter  of  Mrs.  Barbauld  of  the 
selfsame  year  (see  'N.  &  Q.,'  4th  S.  iv.  30} 
points  quite  another  way.  Seeing  a  cigar 
smoked  for  the  first  time,  she  writes  to  her 
father,  "We  have  beheld  a  wonder  to-day. 
Did  you  ever  see  one  ? " 

Again,  in  examining  a  file  of  the  New  York 
Spectator,  in  the  library  of  the  Wisconsin 
State  Historical  Society,  I  discovered  in  the 
number  for  12  August,  1801,  an  advertise- 
ment headed,  "Spanish  segars.  Bement  <k 
Gale."  In  1796  Belknap  writes,  Canajohara 
[N.Y.],  in  his  '  Journal,'  "  We,  eleven  in  num- 
ber, very  close  stowed  in  the  stage,  four 
segars  smoking  most  of  the  time."  Again,  on 
25  August,  1792,  he  writes, '  A  box  of  excellent 
Havana  segars  sent  from  Charleston  [S.C.]  to 

Yet  once  more,  in  the  '  Bye-Laws  of  the 
Town  of  Newburyport  [Mass.]  for  regulating 
the  Internal  Police  of  the  same,'  "Voted  and 
ordered  1785,  That  any  person  or  persons 
who  shall  be  found  smoaking  [sic]  any  pipe 
or  segar  in  the  streets,  lanes,  or  alleys,  or  on 
the  wharves  of  said  Town,  from  and  after 
the  second  Tuesday  of  October  next,  shall 
forfeit  and  pay  the  sum  of  two  shillings  for 
every  such  offence."  The  proof  is  strong 
that  cigar— both  the  name  and  thing— was 
well  known  in  Massachusetts  earlier  than 
in  England,  and  so  the  word  should  have 
been  noted  in  '  N.E.D.'  as  of  United  States 

The  truth  is  that  Newburyport  and  other 
New  England  coast  towns  continually  ex- 
ported codfish,  their  staple  product,  to  the 
West  Indies  for  enabling  the  Catholics  to 
keep  their  fasts,  beginning  long  before 
'  N.E.D.'s '  earliest  authority  was  born.  It 
cannot  be  that  the  thing  cigar  was  not  known 
in  New  England  earlier  than  in  Old.  Further 
research  may  show  that  the  word  was  also 
earlier,  and  did  not  come  in  from  either 
Spain  or  France.  JAMES  D.  BUTLER. 

Madison,  Wis. 

[MR.  BUTLER  may  be  right  as  to  the  earlier 
American  use,  but  in  view  of  the  English  quotations 
in  '  N.E.D.'  is  it  proved?] 

queer-looking  word  has  long  been  a  crux  to 
readers  of  Peter  Pindar.  It  puzzled  even 
the  editor  of  the  '  Century  Dictionary,'  who 
quotes  the  verse  in  which  it  occurs,  and 

s.  x.  JULY  5, 1902.]         NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 

defines  it  tentatively  as  "an  unidentified 
animal."  Looking  over  the  appendix  to 
Bruce's  'Travels,'  1790,  vol.  v.  p.  182,  I  have 
come  upon  the  key  to  the  riddle.  The 
sheregrig  is  a  bird,  and  its  name  is  merely 
the  Arabic  shirikrak  (or  shirigrag\  which 
appears  in  all  the  best  Arabic  dictionaries. 
Johnson,  'Arabic  and  Persian  Dictionary,' 
1852,  defines  it  as  '"magpie."  Lane,  'Arabic 
Lexicon,'  1863,  has  "  woodpecker."  It  is  three 
syllables,  not  two,  as  marked  in  the  '  Cen- 
tury.' It  is  evidently  the  same  as  Hebrew 
skarakrak,  a  bird  which,  according  to  the 
Talmudists,  will  announce  by  its  hissing  the 

coming  of  the  Messiah.      JAS.  PLATT,  Jun. 


RAY, AND  DICKENS. — In  the  Sketch  of  19  Feb- 
ruary there  is  a  short  article  by  Mr.  T.  H.  S. 
Escott  on  '  Bygone  Brighton,'  which  contains 
incidental  allusions  to  passages  in  three 
of  our  greatest  English  novels— '  Tristram 
Shandy,  '  Vanity  Fair,'  and  '  David  Copper- 
field.'  It  is  rather  surprising  to  find  that  in 
each  instance  a  more  or  less  serious  mistake 
has  been  made. 

We  are  told  that  "with  two  exceptions 

the  later  Clubs  of  Brighton  are  apt  to  be  like 
Tristram  Shandy's  scullion — here  to-day  and 
gone  to-morrow."  The  fat,  foolish  scullion  in 
the  service  of  Walter  Shandy  said,  on  hearing 
that  Master  Bobby  was  dead,  "  So  am  not  1." 
The  words  "  here  to-day,"  &c.,  are  apparently 
due  to  an  inaccurate  recollection  of  part  of 
Trim's  moralizing  in  the  kitchen : — 

"Are  we  not  here  now,  continued  the  corporal 
(striking  the  end  of  his  stick  perpendicularly  upon 
the  floor,  so  as  to  give  an  idea  of  health  and  sta- 
bility),—and  are  we  not  (dropping  his  hat  upon  the 
ground) — gone  !  in  a  moment ! " — Vol.  iv.  chap.  vii. 
p.  44,  in  6-vol.  edition  of  1782. 

Near  the  beginning  of  Mr.  Escott's  article 
Mortimer  Collins  is  described  as  "a  Sedley 
(not  Josh  of  4  Vanity  Fair ')  born  out  of  his 
generation."  But  Amelia's  brother  was  Jos. 

In  another  part  we  read  of 
"one  or  two  more  of  the  old  '  blood  and  culture' 
school,  who  invoked  Thackeray  as  their  patron 
saint,  and  who  never  forgave  the  satire  pointed  at 
them  by  Dickens  in  his  description  of  Mr.  Spenlow's 
dinner  party." 

The  writer,  presumably,  was  here  thinking 
of  the  "  sanguinary  small-talk"  at  Mr.  Water- 
brook's  table  ('  David  Copperfield,'  chap,  xxv.), 
when  the  "simpering  fellow  with  the  weak 
legs  "  compressed  the  general  question  into  a 
nutshell  by  the  remark,  "I'd  rather  at  any 
time  be  knocked  down  by  a  man  who  had 
got  Blood  in  him,  than  I  'd  be  picked  up  by  a 
man  who  hadn't !" 
Beside  this  may  be  set  a  passage  from  the 

patron  saint  of  the  "-blood  and  culture" 
school.  Did  not  James  Crawley,  in  reply  to 
his  cousin  Pitt's  reminder,  "  By  the  way,  it 
was  about  blood  you  were  talking,  and  the 
personal  advantages  which  people  derive 
from  patrician  birth,"  make  the  speech  be- 
ginning "Blood's  the  word,"  and  ending 
"Blood,  sir,  all  blood"? 

Whether  there  is  an  equal  amount  of  accu- 
racy in  Mr.  Escott's  account  of  Mortimer 
Collins's  waistcoat  and  George  Augustus 
Sala's  necktie  may  be  safely  left  to  the  de- 
cision of  experts  in  that  branch  of  literary 
history;  but  perhaps,  after  all,  "it's  of  no 
consequence."  EDWARD  BENSLY. 

The  University,  Adelaide,  South  Australia. 

POUND'S  DAY.  —  The  following  paragraph 
from  the  Western  Daily  Mercury  of  24  May 
seems  worthy  of  permanent  record  in  the 
pages  of  'N.  &Q.':— 

"A  curious  custom"  called   'Pound's  Day'  was 
observed  in  Exeter  yesterday.     Towards  the  St. 
Olave's  Home,  in  connexion  with  the  Church  of, 
England   Waifs-  and    Strays'  Association,    people  * 
made  gifts  of  pounds  of  tea,  or  sugar,  or  bread,  or 
meat,  or  coffee,  &c.      The  presents   were   all    in 
pounds.    Donors  who  personally  carried  their  dona- 
tions to  the  home  were  welcomed  by  the  officials 
and  entertained  at  tea." 

A  Pound's  Day  was.  recently  held  with  suc- 
cess at  the  Rosehill  Hospital  for  Children  at 
Babbacombe,  when  pounds  of  almost  any- 
thing were  accepted,  but,  as  may  be  supposed, 
pounds  sterling  were  the  most  welcome. 

A.  J.  DAVY. 


["Pound  Day"  has  been  observed  in  London  for 
some  years  on  behalf  of  the  same  society.] 

'  Pineapple,'  9th  S.  viii.  226.)  —  Writing  from 
this  part  of  the  world,  where  the  pineapple 
is  carved,  more  or  less,  all  the  year  round,  I 
was  struck  by  MR.  HARPUR'S  use  of  the  word 
"  met "  in  the  sense  of  meeting  an  inanimate 
object,  or  something  that  could  not  meet  you 
in  the  ordinary  sense  of  the  word  ;  in  other 
words,  in  the  sense  of  to  find,  as  in  the  case 
used  by  your  correspondent  with  reference 
to  the  ceremony  he  mentions.  In  this  part 
of  the  West  Indies  the  word  is  largely  used 
in  this  sense. 

An  article  of  jewellery  was  recently  lost 
by  a  member  of  my  family,  and  on  its 
being  brought  back,  and  inquiry  made  as  to 
where  it  was  found,  "Oh  !"  said  the  finder, 
a  native  girl,  "  I  met  it  in Street." 

But  one  still  more  interesting  peculiarity 
of  native  expression  has  often  struck  me, 
and  that  is  with  reference  to  bringing  the 
points  of  the  compass  into  use  in  describing 



B.  x.  JULY  5,  IMS. 

the  position  of  anything,  even  the  smallest 
articles  of  daily  use.  I  first  noticed  this  in 
a  prosecution  in  which  a  constable,  of  con- 
siderable and  rotund  proportions,  when  asked 
as  to  the  position  of  the  accused  person  in 
relation  to  a  particular  incident,  replied, 
"She  was  just  to  the  south  side  of  me,"  or 
"  my  south  side,"  I  forget  which.  The  phrase 
being  new  to  me,  I  could  not  refrain  from 
asking  him  which  he  called  his  i(  south  side." 
On  another  occasion,  when  playing  cricket, 
I  was  much  amused  when,  on  a  batsman 
asking  a  local  umpire  to  give  him  "guard," 
he  was  told  to  move  his  bat  "a  little  more 
to  the  west."  And  again,  a  bowler,  on  being 
asked  on  which  side  of  the  wicket  he  was 

foing  to  bowl,  replied,  "On  the  east  side." 
t  is  the  same  when  a  person  is  asked  to 
fetch  anything;  as,  for  instance,  "You  will 
find  it  (or  meet  it)  at  the  west  side  of  the 
wardrobe  standing  on  the  east  side  of  the 
room."  The  natives  here  never  seem  at  a 
loss  as  to  the  points  of  the  compass  wherever 
they  may  be,  the  phrase  "  to  the  right "  or 
"left"  being  seldom  or  never  used  in  giving 
such  directions.  J.  S.  UDAL,  F.S.A. 

Antigua,  W.I. 

TOOK'S  COURT. — The  history  of  the  con- 
nexion of  '  N.  &  Q.'  with  this  place  has  been 
given  at  8th  S.  i.  268.  A  few  more  notes  may 
be  gathered  here.  According  to  the  'D.N.B.,' 
xlviii.  37a,  there  was  a  Ralph  Took,  of  Took's 
Court,  whose  widow  Elizabeth  was  living  in 
1663.  (But  the  reference  given  is  to  Chester's 
'  Marriage  Licences,'  where  no  mention  is 
made  of  Ralph  or  Took's  Court,  and  the  date 
assigned  in  '  D.N.B.'  for  her  marriage  is  that 
of  the  licence.)  Mr.  Tuck,  or  Took,  of  Cur- 
sitors'  Alley,  a  Chancery  clerk,  died  in  1722 
(7th  S.  x.  446).  Rowland  Okeover,  of  Oke- 
over,  co.  Stafford,  Esquire,  by  his  will  7  De- 
cember, 1727,  and  codicil  14  February,  1728, 
appointed  his  grandson  William  Okeover,  of 
Took's  Court,  Chancery  Lane,  Esquire,  his 
executor.  This  William  Okeover  by  his  will, 
1  March,  1745,  appointed  William  Monk,  of 
Clifford's  Inn,  gent.,  one  of  his  executors 
(Orig.  MS.).  Henry  Brougham,  of  Took's 
Court,  was  a  coadjutor  of  Oldys  in  the  'Bio- 
graphia  Britannica,'  1747-66  (3rd  S.  i.  62). 

W.  C.  B. 

"  AUTOCRAT  "  IN  RUSSIAN.  —  It  may  be 
worth  noting  that  the  word  "  autocrat,"  as  an 
equivalent  of  the  Greek  avTo-Kparwp  =  self- 
ruler,  never  (or  but  very  rarely)  is  rendered  in 
Russian  by  the  corresponding  term  "avto- 
krat,"  although  its  English  derivatives  "  auto- 
cracy "  and  "autocratic  "  commonly  occur  in 
Russian  as  "  avto-kratsia "  and  "avto-krati- 

cesky."  A  learned  Russian  friend  informs  me 
that  the  proper  and  usual  Russian  word  for 
an  autocrat  is  "  samo  -  derzhets  " — i.e.,  self- 
ruler.  Probably  this  usage  is  due  to  the 
preference  given  to  an  indigenous  word  which 
especially  presented  the  Russian  emperor 
as  an  absolute  or  unrestricted  ruler  to  the 
mind  of  the  Russian  people.  H.  KREBS. 

Industrious  Litterateur,'  9th  S.  ix.  366.)— I  need 
hardly  say  that  I  appreciate  very  highly  the 
compliment  paid  by  MR.  GRIGOR  at  the  above 
reference.  It  is  so  common  to  be  ignored 
or  misjudged  rather  than  recognized  and 
commended  that  an  honest,  encouraging 
salute  is  very  welcome  when,  as  thus,  it  is 
cordially  given.  I  hope  it  may  be  seemly  to 
make  here  a  special  response  to  MR.  GRIGOR'S 
spontaneous  and  hearty  appreciation  of  my 
articles  in  Saint  Andrew.  I  embrace  the 
opportunity  to  say  that  I  am  now  preparing 
a  volume  on  '  Scottish  Literary  Churchmen,' 
opening  with  a  general  survey,  and  treating 
individually  the  men  of  the  eighteenth  and 
nineteenth  centuries.  THOMAS  BAYNE. 

WE  must  request  correspondents  desiring  infor- 
mation on  family  matters  of  only  private  interest 
to  affix  their  names  and  addresses  to  their  queries, 
in  order  that  the  answers  may  be  addressed  to  them 

ORANGE  BLOSSOMS. — When  did  it  become 
the  fashion  for  English  brides  to  wear  or  bear 
orange  blossoms  at  the  marriage  ceremony  1 
A  parenthesis  in  'Vanity  Fair,'  ch.  xii.,  would 
seem  to  imply  that  they  were  but  a  recent 
introduction  in  1848,  when  Thackeray  wrote, 
"Had  orange  blossoms  been  invented  then 
(those  touching  emblems  of  female  purity 

imported  by  us  from  France),  Miss  Maria 

would  have  assumed  the  spotless  wreath." 
When  were  orange  blossoms  imported  from 
France  1  I  should  be  glad  of  any  references 
to  them  before  this  date.  And,  by  the  way, 
where  did  Thackeray  get  the  explanation  of 
the  symbolism,  which  I  observe  has  been 
adopted  from  him  in  several  modern  dic- 
tionaries? This  appears  not  to  be  an  im- 
ported explanation,  but  one  of  home  produc- 
tion, perhaps  merely  a  fancy  of  Thackeray's. 
According  to  Littre  (s.v.  Oranges),  "married 
women  wear  a  crown  of  orange  buds  and 
blossoms,  whence  orange  blossom  is  taken  as 
the  symbol  of  matrimony."  This  is  confirmed 
to  me  by  a  French  scholar  and  writer  whom 
I  have  consulted,  and  who  says  orange  bios- 

9«>  s.x.  JULY  s,  1902.]         NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 

soms  have  nothing  to  do  with  female  purity, 
but  merely  indicate  the  attainment  of  matri- 
mony—that "  Mademoiselle  "  has  attained  the 
status  of  "  Madame."  J.  A.  H.  MURRAY. 

PAPAL  PROVISIONS.— To  what  were  these 
limited?  Did  they  extend  to  an  office  as 
well  as  to  a  dignity?  In  a  commission  to 
inquire  respecting  a  provision  to  Glasney 
College,  in  Cornwall  ('Reg.  Brantyngharn,' 
ed.  Hingeston  -  Randolph,  p.  150),  the  dis- 
tinction appears  to  be  drawn.  The  valuable 
'  History  of  the  English  Church  '  started  by 
Messrs  Stephens  and  Hunt,  but  apparently 
discontinued,  does  not  answer  the  query. 


R.  WOODHOUSE'S  PORTRAIT.—  If  any  reader 
of  '  N.  &  Q.'  knows  of  a  portrait  of  Robert 
Wood  house  I  should  be  grateful  for  informa- 
tion about  it.  Woodhouse  was  born  at  Nor- 
wich in  1773,  was  a  fellow  of  Caius  College, 
Cambridge,  held  in  succession  the  Lucasian 
and  Plumian  Professorships  in  the  Univer- 
sity, and  was  a  man  of  note  in  his  day.  He 
died  in  1827. 

I  have  a  collection  of  portraits  of  mathe- 
maticians, which  includes  portraits  of  every 
one  (save  Woodhouse)  who  has  ever  held  a 
Mathematical  Chair  in  Cambridge  ;  hence 
ray  special  desire  to  secure  a  likeness  of  him. 
I  believe  that  Mr.  Woodhouse's  family  know 
of  no  portrait  of  him,  and  that  no  likeness  of 
him  is  preserved  at  Cambridge  ;  but  as  his 
brother  J.  T.  Woodhouse  was  somewhat  of 
an  artist,  and  the  family  was  connected  with 
Opie,  the  well-known  painter,  I  think  it  just 
possible  that  some  sketch  of  Woodhouse  may 
be  in  existence.  W.  W.  ROUSE  BALL. 

Trinity  College,  Cambridge. 

NAPPER  TANDY.— The  Times  of  27  May, 
1802,  says  that  Bonaparte  would  not  allow 
Napper  Tandy  to  go  to  Paris.  Who  was  he  ? 


[James  Napper  Tandy,  1740-1803,  was  a  United 
Irishman,  who,  at  the  head  of  a  small  French  force, 
landed  on  the  island  of  Rutland,  co.  Donegal,  was 
tried  in  England,  and  sentenced  to  death,  but  died 
of  dysentery  in  France,  24  August,  1803.  He  is 
mentioned  in  the  song  '  The  Wearing  of  the  Green.' 
A  full  account  of  his  disreputable  life  appears  in  the 
'  Diet.  Nat.  Biog.,'  vol.  Iv.  pp.  353-7.] 

SAMUEL  FOLLETT,  son  of  Benjamin  Follett, 
of  Lyme  Regis,  was  admitted  to  Westminster 
School  on  4  November,  1771.  I  should  be 
glad  to  ascertain  any  particulars  of  his 
parentage  and  career.  G.  F.  R.  B. 

GRACE  BEFORE  MEAT. — At  the  end  of  an 
old  book  entitled  '  The  Perfect  Path  to  Para- 
dice,'  published  in  1626,  appear  a  few  speci- 

mens of  such  prayers.  Were  they  sung 
at  this  period,  or  simply  recited?  Perhaps 
the  Puritans  of  that  day  sang  them  with  a 
strong  nasal  twang;  although  the  closing 
verse  seems  almost  too  loyal  for  their 
principles  in  general.  Here  are  some  of  the 
lines,  as  a  sample  thereof  : — 


Give  thanks  to  God  the  Lord  of  might, 
As  it  becommeth  Christians  right, 
And  ever  when  thou  seest  thy  meat, 
Remember  God  before  thou  eat, 
And  then  God  will  remember  thee 
And  with  his  food  will  nourish  thee, 
And  after  this  life  ended  is, 
We  shall  remaine  with  him  in  blisee. 
God  save  his  universal  Church, 

Our  noble  King  defend  : 
Grant  that  thy  people  may  enjoy 

Thy  peace  unto  the  end. 

Cotterstock  Hall,  Oundle. 

'BATAILLE  LOQUIEER.' —  Has  this  chanson 
de  geste  of  the  langue  d'oil  ever  been  printed  ? 
L.  Gau  tier's  '  Bibliographic  des  Chansons  de 
Geste,'  1897,  speaks  of  it  as  "still  unpublished  " 
in  that  year.  O.  O.  H. 

"CocKLEDUMDiTT." — In  the  interesting  little 
volume  'Journal  of  a  Soldier  of  the  71st 
Regiment,'  1819,  mention  is  made  of  a  winter 
spent  at  Boho  in  Spafh,  where 

"  the  peasants  used  to  dance  to  the  sound  of  their 
rattles,  consisting  of  two  pieces  of  hard  wood, 
which  they  held  between  their  fingers,  and  by 
shaking  their  hands,  kept  time,  in  the  same  manner 
as  the  boys  in  Edinburgh  and  other  parts  play  what 
they  call  cockledumditt.  They  call  them  castanetts." 
-P.  177. 

I  remember  pieces  of  wood  being  so  used 
when  I  was  a  boy  at  the  "  Southern  Academy," 
in  George  Square,  Edinburgh,  in  1846,  but  I 
do  not  remember  any  name,  or  song,  or  tune 
associated  with  them.  A  friend  tells  me  that 
cockhdumdyke  was  played  with  two  pieces  of 
wood,  each  burnt  at  one  end,  and  that  the 
refrain  was 

Cockle  dum  dyke, 

Peas  an'  beans  are  baith  alike. 

Is  "  ditt,"  then,  a  misprint  for  "  dyke  "  ?  But 
the  author,  John  Howell,  was  an  Edinburgh 
boy,  and  his  '  Journal '  was  printed  in  Edin- 
burgh. And  is  "cockle"  a  form  of  the  Eng- 
lish "cockal,"  a  game  played  with  small 
bones?  Will  any  one  kindly  give  me  in- 
formation on  this  subject  ?  W.  S. 

A  QUESTION  OF  TENSE.— In  the  reports  of 
some  great  companies  different  tenses  are 
used  in  reference  to  circumstances  occurring 
within  the  same  period  of  time.  For  instance, 
the  Great  Northern  Railway  report  for  the 



.  x.  JULY  s, 

half-year  ending  30  June,  1901,  says:  "The 
expenditure  on  capital  account  has  amountec 
to, '  <fec.  ;  and  then :  "  The  gross  receipts  on 
revenue  account  were,"  &c.  The  Grea 
Eastern  .Railway  report  for  the  same  half 
year  states  :  "  The  working  expenses  hav( 
been,"  &c. ;  but  another  paragraph  has  this, 

remark  :  "  The  death  of  Mr. ,  one  of  the 

directors,  occurred  during  the  half-year."  In 
the  Royal  Insurance  Company's  report  for 
the  year  1900  occurs  the  following  :  "  In  the 
annuity  branch  the  purchase  money  receivec 
for  new  annuities,  together  with  the  pre 
miums  on  continental  annuities,  amountec 
to,"  &c.  And  then  comes  :  "  Thirty-eigh 
annuities  have  expired  during  the  year,  the 
annual  payments  on  which  amounted  to,' 
&c.  Are  the  tenses  as  used  in  these  examples 
legitimately  interchangeable  ?  If  not,  which 
is  the  correct  tense  ?  HENRY  SMYTH. 

[One  does  not  look  for  the  highest  form  of  the 
English  language  in  the  reports  of  commercia 
companies.  An  account  of  the  transactions  of  a 
certain  period  may  treat  them  in  two  ways :  as 
written  just  at  the  close  of  the  period,  when  the 
compound  tense  may  be  used,  or  as  written  when 
the  period  is  definitely  ended,  when  the  preterite 
should  be  used.  The  instances  quoted  above  are 
not  consistent  with  themselves,  and  thus  are  open 
to  censure.  The  "  Shade  of  William  Cobbett  in 
the  Pall  Mall  Gazette  of  18  February,  1901,  drew 
attention  to  a  similar  confusion  between  the  com- 
pound past  and  the  preterite  in  the  King's  Speech 
at  the  opening  of  Parliament  the  preceding  day.] 

SCHAW  OF  GOSPETRY.— Can  any  of  your 
readers  inform  me  if  there  are  descendants 
of  Frederick  Bridges  Schaw,  of  Gospetry, 
lieutenant  in  Leighton's  Regiment  of  Foot, 
and  son  of  Dr.  Schaw,  physician  to  Frederick, 
Prince  of  Wales  ?  He  married  in  December, 
1762,  Isabella,  eldest  daughter  of  Dr.  Thom- 
son, "late  from  Jamaica." 


CANTERSHIP.— In  the  Gentleman  s  Magazine 
for  March,  1733,  there  appears  the  .following 
announcement  under  'Ecclesiastical  Prefer- 
ments ' :  "  Mr.  John  Pember  to  the  Cantership 
of  St.  Davies."  St.  Davies  is,  of  course,  a 
mistake  for  St.  David's  ;  but  what  of  Canter- 
ship  ?  Probably  it  stands  for  precentor,  but 
apparently  the  word  is  omitted  by  Dr.  Murray 
from  the  4  H.E.D.'  D.  M.  R. 

\Cantorship,  the  office  of  a  precentor,  is  in  the 
'H.E.D.';  and  under  'Canter*  there  is  the  entry 
"obs.  var.  of  Cantor."] 

MARY  STUART  PORTRAITS.— In  the  preface 
to  Albert  Way's  catalogue  of  the  works  of 
art  exhibited  at  the  meeting  of  the  Archaeo- 
logical Institute  at  Edinburgh,  July,  1856, 
mention  is  made  of  one  "beautiful  paint- 
ing [of  Queen  Mary]  at  Madrid,  in  the 

royal  collection,  of  which  a  copy,  obtained 
through  Lord  Cowley  while  ambassador  at 
the  Court  of  Spain,"  <fec.  I  should  be  very 
glad  of  any  particulars  of  this  picture  or  the 
copy.  Are  any  reproductions  known  and 
obtainable?  J.  J.  FOSTER. 

Offa  House,  Upper  Tooting,  S.W. 

Ronald  Gower,  in  '  Old  Diaries,'  p.  66,  writes, 
under  date  July,  1888  : — 

"  I  think  the  last  time  he  [Mr.  Gladstone]  was  at 
Stafford  House  was  when  he  gave  an  address  in 
Italian  to  the  Italians  who  had  presented  the 
marble  medallion  of  Garibaldi  to  my  brother." 

Was  this  address  ever  printed  ;  and,  if  so,  by 
whom?  I  believe,  if  my  memory  fail  not, 
he  also,  in  the  course  of  his  versatile  career, 
delivered  addresses  in  modern  Greek  in 
Corfu,  in  Italian  in  Rome  or  Naples,  and 
in  French  in  Paris.  Were  these  ever  printed  ; 
and,  if  so,  are  copies  of  them  procurable,  and 
where?  J.  B.  McGovERN. 

St.  Stephen's  Rectory,  C.-on-M.,  Manchester. 

SIR  T.  BROWNE:  QUOTATION.— Will  you 
kindly  inform  me  in  what  part  of  Sir  Thomas 
Browne's  works  the  following  passage  occurs  ? 

"  To  pray  and  magnify  God  in  the  night  and  in 
my  dark  bed  when  1  cannot  sleep :  to  have  short 
ejaculations  whenever  I  awake,  and  when  the  four 
o'clock  bell  awakens  me,  or  on  my  first  discovery  of 
the  light,  to  say  this  collect  of  our  liturgy,  '  Eternal 
God,  who  hast  safely  brought  me  to  the  beginning  of 
this  day,'  &c." 



[This  sounds  as  if  it  came  from  the  '  Religio 

MISTRESS  RACHEL  HOWE. —  I  should  be 
glad  if  any  one  would  give  me  information 
concerning  the  above  lady.  1  have  an  old 
mezzotint,  without  date,  representing  her  as 
a  child,  with  a  dove  on  her  hand.  Beneath 
is  "Kneller  S.  R.  Imp.  et  Angl.  Eques  Aur. 
pinx.  T.  Smith  fee.  Sold  by  T.  Smith  at  the 
Lyon  and  Crown  in  Russel  Street,  Covent 
Garden."  Was  there  any  special  reason  for 
publishing  this  portrait  ?  F.  V. 

"A-SAILING  BY  THE  NIGHT."  — In  Leland's 
Songs  of  the  Sea  and  Lays  of  the  Land ' 
there  is  a  poem,  '  Stand  from  Under,'  every 
stanza  of  which  ends  with  the  above  words. 
Do  these  mean  simply  sailing  by  night,  or 
sailing  in  the  night — or  what  ? 


Mercian  Origins'  (9th  S.  ix.  42)  J.  B.  said, 
'The  Pec  ssetna  dwelt  in  our  Derbyshire." 
n  Derbyshire  is  the  district  yet  known  as 

9*s.x.JuLY5,i902.]         NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 

"the  Peak."  Have  Pec  and  Peak  anything 
to  do  with  each  other  ?  Lord  Avebury,  lec- 
turing on  '  English  Scenery '  on  12  April  at 
the  Mansion  House,  said,  "  The  Peak  of  Derby- 
shire was  really  a  cup  rather  than  a  peak." 
I  had  often  wondered  what  "  the  Peak  dis- 
trict" had  got  its  name  from,  and  reasoned 
(on  Lord  Avebury 's  lines  above)  as  to  the 
peculiarity  and  unfitness  of  the  name  for  the 
district.  If  the  Pec  (Pec)  ssetna,  dwelling  in 
that  district,  gave  name  to  the  district,  the 
name  "the  Peak  district"  is  explained.  Ac- 
cording to  Lord  Avebury's  dictum  it  could 
not  be  the  Peak  as  a  peaked  (or  piked)  dis- 
trict that  gave  its  name  to  these  inhabitants. 


LOVEL:  DE  HATJTVILLE.— Had  the  Lovely 
seigneurs  of  Castle  Carey  in  Somerset,  any 
ancient  association  with  the  Norman  house 
of  De  Hautville  ?  I  believe  the  arms  of  Lovel 
of  Karey — viz.,  a  lion  rampant  between  cross- 
lets  fitche — were  likewise  borne  by  the  De 
Hautvilles,  Norman  conquerors  of  Naples  and 
Apulia  in  Southern  Italy.  Sir  John  de 
Hautville  is  buried  at  Norton-Hautville,  in 
Somerset.  T.  W.  C. 

MAY  CATS.— The  following  cutting  from 
the  Torquay  Directory  of  29  May  seems  worth 
preserving  in  the  pages  of  'N.  &  Q.'  Does 
the  superstition  prevail  outside  Devon  and 
Cornwall  1 

"Superstition  still  lingers  at  Torquay.  A 
Torquay  correspondent  of  a  Plymouth  contemporary 
writes :  '  An  interesting  event  occurred  at  pur 
cottage  yesterday,  our  cat  presenting  the  establish- 
ment with  a  litter  of  kittens.  This  caused  great 
joy  to  the  younger  members  of  the  family,  as  they 
each  hoped  to  become  the  possessor  of  one  of  them. 
However,  these  hopes  were  speedily  dispelled,  for 
no  sooner  had  our  housekeeper  (who  hails  from 
Cornwall)  heard  of  the  event  than  they  were 
immediately  "ordained"  to  be  drowned.  Asked 
the  reason  for  this  apparently  ruthless  decision,  she 
explained  that  all  cats  which  are  born  in  May  have 
the«  disagreeable  habit  or  faculty,  when  they  are 
grown  up,  of  bringing  "  varmints  into  the  house  ; 
that  she  once  had  the  temerity  to  rear  a  May  cat, 
and  that  the  cat  caught  and  brought  into  her  house 
no  fewer  than  twenty  such  varmints.  Most  of 
them  certainly  were  only  slowworms,  but  several 
were  adders,  and  consequently  she  never  intended 
doing  such  a  foolish  thing  again.  Can  any  one  give 
me  the  origin  of  this  belief,  or  say  how  far  it 
prevails?'  That  the  superstition  obtains  with 
Devonians  as  well  as  with  Cornubians  is  evident 
from  this  extract  from  Mr.  Eden  Phillpotts's 
'  Lying  Prophets ' :— :  Them  chets  had  to  go,  missy. 
'Tis  a  auld  word,  an"  it  ban't  wise  to  take  no  count 
of  sayings  like  that :  ''  May  chets  bad  luck  begets." 
You  ve  heard  tell  o'  that?  Never  let  live  no 
kittens  born  in  May.  They  theer  dead  chets 
corned  May  Day.'" 

A.  J.  DAVY. 


(9th  S.  ix.  248,  437.) 

I  BEG  to  thank  ME.  MATTHEWS,  of  Boston, 
U.S.,  for  his  most  useful  and  interesting 
note.  I  had  no  idea  that  records  kept  by 
early  American  colonists  contained  material 
of  such  value  to  the  English  archaeologist. 

The  word  misted  in  the  '  Plymouth  Colony 
Records '  seems  plainly  identical  with  the 
meestead  or  meastead  of  the  Court  Rolls  of  the 
manor  of  Dewsbury,  in  Yorkshire,  in  the  six- 
teenth century  (see  9th  S.  v.  349) ;  and  the 
meadstead  oi  those  records  is  evidently  identi- 
cal with  the  meadstead,  midstead,  or  meatstead 
which  occurs  at  Royston,  near  Barnsley,  in 
the  same  county.  The  first  time  that  I  heard 
the  Royston  word,  now  more  than  twenty 
years  ago,  it  was  pronounced  meadstead.  I 
was  then  told  of  a  piece  of  land  in  that 
village  which  belonged  to  the  "meadstead- 
owners"  in  common,  a  "  meadstead-owner " 
being  the  owner  of  one  of  the  old  houses  in 
the  village  (see  8th  S.  x.  349,  471). 

The  meestead  of  the  Dewsbury  Rolls  is 
doubtless  identical  in  meaning  with  mese- 
place,  which  occurs  in  many  old  English  books 
and  documents.  Thus  in  Fitzherbert's  '  Sur- 
ueyenge,'  1539  (repiint,  p.  66),  we  have : — 

"I.  B.  holdeth  a  mese  place  frely  of  the  lorde,  by 
charter,  with  dyuers  lands,  medowes,  and  pastures, 
belongyng  to  the  same,  the  whiche  mese  place  lyeth 
bytwene  the  sayde  hye  way,  and  the  sayde  north 
felde,  as  is  before  sayid,  and  the  sayd  personage  on 
the  west  side,  and  the  tenement  or  mese  place  of 
F.  G.  on  the  easte  part,"  &c. 

It  will  be  noticed  that  this  mese-place  has 
lands  and  meadows  belonging  to  it.  And  so 
the  midstead  of  the  Plymouth  colonists  has 
"  land  assigned  vnto  yt." 

The  prefix  mess-,  as  in  mess-uage,  mese-  in 
mese-place,  or  meas-  as  in  meas-stead,  is  identi- 
cal with  the  prefix  meas-  in  meas-ure.  A  mese- 
place  or  meastead  is  then  a  "  measure-place," 
a  measured  building-plot,  or  portion.  Per- 
haps I  may  TDO  allowed  to  refer  to  my  notes 
on  the  word  "  messuage  "  in  9th  S.  v.  520 ;  vi. 

Meadstead  is  not  so  easily  explained.  It 
may  mean  "  meadow-place  " ;  but,  on  the  other 
hand,  its  apparent  identity  in  meaning  with 
mese-place,  &c.,  raises  the  suspicion  that  the 
older  form  may  have  been  mete-stead,  and 
so  be  connected  with  E.  mete,  to  measure. 

It  is  delightful  to  see  how  well  old  English 
habits  and  customs  are  reflected  in  the  ex- 
tracts from  the  '  Plymouth  Colony  Records ' 
which  MR.  MATTHEWS  has  given.  These  ex- 
tracts appear  to  show  that  early  in  the  seven- 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        [9«>  s.  x.  JULY  5, 1902. 

teenth  century  New  England  colonists  laic 
out  their  villages  on  the  pattern  of  an  English 
manor.  There  were  misteds  with  dwelling- 
houses  thereon,  lying  side  by  side  in  the 
village  street,  and  uplands.  Even  the  olc 
custom  of  making  the  frame  of  a  house 
before  it  was  set  up  was  followed  (see  Way's 
'Prompt.  Parv.,'  p.  176).  And  when  we  are 
told  of  misteds  granted  in  court,  and  forfeited 
for  want  of  building,  the  English  manorial 
system,  or  village  community,  seems  to  appear 
before  our  eyes.  For  what  was  a  misted  that 
had  been  built  on  but  a  mesuagium  cedificatum, 
and  what  was  a  vacant  misted  but  a  mesua- 
gium  vastum  ? 

If  such  a  word  as  merestead  exists  in  Eng- 
lish documents  I  think  it  has  yet  to  be  dis- 
covered. Is  it  not  a  clerical  error  in  the 
original  record  ?  And  is  there  any  evidence 
to  show  that  in  the  American  colonies  it 
meant  a  farm  ?  S.  O.  ADDY. 

Is  there  any  means  of  ascertaining  the 
name  and  origin  of  the  clerk  of  the  Plymouth, 
Mass.,  board  ?  From  what  part  of  England 
did  Governor  W.  Bradford  come?  The  sud- 
den cessation  of  the  word  meadstead  in  the 
records  suggests  that  some  official  to  whom 
the  word  was  natural  was  succeeded  by  one 
who  was  unacquainted  with  it  in  ordinary 
life.  Can  MR.  MATTHEWS  tell  us  what  word 
took  its  place  in  the  records  in  question  after 
1641  ?  Q.  V. 

"HOPEFUL":  "SANGUINE"  (9th  S.  ix.  467). 
— I  take  it  that  hopeful  =  cheerful  expect- 
ancy and  sanguine  =  ardent  expectancy. 
There  is  really,  as  Trench  has  pointed  put, 
no  such  thing  as  a  synonym.  The  meanings 
of  these  words  are  almost  the  same,  but  in 
the  latter  word  there  is  a  subaudition  of 
superior  force  and  strength,  as  its  derivation 
indicates.  ST.  SWITHIN  is  right,  it  seems  to 
me,  as  to  the  variation  in  the  meanings  of 
similar  and  alike.  The  latter = exact  resem- 
blance, while  the  former  =  correspondence  in 
shape  without  regard  to  size. 


Kensington,  W. 

Surely  one  can  be  hopeful  without  being 
sanguine.  To  be  sanguine  about  a  thing 
means  to  have  more  confidence,  more  assur- 
ance, than  mere  hopefulness  has.  We  may 
even  "hope  against  hope"  (a  curious  phrase, 
by  the  way),  and  we  often  hope  for  things 
we  scarcely  dare  to  expect.  In  such  a  case 
we  are  certainly  not  sanguine.  C.  C.  B. 

Surely  Mr.  Chamberlain  is  right  in  making 
a  difference  between  these  words.  I  have 
looked  up  the  word  sanguine  in  several  dic- 

tionaries, all  of  which  give  the  word  "  confi- 
dent" as  one  of  its  synonyms.  To  hope  for 
something  and  to  be  confident  of  it  are  two 
very  different  attitudes  of  mind.  One  con- 
stantly comes  across  some  such  expression  as 
"He  was  hopeful,  but  by  no  means  sanguine." 

i.  109,  137,  491).— The  following  extract  from 
the  Manchester  Guardian  of  23  April,  describ- 
ing a  paper  read  before  the  Royal  Colonial 
Institute  by  Mr.  H.  A.  Broome  on  'Civil 
Progress  in  the  Orange  River  Colony,'  is  of 
interest  in  connexion  with  the  question 
raised : — 

"  To  judge  from  Mr.  Broome's  paper,  there  is  a 
flanger  that  the  Orange  River  Colony  will  come 
generally  to  be  called  '  Orangia.'  This  is  an  ugly 
word,  but  Mr.  Broome  used  it  over  and  over  again. 
Plainly  he  was  used  to  it  and  was  accustomed  to 
hear  others  use  it.  We  cannot  check  the  demand 
for  brevity;  but  cannot  this  particular  name  be 
stopped  ?  Whenever  a  new  official  name  is  given  to 
a  place  the  givers  ought  really  to  foresee  the  inevit- 
able abbreviations  and  to  provide  against  them  as 
far  as  possible  in  their  original  choice.  '  The  Free 
State '  was  a  good  abbreviation,  and  '  The  Trans- 
vaal,' which  will  no  doubt  be  the  abbreviation  for 
'  The  Transvaal  Colony,'  will  remain  as  good  as  it 
used  to  be  in  the  old  days.  Orangia  is  altogether 
bad,  but  who  can  suggest  a  better  name  as  brief  or 
nearly  as  brief?" 


BARRAS  (9th  S.  viii.  202,  228,  267,  473  ;  ix. 
15,  133).— There  is  "Barras  Bridge"  at  New- 
castle-on-Tyne.  ST.  SWITHIN. 

AlNS WORTH  THE  NOVELIST  (9th  S.  IX.  409).— 

If  I  am  not  mistaken,  nearly  all  the  novels 
and  short  tales  by  this  author  have  been 
republished  by  John  Dicks,  313,  Strand, 
either  in  sixpenny  volumes  or  in  "Dicks's 
English  Library,"  with  reproductions  from  the 
"original  illustrations."  In  his  later  years 
Ainsworth  was  closely  identified  with  Bow 
Sells,  to  which  his  last  novels  were  con- 
tributed, the  illustrations  being  supplied  by 
Fred  Gilbert,  Friston,  Huttula,  and  others  of 
the  clever  artistic  Bow  Bells  staff.  I  do  not 
know  for  certain  if  Dicks's  reprints  of  Ains- 
worth are  "  still  in  print."  W.  H.  Ainsworth 
was,  I  fear,  somewhat  vain,  and  instead  of 
sticking  to  Cruikshank  and  .Phiz,  he  pre- 
'erred  to  have  a  different  artist  to  illustrate 
lis  stories  each  time,  which  now  and  then 
ed  him  into  strange  company,  as,  for 
jxample,  when  he  employed  Buss  to  do  the 
;tchings  for  'James  the  Second.'  The  only 
other  artist  whom  I  can  recall  (beyond  those 
named  by  R.  D.)  as  having  illustrated  Ains- 
worth was  a  Frenchman,  Ed.  Morin— clever, 
but  too  "  scribbly  "—who,  in  1854,  sketched 

9*  s.  x.  JULY  5, 1902.]         NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


the  pictures  for  Ainsworth's  '  Star  Chamber, 
then  appearing  in  the  Home  Companion,  a 
paper  which  was,  I  believe,  promoted  by 
Robert  Kemp  Philp,  proprietor  and  editor  oi 
Diogenes.  HERBERT  B.  CLAYTON. 

39,  Renfrew  Road,  Lower  Keunington  Lane. 

LINGTON (9th  S.  ix.  466). — MR.  HENRY  HOPE 
seems  to  be  under  a  strange  misapprehension. 
The  title  of  "Iron  Duke"  was  popularly 
bestowed  on  Arthur,  Duke  of  Wellington, 
many  years  before  the  launching  of  the 
"  large  ship  "  at  Liverpool.  In  my  boyhood 
there  was  a  fine  old  "  three-decker "  named 
"The  Duke  of  Wellington."  She  was  a 
wooden  ship.  When  ironclads  were  intro- 
duced into  the  Royal  Navy  the  old  "Duke 
of  Wellington  "  was  put  up  in  ordinary,  and 
her  substitute,  being  an  iron  ship  (of  sorts), 
was  wittily — and,  as  I  think,  appropriately — 
named  "The  Iron  Duke,"  in  commemoration 
of  that  distinguished  general  whose  memory 
Englishmen  will  always  delight  to  honour. 

LADY  NOTTINGHAM  (9th  S.  ix.  128,  213,  455). 
—The  correspondents  who  have  noticed  the 
communication  I  made  on  this  lady's  alleged 
extraordinary  feat  of  maternity  in  becoming 
the  mother  of  thirty  children  give  cases  of 
other  ladies  said  to  have  surpassed  her,  one 
having  had  thirty-nine  and  the  other  forty- 
one  children,  but  neither  of  them  attempts 
to  substantiate  the  facts.  During  how  many 
years  is  childbearing  possible  for  a  woman  in 
England  ?  Thirty?  Would  medical  authority 
admit  the  possibility  of  the  above  number  of 
children  being  produced  in  that  period  ?  In 
the  case  of  a  person  in  the  position  of  Lady 
Nottingham,  it  should  be  possible  to  sub- 
stantiate the  fact— if  it  is  a  fact— by  the  dates 
of  the  births  of  the  thirty  children. 

E.  F.  D.  C. 

ix.  485).— W.  B.  H.  thinks  Lord  Rosebery 
borrowed  this  idea  from  Mortimer  Collins. 
I  doubt  it.  Lord  Rosebery  used  the  phrase 
in  July,  1901.  Bradley's  'Owen  Glyndwr' 
had,  I  believe,  just  appeared.  In  that  book 
Hotspur's  saying  before  the  battle  of  Shrews- 
bury is  given,  "  I  perceive  my  plough  is  now 
drawing  to  its  last  furrow."  Lord  Rosebery 
probably  adapted  this  striking  remark  to  his 
own  purpose.  A.  H.  B. 

WESTMINSTER  CITY  MOTTO  (9th  S.  ix.  485). 
—When  the  search  for  a  motto  first  began 
the  Town  Clerk  of  Westminster  asked  me 
to  obtain  an  Anglo-Saxon  motto  for  con- 
sideration by  the  Council.  The  Rev.  Prof. 

W.  W.  Skeat  suggested  line  658  of  '  Beowulf,' 
"  Hafa  and  geheald  husa  selest "  ("  Have  thou 
and  preserve  the  best  of  houses  "),  an  allusion 
to  the  founding  of  Westminster  Abbey  by 
Edward  the  Confessor.  The  Rawlinsonian 
Professor  of  Anglo-Saxon  at  Oxford,  Dr. 
Earle,  suggested  "Seaxnacyne-cynrenes  ende- 
mel"  ("The  final  monument  of  the  Saxon 
dynasty  ").  Neither  of  these,  however,  found 
favour  with  the  Council. 


TENNIS  :  ORIGIN  OF  THE  NAME  (9th  S  ix. 
27,  75,  153,  238,  272,  418,  454).— I  thought  I 
had  made  my  position  clear  in  this  discussion, 
had  apologized  to  the  shade  of  M.  Littre,  and 
made  my  peace  with  him.  I  can  only  repeat 
that  I  have  found  no  evidence  that  tennis- 
players  ever  used  the  word  "  tenez  "  as  we 
say  "  play  ! "  at  cricket,  unless  the  solitary, 
unsupported  "accipe"  is  to  be  taken  as  proof, 
which  does  not  satisfy  me.  As  to  PROF. 
SKEAT'S  polite  reference  to  me,  conceived 
with  all  his  well-known  genial  courtesy,  I  do 
not  think  it  needs  an  answer.  I  have  never- 
hinted  a  suggestion  that  "  tenez  is  not  the 

imperative  plural  of tenir."  His  reference, 

therefore,  seems  quite  unfounded  and  super- 

MORE  (9th  S.  ix.  467T  515).— The  passage  in 
'The  Dynamiters'  quoted  by  Miss  HUDSON 
refers  to  a  poem  of  Coventry  Patmore's 
called  'The  Circles.'  It  will  be  found  on 
p.  215  of  the  1878  edition  of  '  Amelia.' 


CIGARETTE  -SMOKING  (9th  S.  ix.  308).— In 
your  note  to  MR.  WILLIAM  ANDREWS'S  query 
you  state  that  Mr.  Laurence  Oliphant  was 
the  first  notable  person  to  smoke  cigarettes 
in  the  streets  of  London.  A  great  many 
people  give  to  Carlo  Pellegrini  the  credit  of 
introducing  the  insinuating  cigarette  into 
England.  At  all  events,  Pellegrini  ("Ape  "  of 
Vanity  Fair)  takes  an  important  place  among 
the  popularizers  of  the  cigarette,  for  the 
great  caricaturist  and  his  little  roll  of  tobacco 
were  inseparable.  CHARLES  HIATT. 

SHAKESPEARE  v.  BACON  (9th  S.  ix.  245,  414). 
— MR.  WATSON,  quoting  Wordsworth,  main- 
tains in  this  controversy  that  "the  most 
singular  thing  is  that  in  all  the  writings  of 
Bacon  there  is  not  one  allusion  to  Shake- 
speare," and  that  this  "  is  surely  a  proof  that 
Bacon  had  nothing  to  do  with  Shakespeare's 
plays."  The  argument  appears  to  me  to  be 
ill  the  other  way.  If  Shakespeare  were 
Bacon's  mask,  is  it  likely  that  Bacon  would 
mention  Shakespeare  as  the  author  of  the 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        [9*  s.  x.  JULY  s,  1902. 

plays  which  he  himself  had  written  ?  He  was 
careful  not  to  give  himself  away  in  this  man- 
ner. But  Bacon  was  not  the  only  writer  of 
the  time  who  apparently  knew  not  Shake- 

Dr.  Ingleby,  editor  of  the  '  Shakespeare 
Allusion  Books'  and  the  '  Centurie  of  Prayse,' 
says  : — 

"  The  absence  of  sundry  great  names  with  which 
no  pains  of  research,  scrutiny,  or  study  could  con- 
nect the  most  trivial  allusion  to  the  bard  or  his 
works  (such,  e.g.,  as  Lord  Brooke,  Lord  Bacon, 
Selden,  Sir  John  Beaumont;  Henry  Vaughan,  and 

Lord  Clarendon)  is  tacitly  significant It  is  plain, 

for  one  thing,  that  the  bard  of  our  admiration  was 

unknown  to  the  men  of  that  age Doubtless  he 

knew  his  men  ;  but  assuredly  his  men  did  not  know 

Spedding  says : — 

"Though  numbers  of  contemporary  news-letters, 
filled  with  literary  and  fashionable  intelligence, 
have  been  preserved,  it  is  only  in  the  Stationers' 
Register  and  the  accounts  kept  by  the  Master  of 
the  Revels  that  we  find  any  notices  of  the  publica- 
tion or  acting  of  Shakespeare's  plays.  In  the  long 
series  of  letters  from  John  Chamberlain  to  Dudley 
Carleton,  scattered  over  the  whole  period  from  1598 
to  1623 — letters  full  of  news  of  the  month,  news  of 
the  Court,  the  city,  the  pulpit,  and  the  bookseller's 
shop,  in  which  Court  masques  are  described  in 
minute  detail,  author,  actors,  plot,  performances, 
reception  and  all — we  look  in  vain  for  the  name  of 

Then  of  Henslowe's  '  Diary '  Collier  writes  : 

"  Recollecting  that  the  names  of  nearly  all  the 
other  play-poets  of  the  time  occur,  we  cannot  but 
wonder  that  that  of  Shakespeare  is  not  met  with  in 
any  part  of  the  manuscript. 

In  this  '  Diary '  there  are  frequent  notices  of 
Jonson,  Dekker,  Chettle,  Marston,  Drayton, 
Munday,  Heywood.  Middleton,  Webster, 
Rowley,  and  others,  but  the  name  of  Shake- 
speare is  completely  ignored,  as  it  is  also  in 
the  Alleyn  Papers,  where  it  does  not  appear 
among  the  notices  of  the  large  army  ot  con- 
temporary dramatists  and  their  productions. 
Mr.  Fleay,  the  distinguished  Shakespearean, 
writes  : — 

"  Neither  as  addressed  to  him  [Shakespeare]  by 
others,  nor  by  him  to  others,  do  any  comniendatory 
verses  exist  in  connection  with  any  of  his  or  other 
men's  works  published  in  his  lifetime — a  notable 
fact,  in  whatever  way  it  may  be  explained.  ' 

Mr.  Richard  Grant  White  writes  : — 

"  Of  his  eminent  countrymen,  Raleigh,  Sydney, 
Spenser,  Bacon,  Cecil,  Walsingham,  Coke,  Camden, 
Hooker,  Drake,  Hobbes,  Inigo  Jones,  Herbert  of 
Cherbury,  Laud,  Pym,  Hampden,  Selden.  Walton, 
Wotton,  and  Donne  may  be  properly  reckoned  his 
contemporaries,  and  yet  there  is  no  evidence  what- 
ever that  he  was  personally  known  to  either  of 
these  men,  or  to  any  others  of  less  note  among  the 
statesmen,  scholars,  soldiers,  and  artists  of  his  day, 
excepting  a  few  of  his  fellow-craftsmen." 

Adolphus  in  his  '  Letters  to  Heber '  puts  an 
analogous  case  rather  patly  when  he  says  : — 

"  How  is  it  to  be  explained  that  the  author  of 
'  Waverley '  has  taken  occasion  in  his  writings  to 
make  honourable  mention  of  almost  every  distin- 
guished contemporary  poet,  except  the  Minstrel  of 
;he  Border?  The  answer  is  obvious  :  he  could  not 
do  so,  because  he  was  himself  that  Minstrel ;  and  a 
man  of  ingenuous  mind  will  shrink  from  publishing 
a  direct  commendation  of  his  own  talent,  although 
tie  may  feel  confident  that  the  eulogy  will  never  oe 
traced  home." 

If  so  with  Scott,  why  not  the  same  with 
Bacon  ? 

So  that  Bacon,  by  not  mentioning  Shake- 
speare in  his  works— if  Bacon  was  not  Shake- 
speare— appears  to  have  erred  in  very  good 
company — the  company  of  well-known  con- 
temporaries. GEORGE  STRONACH." 


Following  up  Q.  A.,  MR.  WATSON,  and 
Wordsworth,  may  I  mention  what  Mr.  John 
Leycester  Adolphus,  in  the  letters  which  he 
published  in  1821  to  prove  that  the  then 
unknown  Waverley  novelist  was  Scott,  says  ? 

"  How  is  it  to  be  explained  that  the  author  of 
'Waverley'  has  taken  occasion  in  his  writings  to 
make  honourable  mention  of  almost  every  distin- 
guished contemporary  poet,  except  the  Minstrel  of 
the  Border  ?  The  answer  is  obvious :  he  could  not 
do  so,  because  he  icas  himself  that  Minstrd." 

Surely  the  Baconians  may  be  permitted  to 
make  use  of  the  same  argument  and  claim 
for  it  much  the  same  kind  of  validity  as  Mr. 
Leycester  Adolphus  claims  for  his  ''obvious 
answer"  to  the  question  raised  as  to  the 
silence  of  the  Waverley  novelist  about  the 
Minstrel  of  the  Border. 


"  PROSPICIMUS  MODO  "  (9th  S.  viii.  445 ;  ix. 
34,  273).— Adverting  to  the  last  paragraph  of 
PROF.  BENSLY'S  note,  I  would  refer  him  to 
Bailey's  dictionary  of  1727,  sub  voce  'Hexa- 
meter,' where  he  will  find  six  very  ingenious 
'  Versifying  Tables  for  Hexameters,'  with  full 
directions  for  each  table.  Bailey  says  :  "The 
following  Tables  being  a  curious  and  admir- 
able Contrivance,  not  doubting  but  that  they 
will  be  acceptable  to  the  curious  Reader,  I 
present  them."  I  have  not  tried  to  work 
them.  Hoc  opus,  hie  labor.  I  prefer  the 
uningenious  method  I  was  taught  many  years 

Little  Gidding. 

.  WEEK  (9th  S.  ix.  147,  277).— Christianity  is 
only  skin-deep  ;  almost  all  the  customs  of  pur 
forefathers  survive,  only  the  label  is  Christian. 
This  is  a  well-known  fact,  so  that  I  do  not 
in  any  way  dream  of  teaching  persons  versed 
in  the  history  of  culture  anything  new.  Let 

9*  8.  X.  JULY  5,  1902.]  NOTES    AND    QUERIES. 


me  only  mention  one  more  instance.  The 
old  Germans,  as  well  as  the  Gauls,  counted 
by  nights:  "Galli  se  omnes  ab  Dite  patre 
prognatos  prsedicant  idque  ab  druidibus  pro- 
ditum  dicunt.  Ob  earn  causain  spatia  omnis 
temporis  non  numero  dierum,  sed  noctium 
finiunt,  dies  natales  et  mensium  et  annorum 
initia  sic  observant,  ut  noctem  dies  sub- 
sequatur"(Csesar,  'B.  G.,'  lib.  yi.,  xviii.).  This 
accounts  for  sennight,  fortnight,  night  and 
day,  and,  furthermore,  for  the  fact  that  all 
the  principal  Christian  feasts  have  their 
vigils.  Not  only  is  Christmas  a  heathenish 
holy  day,  but  our  celebrating  Christmas  Eve 
is  owing  to  the  ancient  Germanic  and  Gallic 
creed.  G.  KRUEGER. 


ix.  365,  455). — The  authority  for  the  name  of 
Bishop  Kennett's  mother  is  probably  a  life  of 
that  prelate  published  in  1730,  only  two  years 
after  his  death.  We  read  there  : — 

"  His  Mother  was  Mary,  the  eldest  Daughter  of 
Mr.  Thomas  White,  a  wealthy  Magistrate,  in  that 
then  flourishing  Town  of  Dover,  who  had  been  a 
Master  Shipwright,  or  Builder  of  Ships,  and  after 
the  Restauration  was  employ'd  by  the  Government, 
in  that  Way." 

I  do  not  find  any  mention  of  the  death  of  the 
bishop's  father  or  mother. 

Holy  Trinity  Vicarage,  Rotherhithe. 

The  attention  of  your  correspondents  may 
be  called  to  the  pedigree  of  the  Kennetts 
printed  in  the  late  Dr.  Howard's  Miscellanea 
Gen.  et  Her.,  New  Series,  ii.  287  (1877). 

W.  C.  B. 

"  ONLY  TOO  THANKFUL  "  (9th  S.  ix.  288,  370, 
457). — The  use  of  the  word  only  in  this  collo- 
cation seems  to  me  to  be  a  natural  extension 
of  its  use  in  such  phrases  as  "This  I  grant, 
only  remember  this,"  where  the  signification 
of  only  partially  coincides  with  that  of 
specially  or  of  uniquement.  So  if  I  say  my 
only  joy  I  mean  my  special  joy.  By  a  well- 
known  law  of  ever-changing  language  the 
word  comes  to  be  used  as  an  absolute  synonym 
of  uniquely  or  absolutely.  So  in  Virgil,  "  Unum 
oro,"  "One  prayer  I  make  especially."  Too 
is  used  exactly  like  nimis  in  Plautus  for  "  very 
much."  H.  A.  STRONG. 

University  College,  Liverpool. 

The  use  of  too  as  a  simple  intensive  without 
any  idea  of  excess  is  very  common  in  Southern 
India  amongst  English-speaking  natives,  and 
it  is  very  difficult  to  make  schoolboys  under- 
stand, or  rather  remember,  that  too  and  very 
are  not  synonymous.  If  a  boy  says  that  some 
one  has  "too  much  money"  he  does  not  in 

the  least  mean  that  the  man  has  more  money 
than  is  good  for  him,  but  merely  that  he  is 
very  rich.  When  explaining  the  "English 
usage  recently  I  was  confronted  by  the 
phrase  "only  too  true."  Too  in  that  case 
evidently  means  not  "  more  than  it  ought 
to  be,"  but  "  more  than  we  should  like  it 
to  be."  May  not  the  too  in  "  only  too  happy  " 
and  the  like  be  interpreted  as  meaning 
more  than  you  expect"?  Such  phrases 
are  generally  used  in  reply  to  a  remark  which 
conveys  a  doubt  either  expressly  or  implicitly, 
e.g.,  "  Would  you  like  to  undertake  the  work  1 " 
"I  shall  be  only  too  happy."  If  my  suggestion 
is  correct,  the  too  here  expresses  the  fact  that 
I  am  happier  to  undertake  the  work  than 
you  expected  me  to  be,  or  perhaps  than  you 
think  the  offer  warrants  me  in  being,  and 
the  only  excludes  the  supposition  that  I  am 
unwilling  to  undertake  it — I  have  no  other 
feeling  than  happiness.  If  this  explanation 
is  not  correct,  it  may  be  that  too  is  a  simple 
intensive ;  and  the  South  India  practice 
shows  that  there  is  a  tendency  for  too  to 
become  that.  If  the  expression  became 
common  in  the  eighties,  it  may  be  that  it  is 
merely  a  piece  of  carelessness  due  to  the 
exaggerated  expressions  prevalent  among  the 
so-called  aesthetes  of  that  time.  O.  T.  T. 

"THE"  AS  PART  99  TITLE  (9th  S.  ix.  428). 
— S.  W.  asks  under  this  head  a v  question 
which  has  perplexed  others.  In  speaking 
there  is  no  difficulty,  but  in  accurate  writing 
or  description  it  is  another  matter.  The 
two  examples  which  he  gives,  however,  are 
not,  I  think,  on  all  fours.  Whether,  in 
dealing  with  titles,  one  should  write  of  the 
The  Times  I  cannot  say,  but  in  a  public 
company  registered  as  such  the  question  will 
doubtless  be  determined  by  the  wording  of 
its  certificate  of  registration  or  other  corre- 
sponding document.  This,  I  am  aware,  is  no 
answer  to  S.  W.'s  question  generally,  but  it 
may,  notwithstanding,  assist  him,  especially 
in  such  an  instance  as  that  which  he  cites — 
viz.,  The  Union  Bank.  D.  O. 

"  The  Union  Bank  of  London  "  is,  according 
to  its  deed  of  settlement  of  1839,  the  correct 
form.  On  18  September,  1882,  the  word 
"Limited"  was  added.  J.  P.  S. 

Automobile  Club,  Paris. 

"  Box  HARRY"  (9th  S.  ix.  449).— This  is  well 
known  in  the  Northern  Counties  in  the  sense 
of  doing  things  "on  the  cheap."  I  used  it 
only  ten  days  ago.  A  friend  of  considerable 
means,  who,  coming  to  my  town,  could  well 
have  afforded  hotel  expenses,  having  tried, 
and  to  my  knowledge  failed,  to  procure  offers 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.         [9*  s.  x.  JULY  5, 1902. 

of  hospitality,  then  sought  them  from  me.  I 
at  once,  whilst  at  the  same  time  inviting  him, 
said  to  my  wife,  "  He  is  bent  upon  boxing 
Harry."  'Phrase  and  Fable'  defines  the 
expression  as  "to  save  expense,"  quoted  as 
from  Halliwell,  'to  take  care  after  having 
been  extravagant."  In  MR.  PAGE'S  instance 
the  woman  seems  to  have  meant  she  must 
beg  some  potatoes  to  make  up  the  deficiency. 


This  is  a  very  old  and  well-known  cant 
phrase,  used  specially  by  commercial  travel- 
lers. These  persons  are  allowed  a  certain  sum 
per  diem  for  expenses,  usually  a  liberal  sum ; 
but  in  the  very  frequent  event  that,  from  con- 
vivial or  other  causes,  the  amount  has  in  any 
week  been  overspent,  it  is  the  custom  to 
retrench  by  avoiding  so  many  of  the  regula- 
tion meals  at  the  hotels  as  may  bring  the 
expenditure  back  to  the  stipulated  allowance. 
This  universal  practice  is  called  "  boxing 
Harry."  A  man  leaving  just  before  the 
dinner  hour  would  naturally  reply  to  an 
acquaintance,  "I  must  box  Harry,"  and 
would  be  perfectly  understood.  It  is  rather 
a  matter  of  etiquette,  and  considered  good 
form  on  "the  road,"  not  to  save  money  "out 
of  expenses  ";  while  to  "  box  Harry  "  is  re- 
garded as  the  proper  method  of  adjustment. 

I  have  good  authority  for  stating  that 
this  phrase,  in  the  sense  of  to  do  without, 
was  fairly  common  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
Sheffield  some  thirty-five  or  forty  years  ago. 

H.  P.  L. 

MR.  PAGE  will  find  this  phrase  discussed 
throughout  vol.  ii.  chap.  i.  of  George  Borrow's 
'Wild  Wales'  (London,  Murray,  1862),  and 
the  information  there  given  may  be  useful, 
although  the  author  confesses  himself  unable 
to  trace  the  term  to  its  origin. 


'A  Dictionary  of  Words.  Facts,  and  Phrases,' 
by  Eliezer  Edwards,  published  by  Chatto  & 
Windus  in  1884,  and  the  '  Slang  Dictionary,' 
issued  by  the  same  firm  in  1887,  give  :  "  Box 
Harry,  a  term  with  commercial  travellers, 
implying  dinner  and  a  substantial  tea  at  one 
meal  in  order  to  save  expense." 

71,  Brecknock  Road. 

JAMES  ECCLESTON  (9th  S.  ix.  428).— Mr. 
James  Eccleston,  B.A.  Trinity  Coll.,  Dublin, 
was  appointed  head  master  of  the  Sutton 
Coldfield  Grammar  School  in  1842.  He  was 
a  fairly  popular  and  successful  man.  He 
published  in  1847  a  handsome  octavo  volume 
of  463  pages  entitled  'An  Introduction  to 

English  Antiquities,  intended  as  a  Companion 
to  the  History  of  England,'  which  he  dedi- 
cated to  Sir  Francis  Lawley,  Bart.,  and  the 
other  trustees  of  Sutton  Coldfield  Grammar 
School.  In  1849  he  accepted  the  headship  of 
a  new  educational  institution  in  Australia, 
and  died  on  board  ship  before  he  could  land. 
The  following  is  a  copy  of  the  inscription  on 
the  tombstone  in  Sutton  Coldfield  Church- 
yard : — 

Erected  to  the 

Memory  of  James  Eccleston  Esquire, 

For  some  years  Head  Master 

of  the  Grammar  School 

of  this  Town, 
Who  died  Mch  8th,  1850, 

Age  34  years, 

Rector  of  the  High  School 

of  Hobart  Town  Van  Diemen's  Land 

Where  he  is  interred. 

Beneath  are  interred  the  remains 


James  Lester  Eccleston 
Born  Nov  25th  1845, 
Died  Mch  6th  1849, 

And  of 

Lucinda  Maria  Anna  Eccleston 
Born  Dec  5th  1840, 
Died  Mch  8  1849. 

G.  S. 

LIBRARY  (9th  S.  viii.  378  :  ix.  Ill,  415).— Is  it 
correct  to  say  "An  Heuskarian " ?  Even 
assuming  the  ^silent  (of  which  I  am  not  sure), 
still  the  article  should,  I  hold,  be  a,  not  an, 
as  the^  sound  following  the  If  is  you,  though 
the  letters  are  eu.  I  am  fully  aware  what  a 
trouble  the  aspirate  is  to  a  Southron,  but  this 
does  not  affect  the  matter.  R.  B— R. 

"BAR  SINISTER"  (9th  S.  ix.  64, 152,  215,  315, 
376).— At  9th  S.  ix.  316  it  is  stated  that  the 
"  old  Princess  Buckingham  "  died  "  childless 
in  the  usual  signification  of  that  word,"  and 
not  only  in  a  heraldo-legal  sense.  Is  not  this 
wrong  1  The  Lady  Catharine  Darnley  (daugh- 
ter of  James  II.  and  Catharine  Sedley),  whose 
second  husband  was  John  Sheffield,  Duke  of 
Buckingham,  married  first  James,  Earl  of 
Anglesey,  and  had  by  him  a  daughter 
Catharine,  born  7  January,  1700.  This 
daughter  married  William  Phipps,  son  and 
heir  to  Sir  Constantino  Phipps,  Lord  Chan- 
cellor of  Ireland.  PCONALD  DIXON. 
46,  Marlborough  Avenue,  Hull. 

I  venture  to  break  a  lance  with  my  old 
friend  MR.  PICK  FORD.  "Baton  sinister  de- 
bruised"  seems  to  me  not  quite  accurate. 
Arms  may  be  "  debruised  of  (or  by)  a  baton 
sinister  "C'brise  d'un  baton  ").  The  arms,  not 
the  baton,  are  debruised.  As  to  the  Powlett 
and  Orde  cases,  quoted  by  my  friend,  the 

9t»s.x.juLY5,i902.]         NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


wives  seem  to  be  the  illegitimate  persons,  and 
their  arms,  not  the  coat  of  the  husbands, 
would  bear  the  mark,  not  of  cadency,  but  of 
illegitimacy,  whether  borne  impaled  with,  or 
in  pretence  upon,  the  husband's  shield,  and, 
if  in  pretence,  would  be  quartered  by  their 
descendants.  GEORGE  ANGUS. 

St.  Andrews,  N.B. 

OLD  SCHOOL  RULES  (9th  S.  ix.  226).— The 
endowed  schools  in  this  village  were  founded 
and  bequeathed  by  John  Heygate,  Esq.,  in 
the  year  1825.  I  have  in  my  possession  an 
old  card  of  rules  which  was  issued  to  the 
parents  of  the  children  soon  after  the  schools 
were  established.  Although  not  so  old  as 
those  which  have  already  appeared,  these 
rules  are  interesting  as  displaying  an  example 
of  the  methods  adopted  in  the  early  days  of 
the  nineteenth  century  by  those  who  studied 
the  art  of  elementary  education  : — 

Rules  and  Regulations  to  be  observed  in  the 
Charity  School,  West  Haddon. 

1.  That  no  Child  be   admitted   having  any  in" 
fectious  Disorder,  nor  under  the  Age  of  Five  Years- 

2.  That   all    Children    are    expected    to    attend 
punctually,  washed,  combed,  and  cleaned. 

3.  That   every  Child    bring   one   Penny    to  the 
Master  every  fourth  Monday,  to  provide,  in  Part, 
for  themselves  reading  Books,  Slates,  &c.;  and  that 
no  occasional  Absence  exempt  them  from  this  rule. 

4.  That  no  child  be  detained  at  home,  or  taken 
occasionally  from  the   School,  without  a  sufficient 
reason  being  assigned  by  their  Parents  or  Friends 
to  the  Master. 

5.  That  the  Hours  of  Attendance  in  School  are 
from  Nine   to  Twelve   in    the  Morning,  and  from 
Two  to  Five  in  the  Afternoon  in  the  Summer,  and 
from  One  to  Four  in  the  Winter. 

6.  That    all    Complaints    from    the    Parents    or 
Friends  of  the  Children  be  made  to  the  Trustees  of 
the  School,  and  to  them  only,  on  the  first  Sunday  in 
every  Month,  at  the  School,  by  Ten  o'Clock  in  the 

7.  That  any  Child  breaking  a  Window  or  Slate, 
destroying  any  Book,  or  wilfully  damaging  anything 
belonging  to  the  School,  shall  pay  the  Master  for 
the  same. 

8.  That  such  as  do  not  strictly  observe  the  above 
Rules  be  expelled. 

9.  That  Application  for  Tickets  of  Admission  be 
made  to  the  Trustees  of  the  School. 

N.B. — It  is  desired  that  every  Person  holding  this 
Card  will  take  proper  Care  of  it,  both  for  their 
Guidance  with  Respect  to  the  Children  attending 
the  School,  and  that  they  may  be  able  to  produce  it 
when  required. 

West  Haddon,  Northamptonshire. 

Allow  me  to  refer  your  correspondents  who 
are  interested  in  this  subject  to  'Endowed 
Grammar  Schools,'  2  vols.  pp.  858-953,  large 
8vo,  by  Nicholas  Carlisle,  published  in  1818, 
where  much  curious  information  may  be 
found,  and  numerous  engravings  of  the  seals 

of  arms  of  schools.  The  amount  of  trouble 
taken  by  the  compiler  must  have  been 
immense,  and  in  the  preface  is  a  copy  of  the 
series  of  questions  sent  to  the  masters  of  the 
different  schools  in  England,  to  which  it  is 
added,  "N.B.  Upwards  of  One  Thousand  Four 
Hundred  Letters  have  been  sent  and  received." 
In  the  brief  notice  of  the  author  given  in 
Allibone's  (edition  1872)  'Dictionary'  this 
work  is  not  even  mentioned. 

Newbourne  Rectory,  Woodbridge. 

NAPOLEON'S  LAST  YEARS  (9th  S.  viii.  422, 
509;  ix.  274,  373).— Mr.  J.  H.  Rose,  in  his 
recently  published  life  of  Napoleon,  examines 
very  carefully  the  statement  that  the  em- 
peror's movements  at  Waterloo  were  seriously 
hampered  by  his  ill  health,  and  the  upshot, 
he  says,  is  that  "whatever  was  Napoleon's 
condition  before  the  campaign,  he  was  in  his 
usual  health  amidst  the  stern  joys  of  war." 
This,  Mr.  Rose  continues,  was 

"  consonant  with  his  previous  experience :  he  throve 
on  events  which  wore  ordinary  beings  to  the  bone : 
the  one  thing  that  he  could  not  endure  was  the 
worry  of  parliamentary  opposition,  which  aroused 
a  nervous  irritation  not  to  be  controlled  and  con- 
cealed without  infinite  effort.  During  the  campaign 
we  find  very  few  trustworthy  proofs  of  his  decline, 
and  much  that  points  to  energy  of  resolve  and  great 
rallying  power  after  eiwrtion.  If  he  was  suffering 
from  three  illnesses,  they  were  assuredly  of  a  highly 
intermittent  nature.*' 

As  to  the  comparative  merits,  as  generals, 
of  Napoleon  and  Wellington,  Napoleon's  own 
words,  quoted  by  Mr.  Rose,  are  worth  repeat- 
ing :  "  The  Duke  of  Wellington  is  fully  equal 
to  myself  in  the  management  of  an  army, 
with  the  advantage  of  possessing  more  pru- 
dence." The  italics  are  Mr.  Rose's. 

C.  C.  B. 

With  reference  to  the  repeated  assertions 
about  Napoleon's  ability  to  have  swept 
Wellington  and  his  men  from  the  field  of 
Waterloo,  I  beg  to  quote  what  the  lamented 
Mr.  George  Hooper  has  written  on  the  sub- 
ject in  his  'Wellington'  (Macmillan  &  Co., 
1889)  :— 

"  Lord  Wolseley  also  asserts  that  if  Napoleon  had 
been  the  man  he  was  at  Austerlitz  he  would  have 
won  the  battle  of  Waterloo.  It  is  pure  hypothesis, 
and  about  as  reasonable  as  one  which  might  be 
framed  thus— If  Soult  or  Clausel,  instead  of  Arabi, 
had  commanded  the  Egyptian  army  in  1882,  Sir 
Garnet  Wolseley  would  not  have  won  the  battle  of 
Tel-el-Kebir.  What  is  the  value  of  criticism  which 
alters  all  the  conditions  on  one  side  and  does  not 
venture  to  alter  them  on  the  other  ?  Napoleon  and 
Wellington  and  Blucher  fought  out  their  fight  in 
the  circumstances  existing  between  the  14th  and 
19th  of  June.  We  can  only  judge  them  by  the  light 
of  these  circumstances.  All  else  is  pure  phantasy ; 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        [9th  s.  x.  JULY  5,  1002. 

and  if  the  greatest  general  is  he  who  makes  the 
fewest  mistakes  and  does  not  wage  war  on  conjec- 
tural grounds,  then  Wellington  was  the  greater 
on  the  fields  of  Belgium,  and  acted  on  fewer  and 
less  dangerous  conjectures  than  his  mighty  an- 
tagonist. It  is  an  idle  controversy."—  Vide  p.  225. 

119,  Elms  Road,  Clapham,  B.W. 

468). — Possibly  the  book  inquired  for  is  re- 
ferred to  in  the  following  passage  from 
Alleyne's  'Dispensatory  '  (1733) : — 

"  There  hath  lately  been  published  in  English  a 
treatise  of  the  Misletoe,  wherein  the  author  pro- 
fessedly supports  his  opinions  of  it's  virtues  both 
from  facts  and  experience  ;  and  warmly  recommends 
it's  use  as  a  specific  in  Epilepsies,  and  many  kinds 
of  Convulsions." 

C.  C.  B. 

'•  HOP  THE  TWIG  "  (9th  S.  ix.  189,  314).— It 
would  be  interesting  if  we  could  have  a  dated 
quotation  from  the  dictionary  to  which  De 
Quincey  refers.  I  am  unable  to  identify  it 
in  the  British  Museum,  but  it  occurs  to  me 
that  the  following  notes  (made  in  the  course 
of  hunting  for  it)  may  be  of  interest,  as 
showing  the  difficulties  that  the  unfortunate 
foreigner  encountered  in  his  study  of  our 

In  the  "  Teutsch-Englisches  Lexicon,  Worin- 
nen  nicht  allein  die  Worter,  samt  den  Nenn- 
Bey-  und  Sprich-Wortern.  Sondern  auch  so 
wol  die  eigentliche  als  verbliimte  JRedens- 
arten  verzeichnet  sind.  Aus  den  besten 
Scribenten  und  vorhandenen  Dictionariis  mit 
grossem  fleisz  zusammen  getragen,  Das  erste 
so  iemahls  gemacht  worden.  Leipzig,  bey 
Thomas  Fritschen,  1716,"  among  other  divert- 
ing matter  *  and  immense  profusion  of 
synonyms,  I  only  find  the  following  under 
sterben : — 

"  To  dy  or  die ;  to  decease ;  to  depart ;  to  depart 
this  life ;  to  starve ;  to  breath  your  last ;  to  exspire ; 
to  give  up  the  ghost ;  to  kick  up  your  heels  ;  to  pay 
the  tribute  to  nature ;  to  tip  off;  to  tip  over ;  to  tip 
over  the  pearch." 

*  For  example,  under  the  word  schmarotzen  : 
"  Er  mag  gerne  echmarotzen,  he  loves  tid-bits,  ragoos, 
kick-shaws,  junkets,  delicate  meats ;  he  is  given  to 
his  belly  :  he  loves  to  spunge  upon  others  that  keep 
a  good  table.  Er  geht  iibercul  schmarotzen,  he  sharks 
up  and  down ;  he  lives  upon  the  catch ;  he  goes 
sharking  about ;  he  is  a  smell-feast.  Schmarotzer,  a 
smell  feast,  a  parasite,  a  shark,  a  sharking  fellow,  a 
spunger,  a  glutton,  a  gormandizer,  a  robin-good- 
fellow,  a  boon-companion,  a  table-friend,  a  cater- 
cousin,  a  pot-companion,  a  greedy-gut,  a  lick-dish, 
a  lick-sauce,  a  slap-sauce,  a  trencher-fly,  a  trencher- 
friend,  a  hanger-on,  a  lover  of  tid-bits,  a  lickerish 
fellow."  Again,  under  the  word  verstorben,  the 
guileless  German  was  instructed  that  "Er  ist  schon 
langst  verstorben  "  might  be  rendered  "  he  is  dead 
and  rotten." 

The  '  Teutsch  -  Englisch  Lexicon,'  published 
at  Leipzig  in  1745,  gives  the  above  verbatim  et 

In  J.  Ebers's  '  Vollstandiges  Worterbuch 
der  Englischen  Sprache  fur  den  Deutschen ' 
(Leipzig,  1793),  vol.  i.  784,  I  find,  "To  hop  the 
Twig,  weglaufen."  And  in  his  'New  and 
Complete  Dictionary  of  the  German  and 
English  Languages'  (Leipzig,  1799),  Ebers 
omits  the  incorrect  "to  starve,"  but  other- 
wise represents  the  English  equivalents  of 
sterben  almost  exactly  as  his  predecessors  had 
done.  The  earliest  quotation  for  "  Davy 
Jones's  locker"  in  the  '  N.E.D.'  is  dated  1803. 

Q.  V. 

'AYLWIN'  (9th  S.  ix.  369,  450).— I  read  with 
interest  MR.  HAKE'S  notes  on  the  personalities 
introduced  into  this  charming  book.  I  should 
like,  however,  to  have  some  information  re- 
garding the  "school  of  mystics  founded  by 
Lavater  "  which  Aylwin  is  said  to  have  joined, 
and  "the  large  book,  'The  Veiled  Queen,'  by 
Philip  Aylwin,"  a  quotation  from  which  forms 
a  heading  to  the  first  chapter,  and  has  haunted 
me  ever  since  I  read  it.  Of  course,  this  book 
may,  as  some  believe,  exist  only  in  the 
imagination  of  the  author.  I  should  like  to 
know,  at  all  events,  something^  definite  on 
this  question.  JAY  AITCH. 

LATIN  VERSES  (9th  S.  ix.  447). — This  is  ccxlii. 
of  the  '  Anthologia  Veterum  Latinorum,'  Bur- 
man,  vol.  i.  p.  670.  The  version  there  given 
is  slightly  different.  H.  A.  STRONG. 

University  College,  Liverpool. 

THE  WEST  BOURNE  (9th  S.  viii.  517 ;  ix.  51, 
92,  190,  269,  291,  375,  456).— "The  study  of 
place-names,"  says  Mr.  Duignan,  in  the  pre- 
face of  his  '  Staffordshire  Place-Names,'  "  is  a 
modern  science."  It  should  at  any  rate  be 
treated  on  scientific  principles.  The  historical 
method  should  be  applied  to  each  name,  just 
as  the  historical  method  is  applied  by  Dr. 
Murray  and  his  colleagues  to  every  word  in 
their  monumental  dictionary.  In  endeavour- 
ing to  apply  this  method  to  the  name  of  the 
supposititious  "West  Bourne."  I  have  not 
been  able  to  get  further  back  than  some  time 
in  the  nineteenth  century.  When  I  asked  for 
evidence  that  would  enable  me  to  trace  the 
name  to  a  remoter  date  I,  of  course,  meant 
documentary  evidence.  Oral  evidence  can 
only  carry  us  back  a  very  short  distance. 
But  my  friend  MR.  RUTTON  thinks  that  the 
name  itself  affords  sufficient  evidence  of  its 
antiquity.  A  very  little  research  will  show 
that  names  are  very  unsatisfactory  evidence 
of  facts.  Nine  people  out  of  ten  consider 
that  my  own  name  is  a  French  one.  Out- 
wardly it  has  that  appearance,  but  there  is 

9th  S.  X.  JULY  5  1902.] 



historical  evidence  to  show  that  it  is  Cornish. 
Or  to  take  an  example  from  the  work  from 
which  I  have  just  quoted.  In  Staffordshire 
there  are  three  places  called  "  Brocton,"  each 
of  which  is  situated  on  a  small  stream.  The 
name  of  these  places  is  evidently  derived 
from  the  A.-S.  broc,  a  brook.  There  is  also  a 
place  called  "Broughton,"  which  in  many 
cases  is  a  dialectal  form  of  Brocton.  But  the 
Staffordshire  Broughton  is  the  Domesday 
Hereborgestone,  and  clearly  means  Hereburh's 
town,  Hereburh  being  a  feminine  proper  name 
in  Anglo-Saxon.  But  no  one  would  guess 
this  from  any  evidence  afforded  by  the 
modern  name. 

Names  ending  in  bourne  must  be  especially 
treated  with  caution,  for  vm  many  cases 
there  is  no  evidence  whatever  that  they  were 
the  names  of  streams.  For  a  final  instance 
I  will  not  even  go  so  far  as  Kent.  If  MR. 
RUTTON,  who  lives  in  Paddingtpn,  will  merely 
cross  the  Edgware  Road  he  will  find  himself 
in  the  borough  of  Marylebone.  What  is  the 
meaning  of  the  final  syllable?  More  than 
four  hundred  years  ago  the  manor  was  called 
"Mariborne,"  and  there  is  no  doubt  in  my 
mind  that  when  the  church  of  St.  Mary  was 
erected  the  village  of  which  it  formed  the 
nucleus  was  called  Mary -at -the -Bourne,  a 
lengthy  designation  which  soon  became  con- 
tracted into  "Mariborne"  and  "Maribone." 
But  a  very  accurate  and  well-informed  corre- 
spondent tells  me  that  a  local  newspaper,  the 
Marylebone  Mercury,  has  lately  invented  the 
name  of  the  "  Mary  Bourne  "  for  the  stream, 
now  a  sewer,  which  is  commonly  known  as 
the  Tyburn,  and  that  this  name  also  appears 
in  Mr.  Arnold  Forster's  little  school-reader 
'  Our  Great  City.'  It  is  needless  to  say  that  not 
a  scrap  of  historical  evidence  exists  for  this 
name.  For  many  years  past  I  have  endea- 
voured to  investigate  the  history  of  my 
native  parish,  and  have  never  met  the  "  Mary 
Bourne"  mentioned  in  any  authentic  docu- 
ment. But,  occurring  as  it  does  in  an  ac- 
cepted text-book,  I  feel  no  doubt  that  fifty 
years  hence  the  name  will  be  championed 
with  as  much  warmth  and  ability  as  that  of 
the  "West  Bourne"  is  at  the  present  time. 
To  the  future  Peter  Cunningham  the  "  Mary 
Bourne "  will  be  an  obvious  reality,  and 
another  topographical  myth  will  have  ma- 
tured into  general  acceptance.  Probably  a 
romantic  story  will  be  woven  round  it  into 
the  bargain,  for  such  a  name  as  "Mary 
Bourne  "  possesses  great  potentialities. 

Many  small  streams  were  in  ancient  days 
only  known  as  the  Burne.  An  instance  will 
be  found  on  p.  23  of  Mr.  Duignan's  book,  and 
I  am  violating  no  canon  of  probability  in 

suggesting  that  this  may  have  been  the  case 
with  the  "West  Bourne."  And  now,  with 
MR.  RUTTON,  I  think  that  dubious  brook  may 
be  allowed  to  sleep  in  the  subterranean  re- 
cesses to  which  it  has  retired.  I  will  only 
remark  in  conclusion  that  I  can  see  no  grounds 
for  thinking  that  Bosworth,  in  his  explanation 
of  "  bourne,"  meant  more  than  he  actually 
said.  A  word  can  be  made  to  mean  anything 
if  to  a  lexicographer's  definition  every  reader 
is  permitted  to  append  his  own  glosses. 


BOON  FOR  BOOKWORMS  (9th  S.  ix.  406,  453). 
— In  my  library,  is  a  nicely  bound  copy  of 
Hazlitt's  '  Spirit  of  the  Age,'  in  two  volumes, 
to  each  of  which  is  attached  a  ribbon  marker. 
It  was  published  at  Paris  in  1825. 


West  Haddon,  Northamptonshire. 

I  have '  Le  Rime  del  Petrarca  '  (Parigi,  1768) 
and  a  '  Roman  Missal '  (London,  1815),  both 
of  which  are  furnis'hed  with  ribbon  markers. 


AMBER"  (9th  S.  ix.  408,  471).— I  have  always 
presumed  that  "  lutes  of  amber,"  chairs,  and 
mirrors  of  the  same,  mentioned  by  MR.  J. 
DORMER,  refer  to  the  frequent  use  of  amber 
as  an  inlay  or  decoration  of  the  wood  of 
which  musical  instruments,  furniture,  mirrors, 
and  the  like  were  constructed.  I  have  a 
small  mirror  (probably  Florentine,  of  the  six- 
teenth or  seventeenth  century),  the  frame 
of  which  is  entirely  incrusted  with  plates  of 
geometrical  shapes  of  amber,  through  the 
transparent  substance  of  which  drawings  of 
foliage  may  be  seen.  I  am  not  quite  sure 
that  the  above  is  what  MR.  DORMER  means. 
A  chair,  lute,  or  mirror  of  amber  is,  of  course, 
quite  out  of  the  question;  not  so  furniture  or 
musical  instruments  inlaid  with  that  material. 

"  BUFF  WEEK  "  (9th  S.  ix.  329,  353,  372,  473). 
—See  further  under  baf,  bauch,in  'E.D.D.,' 
and  under  bauch  in  '  H.E.D.'  and  Jaraieson. 
The  derivation  is  from  Icel.  bdgr,  uneasy, 
allied  to  bdgr,  strife.  The  Icel.  bag-,  in  com- 
position, signifies  ill,  bad,  perverse,  difficult, 
and  the  like.  Cf.  Norw.  baag,  obstructive, 
inconvenient,  difficult,  bad  ;  and  O.Irish  bag, 
strife.  The  baff  week  is  the  unprofitable  one. 


ix.  346,  493).— The  mallet  used  at  the  laying 
of  the  foundation  stone  of  St.  Paul's  is  no 
doubt  of  historic  interest,  but  where  is  the 
documentary  evidence  that  Wren  was  a  Free- 
mason or  Master  of  a  St.  Paul's  Lodge  ?  True, 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.         [9*h  s.  x.  JULY  5, 1002. 

John  Aubrey,  in  his  'Natural  History  of 
Wiltshire,'  MS.  Royal  Society,  1686,  on  reverse 
folio  72,  dated  1691,  says  that  Wren  was  "  to 
be  adopted  a  Brother";  and  Dr.  Anderson 
says  that  Wren  was  Grand  Master  in  1685, 
six  years  before  he  was,  according  to  Aubrey, 
to  be  initiated  as  a  Freemason.  But  there  is 
no  evidence  that  Wren  was  a  member  of  any 
lodge.  Mr.  Gould,  the  Masonic  historian, 
years  ago  made  an  exhaustive  search,  but  not 
a  shred  of*  documentary  evidence,  even  the 
mention  of  Wren's  name  in  any  of  the  lists 
or  MSS.  of  the  old  lodges,  could  be  found. 
Anderson's  statement  is  considered  apocry- 
phal, and  Aubrey  only  wrote  that  such  an 
event  was  to  take  place.  Wren's  son  does 
not  allude  to  it  in  his  writings,  and  he 
would  of  all  others  have  knowledge  of  such 
an  event.  This  story  about  Wren  has  been 
repeated  for  many  years,  but  no  evidence  of 
any  kind  that  can  be  relied  upon  has  been 
submitted  by  those  who  quote  Wren  as  a 
member  of  the  craft.  I  have  never  found  a 
line  to  justify  the  assertion,  and  every  known 
avenue  of  proof  has  been  searched  by  me  in 
connexion  with  the  statement. 

Toronto,  Canada. 

MISPLACING  OF  A  COMMA  (9th  S.  ix.  267).— 
The  enclosed  cutting  from  an  Australian 
daily  paper  (the  Adelaide  Advertiser,  9  May), 
though  not  directly  answering  the  query  as 
to  wnat  "  Act  of  Parliament  once  cost  the 
country  a  hundred  thousand  pounds,"  pro- 
vides, at  any  rate,  another  version  of  the 
story  :— 

"  The  Prime  Minister  receives  many  strange 
letters,  one  of  the  strangest  being  one  which  reached 
him  during  the  tariff  debate,  warning  him  to  be 
very  careful  of  his  commas.  The  writer,  an 
American,  went  on  to  say  that  one  little  comma 
cost  the  United  States  Government  400,00(W. !  It 
was  this  way : — About  twenty  years  ago  the  United 
States  Congress,  in  drafting  the  Tariff  Bill, 
enumerated  in  one  section  the  articles  to  be 
admitted  on  the  free  list.  Amongst  these  were 
'all  foreign  fruit -plants.'  The  copying  clerk,  in 
his  superior  wisdom,  omitted  the  hyphen  and 
inserted  a  comma  after  '  fruit,'  so  that  the  clause 
read  '  all  foreign  fruit,  plants,  &c.'  The  mistake 
could  not  be  rectified  for  about  a  year,  and  during 
this  time  all  oranges,  lemons,  bananas,  grapes,  and 
other  foreign  fruits  were  admitted  free  of  duty, 
with  a  loss  to  the  Government  of  at  least  400,000/. 
for  that  year." 


The  University,  Adelaide,  South  Australia. 

YARROW  UNVISITED  (9th  S.  ix.  386,  477).— 
At  the  second  reference  MR.  YARROW  BAL- 
DOCK  states  that  John  Logan  "  was  driven 
from  his  ministry  by  the,»V?  Jlication,  and 
subsequent  performance  at  uie  Edinburgh 

Theatre,  of  his  tragedy  of  'Runnimede.'"  As 
it  is  perilous  to  express  an  opinion  about 
Logan,  it  may  be  useful  in  reference  to  this 
assertion  to  quote  the  following  from  a  favour- 
able biographer : — 

"  Logan  then  printed  it  ['  Runnimede'],  and  had 
it  acted  in  the  Edinburgh  theatre  ;  but  in  neither 
form  did  it  meet  with  decided  success.  This,  with 
other  disappointments,  preyed  upon  the  spirits  of 
the  poet,  and  he  now  betook  himself  to  the  most 
vulgar  and  fatal  means  of  neutralizing  grief.  It  is 
to  be  always  kept  in  mind  that  his  father  had  died 
in  a  state  of  insanity,  the  consequence  of  depressed 
spirits.  Hence  it  is  to  be  presumed  that  the  aberra- 
tions of  the  unhappy  poet  had  some  palliative  in 
constitutional  tendencies.  From  whatever  source 
they  arose,  it  was  soon  found  necessary  that  he 
should  resign  the  charge  of  the  populous  parish  with 
which  he  had  been  entrusted." 

After  giving  his  explanation  of  Logan's 
resignation  of  his  post,  MR.  YARROW  BALDOCK 
further  intimates  that 

"  the  Michael  Bruce  story  was  long  since  cleared  up 
by  Mr.  Laing,  who  established  Jonn  Logan's  claim 
to  the  authorship  of  the  '  Ode  to  the  Cuckoo,'  as 
Dr.  Carruthers  says  in  'Chambers's  Cyclopaedia,' 
4  beyond  all  dispute.' " 

In  view  of  all  that  has  happened  since  the 
expression  of  this  opinion  in  the  'Cyclopaedia,' 
the  conclusion  is  irresistible  that  the  author's 
confident  assertion  was  somewhat  premature. 
There  has  been  incessant  dispute  on  the  sub- 
ject from  that  remote  day  to  the  present 
time.  THOMAS  BAYNE. 

SIR  GEOFFREY  POLE,  DIED  1558  (9th  S.  ix. 
468).— Much  interesting  information  relating 
to  the  family  of  Pole  will  be  found  in  a  trust- 
worthy volume,  '  Reginald  Pole,  Cardinal 
Archbishop  of  Canterbury,'  by  the  Rev. 
Frederick  George  Lee,  D.D.  (London,  1888). 
Sir  Geoffrey  Pole  was  a  younger  brother  of 
the  cardinal,  whom  he  predeceased  by  a  few 
days.  He  left  eleven  children,  five  sons  and 
six  daughters.  Of  the  latter  two  were  mar- 
ried, and  one  embraced  the  religious  life  at 
Syon  House,  Isleworth.  Dr.  Lee's  record 
gives  many  interesting  details  relating  to  the 
family  as  a  whole.  H.  BASKERVILLE. 

Oriel  College,  Oxford. 


The  Early    History   of  Syria  and  Palestine.     By 

L.  B.  Paton,  Ph.D.    (Nimmo.) 
The   Theology  awl  Ethics  of  the  Hebrews.    By  A. 

Duff,  LL.l).  (Same  publisher.) 
A  NATURAL  result  of  the  explorations  and  dis* 
cpveries  so  actively  carried  on  of  late  years  on  the 
sites  of  the  ancient  civilizations  has  been  an 
increased  interest  in  Oriental  lore,  religious  and 
historical,  and  more  particularly  the  Semitic  branch 
of  it.  To  gratify  the  appetite  for  information  thus 

9t»s.x.jtLY5,i902.]          NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


stimulated  Mr.  Nimmo  projected  his  "  Semitic 
Series,"  to  which  we  have  already  bidden  a  hearty 
welcome.  Two  more  issues  of  this  valuable  series 
have  now  appeared  simultaneously,  if  not  of  equal 
merit,  yet  ooth  of  importance  to  the  student  of 
Biblical  history  and  antiquities. 

Dr.  Paton  in  his  volume  undertakes  to  tell  the 
story  of  the  West  Semitic  peoples  from  their 
earliest  appearance  on  the  scene  of  history  down  to 
the  establishment  of  the  Persian  empire.  With 
considerable  literary  skill  he  has  succeeded  in 
weaving  the  fragmentary  and  often  disconnected 
hints  of  the  monuments  into  a  narrative  of  living 
interest.  It  was  no  easy  task  to  bring  up  flesh  and 
sinew  over  the  extremely  dry  bones  of  the  mere 
annalist,  but  Dr.  Paton  has  succeeded  in  doing  so. 
This  is  eminently  the  case  in  his  ingenious  inter- 
pretation of  the  Amarna  correspondence  between 
the  vassal -kings  Rib-Addi  and  Aziru  and  their 
sovereign  Amenhotep  IV.  We  congratulate  him  on 
the  ability  with  which  he  has  brought  such  scattered 
leaves  of  the  historic  Sibyl  into  order  and  made 
them  reveal  their  oracle.  He  holds  that  the  Kha- 
biri  of  these  Amarna  letters  designate  the  Hebrews 
only  in  the  general  sense  of  being  one  of  the  group 
of  confederated  tribes  who  claimed  descent  from 
Eber  as  their  common  ancestor.  t 

On  the  whole,  Dr.  Paton  is  a  conservative  critic, 
but  some  of  his  theorizings  will  require  further 
proof  —  his  theory,  e.g.,  that  Abram,  a  local  hero 
From  Hebron,  was  a  distinct  person  from  Abraham, 
the  father  of  the  faithful,  and  that  their  iden- 
tification is  an  old  mistake  due  to  the  resem- 
blance of  their  names.  "  Abram  the  Hebrew  "  in 
Genesis  xiv.  13  must,  then,  disappear  as  a  gloss  and 
afterthought.  This  chorizontist  suggestion  is  the 
newest  thing  in  Biblical  speculation.  His  account  of 
the  rise  and  development  of  the  God-idea  (Yahweh) 
among  the  Israelites,  on  the  whole,  is  the  same  as 
that  of  Budde  and  Kuenen,  and  may  be  regarded  as 
fairly  established  by  a  consensus  of  opinion.  A 
good  bibliography  is  prefixed — though  we  question 
the  right  of  Campbell's  wild  book,  '  The  Hittites,' 
to  be  included  as  in  any  sense  an  authority — and  a 
very  full  index  is  appended. 

Dr.  Duffs  work  is  of  a  more  technical  character, 
and  consequently  less  interesting.  It  is  devoted 
chiefly  to  a  discussion  of  the  problem  presented  by 
the  book  of  Deuteronomy,  in  which  the  author 
attempts  to  reconstruct  the  documents  out  of 
which  it  was  formed,  holding  them  to  have  been 
the  normal  outcome  of  the  teaching  of  the  great 
prophets  of  the  eighth  century  B.C.  His  analysis 
of  the  prophetic  doctrine  and  the  evolution  of  the 
monotheistic  and  ethical  idea  appears  to  us  the 
most  valuable  part  of  his  book.  On  the  other 
hand,  his  explanations  of  some  of  the  psychological 
phenomena  of  Scripture  strike  us  as  strained  and 
improbable.  We  can  hardly  think  it  likely  that 
the  shepherd  lad  Moses  was  actuated  and  set  on  to 
his  high  mission  of  delivering  his  people  by  the 
sight  of  the  rising  sunbeams  gleaming  redly  one 
morning  upon  a  thorn-bush  in  the  wilderness.  In 
tracing  the  origin  of  the  Cherubim,  Dr.  Duff  would 
have  been  saved  from  error  by  a  little  more  know- 
ledge of  Babylonian  research.  He  revives  the  long- 
exploded  notion  that  the  kherftb  was  a  griffin,  the 
gryps  of  the  Greeks ;  but  he  is  quite  original  in  his 
suggestion  that  its  shape  was  originally  that  of 
some  fossil  or  crystalline  form  resembling  a  winded 
creature  which  the  Israelites  may  have  fancied 
that  they  saw  in  "  the  seeming  hieroglyphic  figures  " 

that  they  may  have  read  in  the  markings  discernible 
on  the  two  slabs  of  stone  brought  down  by  Moses 
from  the  mount.  This  is  no  caricature  of  Dr.  Duffs 
theory,  with  which  he  is  so  pleased  that  he  repeats 
it.  Another  peculiar  idea  of  the  author's  is  that 
the  Semitic  Sabbath  may  have  been  at  first  a 
female  deity  of  Fate  whose  name  meant  "  cutting- 
off,"  and  that  to  this  Hebrew  Atropos  the  seventh 
day  was  sacred.  He  interprets  the  first  Command- 
ment as  ordaining  that  "  no  other  Elohim  is  to 
stand  before  Him  (Yahweh)  to  obscure  His  face" — 
a  decidedly  private  interpretation.  The  "  mixed 
multitude  that  followed  Moses  he  describes  as 
"  the  'riff-raff'  camp-followers."  Some  wild  etymo- 
logists have  seen  in  the  Hebrew  word  (erebh)  the 
origin  of  our  "riff-raff."  Dr.  Duff,  we  are  sure, 
knows  better. 

Transactions  of  the  Glasgow  Archaeological  Society. 

New  Series,  Vol.  IV.  Part  II.    (Glasgow,  Mac- 

Lehose  &  Sons.) 

THESE  Transactions  have  always  held  a  high  rank 
in  antiquarian  literature,  and  as  time  goes  on  they 
become  more  and  more  important  as  a  storehouse 
of  facts  and  of  the  generalizations  of  the  leading 
archaeologists  of  Scotland.  By  far  the  longest  con 
tribution  to  the  present  issue  is  Mr.  George  Neil- 
son's  '  Huchown.'  As,  however,  it  has  appeared  in  a 
separate  form,  and  been,  in  consequence,  noticed  bi\t 
very  recently  in  our  pages,  we  only  make  a  passing 
reference.  Major  Ruck  furnishes  a  valuable  paper 
on  '  The  Antonine  Lines  as  a  Defensive  Design :  a 
Comparison  in  Ancient  and  Modern  Principles  of 
Fortification.'  The  author  has,  we  believe,  entered 
on  a  new  field  of  investigation.  There  is  nothing 
approaching  to  it  in, our  language.  His  paper,  if 
somewhat  amplified  £hd  accompanied  by  ground- 
plans  and  sections,,  would  form  the  standard  work 
on  castrametation,  as  Jonathan  Oldbuck  and  his 
contemporaries  were  wont  to  call  it.  Walls  pro- 
tecting the  vast  territories  of  the  Roman  empire 
are  found  on  its  Asiatic  as  well  as  its  European 
outskirts.  The  two  structures  of  this  kind  to  be 
seen  in  Britain  have  long  been  known ;  indeed, 
it  is  a  question  whether  they  have  ever  passed 
into  forgetfulness  among  those  who  livea  near 
them.  Often,  however,  the  theories  to  which  they 
have  given  birth  have  shown  a  great  want  of  the 
simplest  knowledge  of  military  science.  Major  Ruck 
has  the  advantage  of  being  a  Royal  Engineer,  and 
has  therefore  been  able  to  bring  to  bear  the  practical 
knowledge  gained  in  his  profession.  He  thus  throws 
light  on  several  points  which  have  hitherto  been  ill 
understood.  The  Antonine  wall  was  mainly  an 
earthen  rampart,  not  a  stone  building  like  that 
which  crosses  England  from  the  Solway  to  the 
Tyne.  Though  not  so  striking  to  the  imagination 
as  its  English  companion,  it  is  quite  as  important 
from  the  message  which  it  hands  down  to  us.  The 
Antonine  wall,  when  correctly  interpreted,  throws 
great  light  on  the  art  of  fortification  as  it  had 
become  developed  during  the  great  time  of  the 
Roman  power.  To  compare  the  fortifications  of  a 
people  who  did  not  know  of  gunpowder  with  those 
of  the  present  day  is  a  hard  task,  but  it  has  been 
executed  admirably  by  Major  Ruck.  The  con- 
clusion we  arrive  at  is  that  the  Romans  had  in 
their  armies  skilled  engineers,  who  carried  out  the 
principles  of  defence  almost  as  scientifically  and 
with  as  much  elaboration  as  the  great  powers  do  at 
the  present  time,  when  allowance  ia  made  for  the 
difference  in  the  arms  of  those  from  whom  an  attack 

NOTES  AND  QUERIES.          [9th  s.  x.  JULY  5, 1902. 

is  expected.  The  author  has  made  an  estimate  of 
the  cost  of  the  construction  of  the  Antonine  wall 
reduced  to  the  monetary  standard  of  the  present 
day.  The  result  arrived  at  is  317.00W.  This  will 
surprise  many  of  our  readers.  We  have,  however, 
gone  carefully  through  his  calculations,  and  regard 
them  as  an  under  rather  than  an  over  estimate,  if 
slave  labour  were  not  employed.  Working  on  the 
same  lines,  Major  Ruck  concludes  that  the  stone 
wall  of  Hadrian  was  produced  by  the  expenditure 
of  1,268,OOW. ;  but,  as  he  points  out,  there  was 
economy  displayed  in  this  heavy  payment,  as  it 
would  obviously  require  a  smaller  proportionate 
garrison  to  guard  it.  To  recur  to  the  Antonine 
wall,  when  it  was  complete  were  grass  seeds  sown 
on  the  top  ?  if  not  the  rains  would  soon  work  great 
damage.  If  they  were,  how  was  the  seed  obtained  ? 
We  may  conclude,  though  there  can  be  no  certainty 
on  the  matter,  that  on  this  island  the  business  of  a 
seedsman  was  then  unknown. 

Mr.  J.  Romilly  Allen's  short  paper  on  '  The  Early 
Christian  Monuments  of  the  Glasgow  District' 
is  well  illustrated.  There  are  few  persons  who 
have  examined  so  many  of  these  objects  as  the 
author.  He  has  confined  his  paper  to  those  which 
are  anterior  to  or  about  the  period  of  the  Norman 
Conquest  of  England.  The  greater  number  are 
memorials  of  the  dead,  but  some  are  evidently 
preaching  crosses,  and  others  probably  mark  the 
boundaries  of  sanctuaries,  while  perhaps  in  a  few 
cases,  though  the  author  does  not  suggest  this,  they 
indicate  the  place  where  some  tragedy  has  happened 
for  the  purpose  of  directing  devout  persons  to  pray 
for  the  souls  of  the  victims.  So  far  as  is  at  present 
known,  there  are  none  with  legends  carved  upon 
them.  Quoting  Jocelyne's  life  of  St.  Kentigern, 
written  111  the  twelfth  century,  Mr.  Allen  directs 
attention  to  the  statement  that  the  pious  bishop 
erected  many  crosses,  one  of  which  was  made  of  the 
sand  of  the  sea-shore.  Ropes  of  sand  figure  in 
Scottish  folk-lore,  and  we  have  read  somewhere  of 
a  person  who  doubted  the  capacity  of  those  who 
constructed  Stonehenge  to  move  the  blocks  of  which 
it  is  composed,  and  that  he  solved  the  mystery  to 
his  own  satisfaction  by  maintaining  that  they  were 
castings  of  sand  formed  by  some  process  now  for- 
gotten. But  a  cross  made  out  of  sand  is  a  new 
thing  in  our  experience. 

'The  Chateau  of  St.  Fargeau'  is  by  Mr.  James 
Dalrymple  Duncan.  It  is  an  interesting  chronicle 
of  the  successive  owners  of  the  castle  and  domain, 
but  contains  very  little  relating  to  Scotland. 

'  Notes  on  Scottish  Costume  in  the  Fifteenth 
Century,'  by  Mr.  Robert  Brydall,  is  an  interesting 
paper,  put  from  the  nature  of  things  cannot  be  all 
we  desire ;  iconoclasm  has  done  its  work  so  effec- 
tively over  the  Border  that  few  tombs  can  furnish 

Miscellanea  Qenealogica  et  Heraldica  for  June, 
edited  by  W.  Bruce  IJannerman,  opens  with  an 
interesting  obituary  notice  of  its  founder,  Dr.  Joseph 
Jackson  Howard,  Maltravers  Herald  Extraordinary. 
He  was  born  on  the  12th  of  April,  1827,  entered  the 
Post  Office  in  1851,  and  became  principal  clerk  in 
1867,  retiring  in  1888.  He  was  one  of  the  pioneers  of 
the  Civil  Service  Supply  Association.  Early  in  life 
he  acquired  a  taste  for  heraldry  and  genealogy,  and 
became  a  fellow  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  in 
1854.  At  the  time  of  his  death,  on  the  18th  of 
April,  he  was  eighth  in  seniority  of  such  fellows. 
He  took  an  active  part  (in  conjunction  with  the 

late  Sir  A.  W.  Franks)  in  the  Exhibition  of  Civic 
Plate  held  at  Somerset  House  in  1860,  and  in  the 
following  year  contributed  to  an  Exhibition  of 
Seals.  In  May,  1862,  he  collected  materials  for  an  ex- 
hibition of  heraldry  which  was  held  in  the  Society's 
rooms,  and  he  was  also  a  considerable  contributor 
to  the  Heraldic  Exhibition  of  1894.  He  was  one  of 
the  earliest  to  commence  a  collection  of  armorial 
hook-plates,  and,  in  addition  to  this,  made  a  choice 
collection  of  armorial  china.  He  was  one  of  the 
founders  of  the  Harleian  Society,  acting  as  honorary 
treasurer  from  its  formation  in  1869  to  the  end  of 
last  year.  Dr.  Howard's  charming  manner  en- 
deared him  to  all  who  knew  him.  No  correspondent 
ever  wrote  to  him  in  vain,  and  he  spared  neither 
time  nor  trouble  in  giving  to  all,  whether  friends 
or  strangers,  the  results  of  his  investigations.  He 
was  a  valued  contributor  to  '  N.  &  Q.' 

THE  Coronation  numbers  of  the  Sphere  and  the 
Queen,  received  too  late  for  notice  last  week,  have 
now  a  pathetic  interest.  Both  numbers  contain 
interesting  papers  on  archaeology  and  folk-lore, 
the  popular  taste  for  which  is  largely  due  to 
'  N.  «  Q.'  The  Sphere  in  its  '  Story  of  King  Edward 
and  his  Empire  from  1862  to  1902'  is  admirable  in 
every  way,  and  forms  a  record  of  forty  years'  pro- 
gress, not  the  least  interesting  paper  being  that  by 
the  editor, '  The  Story  of  Literature  and  Education.' 
The  Queen,  in  an  historical  article  by  Arthur  H. 
Beavan,  contains  a  number  of  illustrations  copied 
from  the  Lambeth  Palace  Library  by  special  per- 
mission of  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury.  An  illus- 
tration of  a  George  III.  Coronation  teapot  is  also 
given ;  this  was  among  the  first  examples  of  the 
method  of  transfer  printing  on  china  invented  by 
John  Sadler,  of  Liverpool. 

$0 tier 8  to  Comsponirruis. 

We  must  call  special  attention  to  the  following 
notices  :— 

ON  all  communications  must  be  written  the  name 
and  address  of  the  sender,  not  necessarily  for  pub- 
lication, but  as  a  guarantee  of  good  faith. 

WE  cannot  undertake  to  answer  queries  privately. 

To  secure  insertion  of  communications  corre- 
spondents must  observe  the  following  rules.  Let 
each  note,  query,  or  reply  be  written  on  a  separate 
slip  of  paper,  with  the  signature  of  the  writer  and 
such  address  as  he  wishes  to  appear.  When  answer- 
ing queries,  or  making  notes  with  regard  to  previous 
entries  in  the  paper,  contributors  are  requested  to 
put  in  parentheses,  immediately  after  the  exact 
heading,  the  series,  volume,  and  page  or  pages  to 
which  they  refer.  Correspondents  who  repeat 
queries  are  requested  to  head  the  second  com- 
munication "  Duplicate." 

E.  BIGOK  BAOOT  ("  A  headless  man  had  a  letter 
to  write,"  Ac.). — The  answer  seems  to  be 0=nothing. 
See  7th  S.  x.  and  xi.  passim. 


Editorial  communications  should  be  addressed 
to  "The  Editor  of  'Notes  and  Queries'"— Adver- 
tisements and  Business  Letters  to  "  The  Pub- 
lisher"—at  the  Office,  Bream's  Buildings,  Chancery 
Lane,  E.C. 

We  beg  leave  to  state  that  we  decline  to  return 
communications  which,  for  any  reason,  we  do  not 
print ;  and  to  this  rule  we  can  make  no  exception. 

9«>8.x.jnLyi2,i902.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. -No.  237. 

NOTES  :— De  Laci  Family,  21— Birmingham  :  "  Brumagem," 
22— Mr.  Thorns— "Wyk"  and  "Wick,"  23  — Jacobite 
Verses— Effigy  in  Tettenhall  Churchyard,  24—"  Reliable" 
—Pseudo-Scientific  Novel— A  Travelled  Goat—"  Elucubra- 
tion,"  25 — Wearing  Hats  in  Church  —  Ser.jeants-at- Law 
under  James  I.  —  "Returning  thanks"  —  "Hock-bottom 
prices  "  —  Weathercock  at  Exeter,  26  —  Wassail  -bread  : 
Wassail-land— Disappearance  of  a  Banking  Firm,  27. 

QUERIES  :— Laml.'s  •  Satan  in  Search  of  a  Wife '— Halley 
Family— Admiral  Gordon  in  Russian  Navy,  27— Baronets 
of  Nova  Scotia— "  Muffineer"— Barbadian  Registers  — 
Elizabeth  Percy — Greek  and  Russian  Ecclesiastical  Vest- 
ments—  Hobbins  Family  —  Sanderson  Family  —  R.  W. 
Smyth-Stuart—Baxter  and  Cummings— Knighthood,  28— 
"  Fetlocked  "— S.  T.  Coleridge— Fountain  Pen— Statistical 
Data— Hebrew  Incantations— Arms  on  Fireback,  29. 

RHPLIES  :-Arms  of  Eton  and  Winchester,  29— Hymn  on 
King  Bdward  VII.,  30 -National  Flag— Dead  Sea  Level— 
C.  Babington— Armsof  Knights,  31— Rossettl's  '  Ruggiero  ' 

—  Royal    Standard  —  Henry  IV.'s   Exhumation  —  Green 
Unlucky— Defoe— "  Circular  joys,"  32  —Tib's  Eve— "Keep 
your  hair  on  "— Aix-la-Chapelle,  33—  "  Lupo-mannaro  "- 
Disappearing  Chartists— "  L«  Fizgert  "—Evolution  of  a 
Nose— "Daggering"  — Coronation    Dress  of    Bishops- 
Sworn  Clerks  in  Chancery— Staffordshire  Sheriffs,  34— 
Locomotive    and    Gas  —  The  Author   of    Evil  — Fonts  — 
T.  Phaer,  35— Quotation— Authors  Wanted— Gerald  Griffin 

—  Windsor    Uniform  —  Black    Malibran,    36  —  Attorney's 
Kpitaph— Mont  Pelee  —  St.  Paul  and  Seneca—  Gillespie 
Grumach,  37— Old  Songs— W.  Baxter—"  Knife  "—Female 
Fighters-"  Upwards  of,"  38— Lady-day  Day,  39. 

NOTES  ON  BOOKS:-' Nottingham  Parish  Registers'— 
Bennett's  'Archbishop  Rotberham '--Reviews  and  Maga- 

Notices  to  Correspondents. 



FOR  some  time  past  I  have  ventured,  with 
every  respect  to  our  best  authorities  in 
Gloucestershire  and  beyond  it,  to  entertain 
grave  doubts  regarding  the  received  notions 
respecting  certain  early  and  highly  important 
members  of  this  Domesday  family,  and  during 
the  past  year  evidence  of  a  rather  startling 
nature  has  come  to  hand,  not  only  to  accen- 
tuate my  scepticism,  but  to  confirm  some  of 
my  conclusions. 

Roger  de  Laci  forfeiting  his  estates  for 
rebellion  (excepting  one  manor)  in  1088, 
these  were  passed  over  to  his  brother 
Hugh,  founder  of  Lantony  Prima,  by  King 
William  II. 

Mr.  A.  S.  Ellis,  in  his  '  Domesday  Tenants 
of  Gloucestershire,'  states  that  Hugh  "  was 
dead  without  issue  in  1121,  and  the  only  sur- 
viving brother,  Walter,  being  a  monk  (abbot, 
1130-39),  a  nephew  named  Gilbertson  of  their 
sister  Emma,  took  the  name  of  De  Laci,  and 
secured  the  estates,  which  descended  in  his 
heirs."  This  theory  has  been  faithfully  fol- 
lowed by  C.  L.  K.  in  the  '  D.N.B.'  (vol.  xxi. 
p.  390) :  "  Henry  I.  seems  to  have  taken  the 

Laci  estates  into  his  own  hands  ;  but  Gilbert, 
son  of  Hugh's  sister  Emma,  assumed  the  name 
of  Laci,  and  claimed  to  represent  the  family." 
At  p.  375  the  last  writer  states  likewise  of 
Gilbert :  "  His  father's  name  is  not  known. 
After  the  death  of  his  uncle,  Hugh  de  Laci, 
the  family  estates  were  taken  into  the  royal 

No  authority  for  this  last  statement  is 
given  ;  but  the  effect  of  these  two  accounts 
has  been  to  satisfy  students  that  the 
theory  of  Mr.  Ellis  as  to  the  childlessness 
of  Hugh  de  Laci  was  not  to  be  questioned. 
This  writer,  discovering  neither  wife  nor  child 
for  Hugh,  seems  to  have  originated  the  notion 
that  Gilbert  de  Laci  changed  his  unknown 
original  name  for  his  uncle's  in  order  to  acquire 
the  estates.  I  am  not  able  to  prove  to  the  con- 
trary, though  the  matter  seems  to  me  unusual 
and  improbable.  On  the  other  hand,  I  am 
able  to  prove  that  Hugh  de  Laci  both  had 
a  wife  and  did  not"  die  childless,  having 
had  at  least  one  daughter,  whom  he  endowea 
with  certain  of  his  vast  lands,  and  whose 
direct  descendants  inherited  them  from  her. 

The  first  document  is  from  a  MS.  '  Regis- 
trum '  of  Lantony  Secunda  in  the  possession 
of  the  Rev.  Fitzroy  Fen  wick  at  Tnirlestane 
House,  Cheltenham  :f  "  Cecilia  Comitissa, 
cognita  donatione  Hifgonis  Lacey,  ayi  sui, 
super  eandem  ecclesiam  de  Wyke,  nobis  earn 
confirmavit,"  <kc.  That  is  to  say,  Cecily, 
Countess  of  Hereford  (daughter  of  Pain  Fitz- 
John),  aware  of  her  grandfather  Hugh  de 
Laci's  gift  of  the  church  of  Wyke  (now  Pains- 
wick)  to  the  Prior  and  Convent  of  Lantony, 
confirms  it  to  them,  &c.  So  that  Cecily, 
who  married  Roger,  son  of  Milo,  Earl  of 
Hereford,  and  had  from  her  father  Pain 
FitzJohn  seven  librates  of  land  in  his 
manor  of  (Pains)Wick,  shows  herself  to 
be  granddaughter  to  Hugh  de  Laci.  If 
we  turn  to  the  charter  No.  20,  Duchy  of 
Lancaster,  which  Mr.  J.  H.  Round  has  been 
able  to  date  to  a  nicety,  December,  1137-May, 
1138,  and  which  is  a  confirmation  by  King 
Stephen  to  Roger  and  Cecily  his  wife  of  all 
the  lands  which  her  father  Pain  had  inherited 
or  acquired,  together  with  her  own  marriage 
portion,  we  find  the  following  words  : — 

"  Et  omne  maritagium  quod  predictus  Paganus 
dedit  filiae  sure  de  honore  Hugonis  de  Laceio  in  terris 
el  inilitibus  ;  et  omne  illud  juris  quod  ipse  Paganus 
habebat  in  toto  Honore  Hugonis  de  Laceio,"  &c. 

How,  then,  did  Pain  FitzJohn  come  by 
Hugh  de  Laci's  estates  ?  Mr.  Ellis  and 
C.  L.  K.  evidently  wrote  under  the  impres- 
sion that  they  were  acquired  from  the  king. 
The  above  charter,  however,  partly  informs 
us :  "  Et  propter  hoc  quicquid  Paganus  dedit 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        [9*  s.  x.  JULY  12, 1002. 

Sibillae  uxori  sui  in  dote  de  hereditate  sua  ut 
illud  teneat  ipsa  Sibilla  de  Rogerio  et  Cecilia 
uxore  sua."  So  that  Sibilla,  Pain's  wife,  had 
important  possessions,  and  the  serious  ques- 
tion arises  at  once,  Who  was  Sibilla  ? 

The  answer  comes  from  a  charter  of  hers  to 
the  Priory  of  Ewyas  Harold,  communicated 
to  me  by  the  Rev.  A.  T.  Bannister,  vicar  of 
Ewyas,  who  intends,  I  understand,  shortly 
to  bring  out  a  volume  relating  to  that  hold 
of  De  Laci  and  FitzJohn  : — 

"  Sibilla  de  Laceio  omnibus  ballivis  et  forestariis 
suis  de  Ewias  salutem.  .  Sciatis  me  concessisse 
Waltero  Abbati,  avunculo  meo  [113p-39]terram  de 

Leghe pro  aninia  mea  et  pro  anima  Pagani  filii 

Johannis,  mariti  mei Witnesses,  Walter  de 

Scudymer,  Gilbert  de  Eschet,  and  others." 

It  becomes  clear,  therefore,  that  Hugh  de 
Laci  left  issue,  and  that  Sibilla  his  daughter 
passed  her  portion  of  his  lands,  including 
Wyke,  to  her  own  issue.  As  a  matter  of 
fact,  this  consisted  of  two  daughters,  Cecilia, 
Countess  of  Hereford  (d.  s.p.),  and  Agnes 
=  William  de  Monchensi,  whose  direct  de- 
scendants remained  lords  of  Painswick  until 
the  death  of  Aymer  de  Valence.  Sibilla  was 
still  living  in  1138,  having  survived  both  her 
father,  Hugh  de  Laci,  and  her  husband,  Pain 

Finally,  another  question  arises,  Who  was 
Hugh's  wife?  and  this  too  is  partly  answered 
by  a  document  (deed  of  gift)  in  the  '  Hist,  et 
Cartul.  S.  Petri  Gloucestrise,'  vol.  i.  ccciii. 

"Ab  Incarnatione  Domini  millesimo  centesimo, 
Hugo  de  Laceyo  et  Adelina  uxor  ejus,  dederunt 
Ecclesise  S.  Petri  de  Gloucestria  ecclesiam  S.  Petri 
de  Herefordia,  &c.,  pro  animabus  patris  et  matris, 
et  omnium  parentum  suorum,  et  pro  suis,"  &c. 

I  am  unable  to  show  who  Adelina  was.  Was 
Gilbert  de  Laci  a  sister's  son  indeed,  or  may 
he  not  have  been  Hugh's  own  son  ? 


P.S. — I  regret,  in  the  interest  of  students, 
that  the  Master  of  the  Rolls  finds  himself 
unable  to  accede  to  my  respectful  application, 
made  lately  to  him,  to  permit  me  to  examine 
and  make  use  of  the  '  Cartularium '  of  Lan- 
tony  Secunda.  now  at  the  Public  Record 
Office,  which  has  been  happily  utilized  by 
the  editors  of  the  '  Liber  Rubeus,'  "  by 
reason  of  rules  made  under  40  &  41  Viet., 
c.  55."  Sources  of  mediaeval  information 
regarding  special  localities  are  not  so  abun- 
dant that  the  student  can  without  regret 
see  a  door  closed  to  him. 

BIRMINGHAM   is   not    mentioned    in    any 
existing  Anglo-Saxon  charter,  and  the  first 

record  of  it  is  in  Domesday  Book  (1086),  where 
it  appears  as  Bermingeham.  The  next  State 
record  is  the  'Liber  Niger,'  or  Black  Book 
of  the  Exchequer  (1166),  where  we  find  Peter 
de  Bremingeham  registered  as  holding  nine 
knights'  fees.  He  was  the  "dapifer" 
(steward)  of  Gervase  Paynell,  a  great 
manorial  lord,  and  held  under  him,  as  of  the 
Barony  of  Dudley,  Birmingham,  Edgbaston, 
and  other  manors.  He  was  the  founder  of 
the  family  of  "de  Birmingham,"  taking  his 
name,  as  was  customary,  from  his  principal 
manor,  where  he  probably  resided.  In  a 
Ridware  charter,  circa  1158,  he  is  recorded 
as  Peter  de  Brimigharn ;  in  the  Pipe  Rolls  for 
1165  as  De  Bremingham ;  for  1167  as  De 
Bremingeham  ;  for  1168  as  De  Bruningeham 
(the  n  being  doubtless  a  mistake  of  the  scribe 
for  m).  In  the  same  Rolls  for  1170  and  1171 
he  appears  as  De  Bremingeham  ;  in  1207 
his  son  William  is  recorded  as  De 
Bermingeham ;  and  in  the  Hundred  Rolls 
for  1255  the  same  William,  or  his  son, 
appears  as  William  de  Burmingeham.  In 
later  times  I  find  the  following  forms  in 
English  records :  in  1316,  Bermingham ; 
1330,  Bermincham  ;  1333,  Burmyncham  ; 
1346,  Burmyngham  and  Bermyngham  ;  1347, 
Bermingeham  and  Bermyngeham  (3) ;  1352, 
Birmingham  ;  1376,  Byrmincham  ;  1393, 
Byrmingham  ;  1403,  Burmyngeham  ;  1408, 
Birmincham  ;  1413,  Bermyngeham  ;  1584, 
Byrmycham.  In  1880  a  pamphlet  was  pub- 
lished by  Mr.  J.  Ward,  of  Sheffield,  showing 
141  ways  of  spelling  Birmingham.  The 
forms  he  gives  are  mostly  between  the 
fifteenth  and  eighteenth  centuries.  Sixty- 
three  of  them  commence  Br-  (the  vowel 
following) ;  in  the  remaining  seventy-eight 
forms  (sucli  as  Ber-.  Bur-,  Byr-,  Bir-,  &c.) 
the  vowel  precedes  the  r.  Of  the  terminals 
fifty  end  in  -cham,  five  in  -sham,  the  re- 
mainder in  -gham  or  -ham,  but  the  ge  (as  in 
Domesday)  is  repeated  in  nineteen  of  them. 

It  frequently  happens  that  English  words, 
transplanted  to  America,  the  colonies,  or  Ire- 
land, retain  their  archaic  forms  with  greater 
tenacity  than  at  home,  and  Birmingham  is 
an  example.  A  son  of  Peter  de  Bremingeham 
went  to  Ireland  with  Strongbow  about  1170, 
and  there  founded  a  family,  which  grew  into 
a  clan  known  in  Irish  as  Mac  Feorais,  and  in 
English  as  after  mentioned,  the  forms  being 
taken  from  annals  and  charters:  1243,  De 
Bremingham;  1325,  1327,  1328,  1329,  1330, 
De  Brimagham;  1391,  De  Breinighain.  In 
the  fifteenth,  sixteenth,  and  seventeenth 
centuries  the  name  is  recorded,  in  Ireland, 
as  Brimidgham,  Brymigham,  Brymudg- 
ham,  Brymugham,  Brimugham,  Brimigham, 

9*  B.X.  JULY  12, 1902.]         NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 

Bremengham,  Bremincham,  Bremyncham's 
country,  Bremyngeam,  Bermingham,  Bre- 
mingham,  Bryrnyngham,  and  Bremyngham. 
Queen  Elizabeth,  in  an  autograph  letter  on 
Irish  affairs,  dated  6  November,  1599,  writes 
the  name  Bremingham.  In  1657  the  name 
appears  as  Bermigham,  Bremigham,  and 
Bremmingham.  From  these  examples  it  is 
clear  that  in  the  majority  of  instances  in 
Ireland  the  r  preceded  the  vowel  and  the 
g  was  soft.  The  name  is  unquestionably 
Anglo-Saxon,  and  it  is  impossible  to  make 
any  sense  of  Bern*-  in  that  language  ;  it  was 
neither  a  personal  name  nor  a  word  ;  but,  if 
assumed  to  have  been  originally  Brem-,  the 
meaning  is  plain,  as  Breme  was  a  personal 
name  ;  it  is  recorded  in  Domesday.  A  Breme 
fell  at  the  battle  of  Hastings,  a,nd  Bromsgrove 
was  originally  Bremesgraf  =  Breme's  grove. 
The  meaning  of  the  word  is  illustrious, 
glorious,  famous. 

Now  all  languages  are  subject  to  meta- 
thesis, or  shifting  of  letters,  ana  it  is  common 
in  connexion  with  r:  third  was  originally 
thrid  (we  still  say  three),  bird  was  Irid,  thirst 
was  thrist,  dirt  was  drit,  &c.  The  Domesday 
form  is  plain  Berm-  ;  but  Domesday,  it  must 
be  remembered,  was  compiled  by  Norman 
clerks  and  Norman  commissioners,  from  the 
evidence  of  Anglo-Saxons  transcribed  into 
Latin.  Twelfth-century  records,  especially 
if  local,  are  better  authorities  as  to  spelling 
than  Domesday,  and  here,  in  them,  the  Brem- 
prevails.  It  is  not,  however,  necessary  to 
allege  error  in  Domesday.  Metathesis  is  as 
old  as  Homer,  and  in  this  instance  may  well 
have  commenced  before  Domesday;  centuries 
frequently  elapse  before  a  change  is  generally 
accepted,  and  meantime  the  spelling 
oscillates.  To  ask  is  a  case  of  metathesis. 
That  is  the  old  form  ;  then  for  centuries  we 
said  axe,  and  for  the  last  300  years  we  have 
gradually  returned  to  ask ;  but  how  many 
millions  still  say  axe  ! 

Assuming  the  original  form  to  have  been 
Bremingaham  (dative  plural),  the  meaning  is 
clearly  "the  home  of  the  sons  (or  descend- 
ants) of  Breme,"  ing  in  Anglo-Saxon  being 
equivalent  to  the  Scotch  Mac  or  the  Irish 
0'.  As  a  rule  in  place-names  the  a  in  -inga- 
drops  out,  but  is  frequently  for  a  time 
represented  by  e,  as  here  in  the  Domesday 
and  many  subsequent  forms.  When  this  is 
the  case,  although  the  g  was  originally  hard 
(as  it  certainly  was  in  Bremingaham),  it 
became  soft,  and  hence  the  various  terminals 
in  -cham,  -sham,  and  ultimately  -gem-. 
Examples  of  the  e  softening  a  preceding  g, 
which  without  it  would  be  hard,  may  be 
found  in  hinge,  swinge,  singe,  change,  &c. 

Many  places  which,  like  Bermingeham,  once 
had  a  medial  ge,  but  have  dropped  the  vowel 
still  retain  the  ancient  pronunciation 
Attingham,  near  Shrewsbury,  in  Domesday 
is  Atingeham,  and  is  now  commonly  called 
and  written  Atcham.  Pattingham,  near 
Wolverhampton  (Domesday  Patingham), 
probably  once  had  a  medial  e,  for  it  is,  and 
always  has  been,  pronounced  Pattinjem. 
Lockinge,  in  Berkshire,  has  a  soft  g. 
Abinger,  in  Surrey,  is  pronounced  Abenjer, 
though  its  old  form  was  Abing  worth  (g  hard) ; 
then  falling  to  Abingerth,  and  finally  to 
Abinger,  the  g  softens. 

No  etymology  of  Birmingham  could  be 
satisfactory  which  did  not  account  for 
"  Brumagem."  That  form  is  no  vulgarism, 
as  commonly  supposed,  but  represents,  better 
than  Birmingham,  the  archaic  pronunciation 
of  Bremingenam.  W.  H.  DUIGNAN. 


ME.  THOMS.— '  N.  &  Q.'  ought  to  record 
the  fact  that  by  an  error  in  the  text  and 
index  of  a  volume  on  '  Westminster '  in  "  The 
Fascination  of  London"  series,  by  the  late 
Sir  Walter  Besant  and  Mr.  G.  E.  Mitton,  we 
have  the  name  of  Thome  for  our  founder, 
whose  connexion  with  the  House  of  Lords  is 
not  named,  but  who  is  called  only  "  antiquary 
and  originator  of  Nptes  &  Queries."  D. 

"WYK"  AND  "WiCK."  (See  'St.  Clement 
Danes.'  9th  S.  vii.  64,  et  seq.)—In  connexion 
with  the  late  controversy  as  to  the  meaning 
of  the  word  Wick,  I  may  mention  that  the 
United  Service  Magazine  for  June,  p.  303,  in 
"  Pages  from  the  Diary  of  a  Boer  Officer,  by 
Another  of  Them,"  part  iv.,  uses  the  word  in 
a  very  curious  sense : — 

"The  bulk  of  the  Boer  forces  — the  burgher 
commandos  —  was  organized  after  a  territorial 
system  of  election,  the  outline  of  which  may  be 
given  in  a  few  words.  Territorially,  the  two 
Republics  were  divided  into  districts,  which  in 
their  turn  were  subdivided  into  wyks.  At  the 
head  of  every  wylc  was  a  field-cornet,  or  semi-civil, 
semi-military  ^paid  official,  who  was  elected  for  a 
certain  period  of  time  by  the  burghers  of  the  wyk, 
and  M'ho  could  be  re-elected  at  the  expiration  of  his 
term  of  office.  Besides  being  a  justice  of  the  peace, 
a  chief,  constable,  and  a  military  official,  the  field- 
cornet  was  very  often  an  Assistant  Native  Com- 
missioner. The  combined  wyks  of  a  district  formed 
a  commando  under  the  leadership  of  a  commandant, 
a  non-paid  military  official,  without  any  civil 
capacities,  elected  by  the  burghers  of  the  district. 
This  was  the  peace  establishment.  In  time  of  war 
.the  different  groups  of  burghers,  immediately  upon 
coming  together,  chose  their  corporals  and  fore  men  ; 
an  impromptu  commissariat  staff  was  appointed  ; 
and  the  Government  or  Council  of  War.  nominated 
vecht  -  generals  (literally  fighting  -  generals,  anglice, 
major  -  generals),  who,  as  lieutenants  of  the 

NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [9th  s.x.  JULY  12 ,1902. 

generalissimo,  had  charge  of  two  or  more  com 
mandos,  and  whose  tenure  of  office  began  and 
ended  with  the  hostilities.  As  the  mobilization 
was  a  copy  of  the  beginning  of  the  every-year-recur- 
ring  shift  to  the  bush-veldt,  so  the  advance  of  a 
commando,  after  the  concentration  of  the  different 
wyks  had  been  effected,  was  an  imitation  .of  an 
ordinary  trek." 

It  is  curious  to  find  a  wyk  the  unit, 
territorially  speaking,  of  the  military 
organization  of  the  South  African  Republic 
and  Orange  Free  State.  Dutch  dictionaries 
give  the  word  as  an  equivalent  for  "  quarter  " 
of  a  town.  The  English  official  name  is  ward, 
as  in  Lanarkshire ;  cf:  Sir  Walter  Scott's 
'Old  Mortality'  and  Lord  Kitchener's  pro- 
clamations. But  cf.  wick  in  Borthwick.  Were 
the  London  "  wards  "  military  units  ?  H. 

JACOBITE  VERSES  —I  have  never  seen  the 
following  rimes  in  print  or  manuscript,  ex- 
cept on  the  sheet  of  paper  from  which  I  have 
transcribed  them.  The  original  is  in  a  hand 
of  the  early  part  of  the  eighteenth  century. 
I  have  no  idea  as  to  who  was  the  author  : — 

James  Caesar's  Mare  :  a  Farmer  in  Bedfordshire 

who  has  lout  his  mare. 
My  Neigb.  James  I  must  bewale, 
Who's  lost  his  Mare  both  head  and  tayle. 
Honest  himself  in  every  thing 
As  any  man.    God  bless  the  King. 

What  Villains  then  were  they 

That  stole  his  Mare  away  : 
A  Curs  upon  such  wicked  men. 

But  Gadbury  does  tell 

That  all  things  shall  goe  well 
And  the  Man  shall  have  his  Mare  again. 

Some  fooles  that  would  their  Neighbors  fright 
Call  James  a  bloody  Jacobite, 
But  he  was  n'er  in  proclamac'on 
Nor  treason  acted  'gainst  the  Nation, 

And  of  late  he  did  declare 

The  fellons  he  would  spare. 
His  mercy 's  sure  above  all  men. 

Then  let  us  all  unite, 

Both  Whigg  and  Jacobite, 
That  the  man  may  have  his  own  again. 

Wickentree  House,  Kirton-in-Lindsey. 

In  Mr.  Charles  G.  Harper's  '  Holyhead  Road  ' 
there  is  an  account,  accompanied  by  an 
engraving,  of  a  worn  and  battered  monu- 
mental effigy  of  a  woman  in  the  churchyard 
of  Tettenhall,  near  Wolverhampton.  The 
figure  is  now  without  arms.  Mr.  Harper 
says  they  "have  been  hacked  off  at  the 
shoulders,"  and  recounts  the  legend  that  it 
is  the  memorial  of  a  seamstress  who,  con- 
trary to  the  advice  of  her  neighbours,  per- 
sisted in  working  on  Sundays,  adding,  with 
additional  profanity,  that  "if  it  were  wrong 
she  hoped  her  arms  would  drop  off."  On  the 

following  Sunday,  while  employing  herself 
in  her  ordinary  work,  her  arms  aid  drop  off, 
and  simple  folk  believe  that  this  mutilated 
figure  was  made  as  a  permanent  record  of 
her  sin  and  its  punishment  (vol.  ii.  p.  59). 

It  is  worth  inquiry  as  to  how  far  back  this 
story  can  be  traced,  and  whether  it  has  arisen 
by  way  of  accounting  for  the  present  state  of 
the  stone,  or  whether  it  preserves,  in  distorted 
form,  the  memory  of  the  frightful  distemper 
called  "  the  fire,"  which  was  once  very  preva- 
lent across  the  Channel,  though  but  little 
known  in  this  country,  yet  it  seems  pro- 
bable that  it  occasionally  occurred  here.  As, 
however,  it  is  constantly  mentioned  in  French 
chronicles  and  lives  of  saints,  our  people 
would  have  heard  of  it,  if  they  had  never 
come  in  contact  with  any  of  the  sufferers. 
It  was  known  as  the  "ignis  sacer,"  "ignis 
Sancti  Antonii,"  and  "ignis  infernalis,"  and 
we  know,  other  evidence  apart,  from  the 
testimony  of  the  old  saying,  "Tres  plagse 
tribus  regionibus  appropriari  solent,  An- 
glorum  fames,  Gallorum  ignis,  Normanorum 
lepra,"  that  it  was  regarded  in  a  special  way 
as  a  French  disease. 

Dr.  Creighton  in  his  '  History  of  Epidemics 
in  Britain  '  gives  a  most  interesting  account 
of  the  malady  and  the  cause  of  its  origin. 
I  need  not  say  that  when  an  outbreak 
occurred  in  former  times  it  was  regarded  as 
miraculous.  Dr.  Creighton  tells  us  : — 

"  The  attack  usually  began  with  intense  pains  in 
the  legs  or  feet,  causing  the  victims  to  writhe  and 
scream.  A  fire  seemed  to  burn  between  the  flesh 
and  the  bones,  and  at  a  later  stage,  even  in  the 
bowels,  the  surface  of  the  body  being  all  the  while 
cold  as  ice Gangrene  or  sloughing  of  the  extremi- 
ties followed  ;  a  foot  or  a  hand  fell  off,  or  the  flesh 
of  a  whole  limb  was  destroyed  down  to  the  bones, 
by  a  process  which  began  in  the  deeper  textures. 
The  spontaneous  separation  of  a  gangrenous  hand 
or  foot  was,  on  the  whole,  a  good  sign  for  the 
recovery  of  the  patient." — Vol.  i.  p.  54. 

The  cause  of  this  disease  has  now  been 
discovered.  It  usually  arises  from  a  tainted 
condition  of  the  rye  of  which  the  bread  of 
the  poor  was  made.  After  a  wet  summer, 
followed  by  a  bad  harvest,  many  of  the  grains 
became  enlarged  and  subject  to  a  parasitic 
mould,  and  Dr.  Creighton  is  of  opinion  that, 
by  the  fermentation  of  this  fungus,  the 
meal  becomes  poisonous.  The  reason  why 
English  people  were  in  a  great  degree  spared 
Prom  this  infliction  probably  was  that  wheaten 
bread  was  the  common  food  of  every  one 

xcept  in  times  of  great  scarcity.  In  more 
modern  times  England  has  not  entirely 

iscaped.  In  1762  a  peasant  family  of  Wattis- 
iam,  in  Suffolk,  consisting  of  eight  persons, 
was  attacked  by  what  was  undoubtedly  "  the 
ire."  Dr.  Creighton  has  compiled  a  good 

9*"  s.x.  JULY  12,  i902.i        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 

account  of  the  case   from    communications 
which  were  made  at  the  time  to  the  Royal 
Society.     In   this  case  it  appears  that  the 
sufferers  had  been  using  not  rye,  but  wheat 
of  a  very  poor  quality.     If  the  reader  is  in- 
terested in  the  subject,  he  will  find  further 
information  in  the  Rev.  Herbert  Thurston's 
'  Life  of  Saint  Hugh  of  Lincoln,'  pp.  478-83. 
Wickentree  House,  Kirton-in-Lindsey. 

"  RELIABLE."  (See  9th  S.  ix.  435.)— I  thought 
the  late  Mr.  Fitzedward  Hall  had  fully  vindi- 
cated the  right  of  this  word  to  be  considered 
good  English,  and  I  do  not  understand  how, 
in  face  of  the  fact  that  it  is  used  by  Coleridge, 
Gladstone,  John  Stuart  Mill,  John  Henry 
Newman,  Dean  Mansel,  and  many  other 
writers  who  rank  as  classics,  it  can  be  said  to 
have  come  into  the  language  "  as  it  were  by 
stealth,"  or  to  be  "accompanied  by  associa- 
tions "  which  render  it  "painful "  even  to  the 
most  fastidious  taste.  To  the  word  "  rely  " 
objection  might,  indeed,  be  taken ;  but  this 
formation  admitted,  why  object  to  its  quite 
regularly  formed  derivative  ?  The  grounds 
ASTARTE  alleges  against  it  are  certainly  in- 
sufficient :  "  reliable  "  and  "  trustworthy  " 
have  not  always  precisely  the  same  applica- 
tion, and  the  names  I  have  cited  from  Mr. 
Hall's  essay  are  enough  to  show  that  the 
"  associations  "  of  the  word  are  not  so  base  as 
its  critic  seems  to  suppose.  The  old  objections 
to  its  use  are  well  put  in  a  passage  quoted  by 
Prof.  Hodgson  ('Errors  in  the  Use  of  Eng- 
lish ')  from  a  writer  whom  he  supposes,  no 
doubt  correctly,  to  be  Mr.  Hall  himself  :  "  It 
is  unaccount-for-able,  not  to  say  laugh-at-able, 
that  men  will  try  to  force  upon  the  language 
a  word  so  take-objection-to-able,  so  little-avail- 
of-able,  and  so  far  from  indi/erence-with-able, 
as  reliable  " — a  way  of  stating  the  objections 
which  is  in  itself  sufficient  to  dispose  of 
them.  I  believe  this  word  has  been  discussed 
before  in  'N.  &  Q.,'  but  I  cannot  find  it 
indexed  in  any  recent  volume.  C.  C.  B. 

[Reliable  is  duly  given  in  the  General  Index  to 
the  Seventh  Series.  DR.  MURRAY'S  learned  defence 
of  the  word  appeared  in  vol.  viii.  p.  133.] 

historical  novel  may  be  traced  up  to  Xeno- 
phon.  The  originator  of  the  pseudo-scientific 
romance — of  which  Mr.  Wells  is  admittedly  the 
greatest  master  who  has  ever  written  in  any 
language — was  probably  the  truly  wonderful 
Lucian.  He  also  wrote  the  first  "  imaginary 
voyage."  There  are  traces  of  science  in  the 
'Arabian  Nights,'  but  I  pass  at  once  to 
Cohausen,Dr.  Campbell's  translation  of  whose 
'Hermippus  Redivivus'  greatly  interested 

Dr.  Johnson.  In  this  connexion  Sweden- 
borg  deserves  that  notice  which  he  has  never 
received.  Of  him  Le  Fevre  has  written  this 
pregnant  sentence:  "At  first  a  naturalist; 
demented  in  1745."  If  only  the  sections  of 
Swedenborg's  'Heaven  and  Hell'  had  been 
arranged  and  connected  together  by  a  thin 
thread  of  narrative  (as  are  the  essays  which 
constitute  '  Rasselas '),  no  other  writer  could 
ever  have  hoped  to  approach  this  masterpiece 
of  imaginative  writing.  Then  comes  Mr. 
Wells,  closely  following  upon  the  steps  of 
the  mighty  artist  Poe,  but  outstripping  his 
master,  because  he  has  more  knowledge  of 
science  than  ever  fell  to  Poe's  share. 


A  TRAVELLED  GOAT.  —  In  his  '  Relics  of 
Literature'  Stephen  Collet  prints  (p.  310) 
some  extracts  from  the  diary  of  a  nameless 
person,  who,  under  date  28  April,  1772,  records 
that  there 

"  died  at  Mile  End  a  goat  which  had  been  twice 
round  the  world  ;  first'in  the  Dolphin,  Capt.  Wallis, 
then  in  the  Endeavour,  Capt.  Cook.  She  was 
shortly  to  have  been  removed  to  Greenwich 
Hospital,  to  have  spent  the  remainder  of  her  days 
under  the  protection  of  those  worthy  veterans,  who 
there  enjoy  an  honourable  retirement.  She  wore 
on  her  neck  a  splendid  collar,  on  which  was 
engraved  the  following  distich,  said  to  have  been 
written  by  the  ingenious  and  learned  Dr.  Samuel 
Johnson :  * 

Perpetui  ambita  bTs  terra  praemia  lactis 
Haec  habet,  altrici  capra  secunda  Jovis." 

This  goat  is  mentioned  in  Bos  well's  '  Life 
of  Johnson '  under  date  27  February,  1772. 

"  ELUCUBR ATION.  " — This  word  is  not  given 
by  Dr.  Johnson  in  the  abridgment  of  his 
'  Dictionary  '  which  appeared  in  1786.  "  Lu- 
cubration," however,  is  duly  entered  with  a 
reference  to  the  Tatler.  The  latest  edition  of 
Stormonths  copious  and  trustworthy  dic- 
tionary (Blackwpod,  1895)  gives  "lucubra- 
tion," but  not  its  longer  equivalent.  The 
1  Encyclopaedic  Dictionary,'  which  is  wonder- 
fully exhaustive  and  exact,  enters  "elucu- 
brate"  and  "elucubration,"  but  marks  both 
as  obsolete.  Perhaps  the  editor  would  have 
done  better  if  he  had  grouped  these  forms 
with  the  class  that  he  describes  as  "those 
which  have  not  dropped  altogether  out  of  use, 
but  are  only  rarely  found."  The  author  of 
the  'Reliques  of  Father  Prout'  admittedly 
revelled  amid  riotous  whims  and  fancies,  but 
his  notable  scholarship  and  literary  skill 
guarantee  for  any  of  his  peculiarities  at  least 
attention  and  respect.  In  his  introduction 
to  the  learned  paper  on  '  Literature  and  the 
Jesuits '  he  indulges  in  some  editorial  rapture 

NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [9*  s.  x.  JTOY  12,  iwa. 

over  the  accomplishments  of  his  mythical 
author,  warmly  apostrophizing  him  in  the 
contemplation  of  nis  "chest  of  posthumous 
elucubrations."  Probably  the  archaism  is 
intentionally  introduced,  but  it  is  there  with- 
out mark  or  comment,  and  its  presence  con- 
strains recognition.  No  doubt  it  is  duly 
noted  in  the  'H.E.D.,'  which  at  the  moment 
is  not  available.  THOMAS  BAYNE. 

[Elucubration  is  in  the  'H.E.D.'  with  quotations 
ranging  from  1643  to  the  above  from  "  Father 

WEARING  HATS  IN  CHURCH.  (See  6th  S.  ii., 
iii.,  iv. ;  7th  S.  i.,  ii.,  iii.,  iv. ;  9th  S.  viii.  81).— To 
bring  this  question  up  to  date  I  may  perhaps 
quote  a  rubric  from  '  The  Form  and  Order  of 
The  Coronation  of  Their  Majesties  King  Ed- 
ward VII.  and  Queen  Alexandra...  |  On 
Thursday,  the  26th  Day  of  June,  1902.' 
Section  vi.  of  the  'Order'  provides  for  the 
sermon,  "  which  is  [happily]  to  be  short,"  and 
proceeds : — 

"  And  whereas  the  King  was  uncovered  during  the 
saying  of  the  Litany  and  the  beginning  of  the  Com- 
munion Service  ;  when  the  Sermon  begins  he  puts 
on  his  Cap  of  crimson  velvet  turned  up  with  ermine, 
and  so  continues  to  the  end  of  it," 

i.e.,  according  to  the  literal  meaning  of  the 
words,  His  Majesty  will  continue  putting  on 
his  cap  till  the  end  of  the  episcopal  discourse. 
This  strikes  one  as  somewhat  tiring,  not  to 
say  disturbing  to  the  risible  faculties  of  his 
assembled  subjects.  O.  O.  H. 

following  extract  from  the  'Reports'  of 
Serjeant  Bendloes,  or  Benlowes,  may  be  of 
interest,  ed.  1661,  p.  132  :— 

"On  Thursday,  15  new  Serjeants  were  brought 
to  the  bar  by  tipstaves,  under  subpoena  1000/.,  which 
in  order  of  antiquity  were  Sir  George  Croke,  Diggs, 
Guynn,  Amhurst,  Crew,  Damport,  Bridgman, 
Darcey,  Hoskins,  Bing,  Thynn,  Bramston,  Henneage 
Finch,  Hedley,  and  Crawley.  And  Croke,  being  the 
eldest,  said  to  Signior  Williams,  Keeper,  Dean  of 
Westminster,  and  Bishop  of  Lincoln,  that  they  were 
summoned  by  subpoena  '  south  payne  de  1000/.'  to 
appear  on  that  day,  &c. 

"Then  the  Lord  Keeper  demands  of  them  if  they 
are  willing  to  accept  the  degree :  and,  they  saying 
yea,  he  commands  them  to  deliver  their  briefs,  which 
are  read.  Then  he  excuses  himself  for  not  being 
able  to  tell  them  their  duty,  and  shews  them  the 
reason  of  their  name  of  Serjeants  at  law,  and  says 
that  at  first,  in  the  infancy  of  the  law,  great  lords 
sent  their  servants  to  the  judges,  to  know  their 
opinions,  and  afterwards,  when  the  law  increased, 
they  were  in  great  estimation,  as  appears  in  Chaucer; 
and  he  shews  that  they  were  advanced  to  this  de- 
gree mainly  for  their  erudition.  Then  they  take  the 
oath  of  supremacy,  and  are  led  back  to  the  place 
where  they  were  before,  viz.  to  the  narrow  passage 
between  the  '  Chancery  and  bankr.'  Sir  George 
Croke  made  a  brief  speech  of  thanks,  and  presented 
a  ring  (annell  enamled)  to  the  Lord  Keeper,  for  the 

King.  Nota  that  they  come  in  round  caps,  and  at 
dinner  '  prendront  lour  liknes  come  Monks.'  Rings 
were  given  ;  and  '  Le  Posie  del  Annells  fuit,  Servit 
Regi  qui  servit  Legi.'  These  things  happened  in 
Michaelmas  Term,  21  Jacobi." 

Portland,  Oregon. 

"RETURNING  THANKS." — One  of  the  oddest 
and  most  out-of -place  phrases  is  that  of  "  re- 
turning thanks"  which  appears  in  tradesmen's 
business  announcements  and  notices.  It  is 
understood  to  be  the  tradesman's  way  of 
thanking  his  customers  for  their  past  favours. 
Giving  thanks  would,  perhaps,  be  better,  for 
his  customers  would  scarcely  thank  him  for 
allowing  them  to  deal  with  him.  "  Return- 
ing thanks  "  in  this  sense  is  very  different  from 
that  of  "  returning  thanks  "  to  "  a  health  " 
at  a  public  dinner.  When  did  "returning 
thanks  "  on  the  part  of  business  people  first 
appear  in  advertisements  ? 


<l  ROCK-BOTTOM  PRICES."— I  confess  that  this 
expression  is  new  to  me.  A  hosier  in  this 
district,  in  soliciting  my  custom  (per  printed 
circular),  assures  me  of  the  excellence  of  his 
goods,  and  guarantees  that  they  are  all 
supplied  at  "  rock-bottom  prices." 


47,  Lansdowne  Gardens,  S.W. 

WEATHERCOCK  AT  EXETER. — What  is  said 
to  be  the  oldest  existing  weathercock  in  this 
country  crowns  the  octagonal  turret  on  the 
south-eastern  corner  of  the  fifteenth-century 
western  tower  of  St.  Sid  well's  Church, 
Exeter.  It  and  the  ornamental  iron  spindle 
upon  which  it  revolves  were  both  made 
(according  to  the  Cathedral  Fabric  Rolls)  by 
a  local  follower  of  Vulcan,  under  the  direc- 
tion of  Bishop  Courtenay,  A.D.  1484,  and  were 
then  fixed  upon  the  low  spire  at  that  time 
built  over  the  northern  Norman  tower  of 
Exeter  Cathedral.  There  the  weathercock 
remained  until  1752  (i.e.,  268  years),  when  the 
spire  was  removed.  Stored  securely  in  the  pre- 
cincts of  the  cathedral  until  1812,  it  was  then 
iut  upon  the  new  spire  built  in  that  year  over 
it.  Sid  well's  tower,  and  remained  in  situ 
eighty-eight  years — i.e.,  until  2  May,  1900 — 
when  that  spire  in  turn  was  taken  down. 
The  venerable  tower  since  then  has  been 
renovated,  and  upon  13  May,  1902,  cock  and 
accompanying  vane  were  again  elevated,  and 
now  occupy  the  position  indicated  above. 
The  brave  old  chanticleer  is  of  hammered 
:opper,  made  in  two  plates,  soldered  together. 
It  measures  2  ft.  9  in.  from  the  point  of  the 
beak  to  the  extreme  outside  curve  of  the 

9*  a.  x.  JULY  12, 1902.         NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 

tail,  and  is  2ft.  Gin.  high.  The  steadying 
vertical  spindle  below  is  carried  up  through 
the  legs  and  into  the  body  exactly  12  in. 
above  the  cup.  As  we  know  vanes  were  in 
use  in  the  time  of  the  Saxons,  it  would  be 
interesting  if  the  relative  authentic  ages  of 
other  existing  examples  were  given.  The 
quaintest  and  most  numerous  wind  indi- 
cators I  have  ever  met  with  are  to  be  seen  in 
Friesland,  N.  Holland.  HARKY  HEMS. 

Fair  Park,  Exeter. 

year  1569  the  following  presentment  was 
made  from  the  parish  of  Shepherdswell,  near 
Dover,  at  a  visitation  of  the  Archdeacon  of 
Canterbury  : — 

"  That  Johanna  Stoddar,  widow,  hath  in  occupy- 
ing two  acres  of  land  called  wassell-land,  out  of 
which  there  hath  been  paid  two  bushels  of  wheat 
yearly,  to  be  made  in  wassell-bread  and  given  to 
the  poor,  as  there  are  divers  now  alive  hath  dis- 
tributed the  same,  and  it  is  with  holden,  and  there 
are  witnesses  examined  before  Master  Denne  of  the 
payment  thereof." 

Master  Denne  was  an  official  of  the  Arch- 
deacon of  Canterbury.      ARTHUR  HUSSEY. 
Tankerton-on-Sea,  Kent. 

BANKING  FIRM.— In  the  Daily  Telegraph  of 
16  June  there  appeared  a  notification  that 
only  a  few  weeks  after  the  regretted  death 
of  Mr.  Reginald  Abel  Smith,  the  senior 
partner  of  Messrs.  Smith,  Payne  &  Smiths, 
who  died  26  April,  they  had  to  record  that 
"  now  this  old-established  and  celebrated  firm  of 
bankers  is  about  to  disappear  altogether.  Messrs. 
Smith,  Payne  &  Smiths  and  their  country  con- 
nections are  to  be  absorbed  by  the  Union  Bank  of 
London,  and  the  latter  will  thus  acquire  a  valuable 
business  not  only  in  London,  but  in  the  provinces 
as  well." 

The  allied  firms  of  Messrs.  Samuel  Smith  & 
Co.,  of  Nottingham,  Derby,  and  Newark-on- 
Trent;  Messrs.  Samuel  Smith  Brothers,  of 
Hull ;  and  Messrs.  Smith,  Ellison  &  Co.,  of 
Lincoln,  will  also  vanish  in  the  absorption. 
The  firm  of  Smith,  Payne  &  Smiths  will  be 
first  found  in  the  '  London  Directory  :  in  the 
year  1759,  whenitwasknown  as  Smith&Payne, 
the  business  being  carried  on  near  Coleman 
Street,  Lothbury.  In  1766  the  bank  removed 
to  18,  Lombard  Street,  a  house  known  by  the 
sign  of  the  Hare,  and  later  an  additional 
partner  entered  the  firm,  the  style  being 
changed  to  Smith,  Payne  &  Smith.  In  1830 
a  removal  was  made  to  1,  Lombard  Street, 
where  this  noted  bank  has  since  remained. 
But  the  firm  was  not  originally  a  London 
one,  as  the  business  was  started  in  Notting- 
ham by  Thomas  Smith,  a  mercer  of  that 

town,  in  1688,  as  documents  in  the  possession 
of  the  firm  go  to  prove,  the  London  house  not 
commencing  its  operations  until  the  middle 
of  the  eighteenth  century,  when  it  was 
founded  by  Abel  Smith,  his  grandson  (the 
father  of  the  first  Lord  Carrington),  in  con- 
junction with  Mr.  John  Payne.  This  change 
may  be  considered  of  sufficient  interest  to 
be  preserved  in  '  N.  &  Q.' 

C  2,  The  Almshouses,  Rochester  Row,  S.W. 

WE  must  request  correspondents  desiring  infor 
mation  on  family  matters  of  only  private  interest 
to  affix  their  names  and  addresses  to  their  queries, 
in  order  that  the  answers  may  be  addressed  to  them 

In  an  unpublished  letter  of  Lamb's,  with  the 
postmark  14  July, -1831,  I  find  the  following 
passage : — 

"  How  capitally  the  Frenchman  has  analysed 
Satan  !  I  was  hinder'd,  or  I  was  about  doing  the 
same  thing  in  English,  for  him  to  put  into  French, 
as  I  prosified  Hood's  Midsummer  fairies  ['The 
Defeat  of  Time,'  in  Hone's  'Table  Book'].  The 
garden  of  cabbage  escap'd  him  [see  part  ii.  stanza  i.], 
he  turns  it  into  a  garden  of  pot  herbs.  So  local 
allusions  perish  in  translation. 

Can  any  one  help  me  to  this  translation  1 
I  have  tried  various  likely  places,  but  without 
success.  E.  V.  LUCAS. 

Froghole,  Edenbridge,  Kent. 

HALLEY  FAMILY. — I  should  be  very  pleased 
to  receive  information  (or  the  address  of  any 
person  likely  to  be  able  to  obtain  it,  for 
reasonable  compensation,  mutually  satisfac- 
tory) pertaining  to  the  origin  of  the  name 
of  Halley  Street,  Stepney,  Mile  End,  and 
of  Halley  Street,  Forest  Gate,  Stratford, 
Essex ;  also  as  to  descendants  of  Edmund 
Halley,  jun.,  surgeon  in  Royal  Navy,  only 
son  of  Dr.  Edmond  Halley ;  will  of  E. 
Halley,  jun.,  proved  in  February,  1740/1, 
No.  39  Spurway,  Prerogative  Court  of  Can- 
terbury, Somerset  House ;  will  of  Dr.  E. 
Halley,  proved  February,  1741/2,  ibid.,  No.  53 
Trenley.  EUGENE  F.  McPiKE. 

1,  Park  Row,  Room  500,  Chicago,  U.S. 

— In  answering  a  query  on  Gordon  as  a 
Russian  surname  W.  S.  says  that  a  nephew 
of  General  Patrick  Gordon,  of  Auchleuchries, 
became  an  admiral  in  the  Russian  navy. 
I  presume  he  refers  to  Admiral  Thomas 
Gordon,  Governor  of  Cronstadt.  What  is  his 
authority  for  saying  that  he  was  a  "nephew" 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        [9th  s.  x.  JULY  12, 1902. 

of  General  Patrick  ]  I  have  quite  failed  to 
discover  the  origin  of  the  admiral,  who  ought 
to  be,  but  is  not,  in  the  '  D.N.B.' 

118,  Pall  Mall. 

BARONETS  OF  NOVA  SCOTIA. — Where  can  I 
obtain  a  complete  list  of  the  creations  of  the 
above  between  1635  and  1670?  G.  C. 

"MUFFINEER."— What  is  the  origin  of  the 
word  "  muffineer,"  used  in  India  by  Anglo- 
Indians  for  a  salt  or  pepper  caster  ? 

G.  W.  F. 

[Is  it  anything  beyond  the  fact  that  salt  is  used 
to  flavour  muffins  ?  "  Muffineer  "  is  common  in 
English  as  well  as  Anglo-Indian.] 

BARBADIAN  KEGISTERS.— Where  could  a 
copy  of  them  be  seen  ?  Names  wanted 
Ayshford  and  Gibbes.  The  Barbadian 
registers  were  mentioned  at  4th  S.  vii.  and 

ELIZABETH  PERCY.— Can  any  reader  of 
1N.  &  Q.'  tell  me  what  authority  there  is  for 
Miss  Strickland's  statement,  in  her  life  of 
Queen  Anne,  that  Elizabeth  Percy,  daughter 
of  Josciline,  last  Earl  of  Northumberland 
(and  afterwards  wife  of  the  "  Proud  Duke  of 
Somerset "),  was  known  at  the  Court  of 
Charles  II.  as  "  La  triste  Heritiere  "  ?  Also, 
is  anything  known  of  the  Richard  Brett 
who  is  said  first  to  have  aided  the  Countess 
Dowager  of  Northumberland  to  arrange 
Elizabeth  Percy's  marriage  to  Thomas  Thynne 
of  Longleat,  and  then  to  have  advised  that  it 
should  not  be  made  public  ?  ( Vide  Sir  R.  C. 
Hoare's  '  Modern  Wiltshire.')  As  I  am  trying 
to  put  together  a  biographical  sketch  of 
Elizabeth  Percy,  I  should  be  very  grateful  to 
any  reader  of  '  N.  &  Q.'  who  would  enlighten 
me  on  these  points. 


30,  Queen's  Gate  Terrace,  S.W. 

MENTS.—The  Rev.  J.  O'Brien,  in  his  '  History 
of  the  Mass,'  at  pp.  66,  67,  says  :— 

"  The  Greek  Church  uses  but  two  colours  the 

whole  year  round,  viz.,  white  and  red White  is 

their  general  colour  ;  red  is  used  in  all  masses  for 
the  dead  and  throughout  the  entire  fast  of  Lent.' 

On  the  other  hand,  it  is  stated  in  a  note  on 
p.  924  of  '  A  Catholic  Dictionary '  that  the 
Greeks  use  black  vestments  at  masses  for  the 
dead  and  purple  in  Lent.  Is  either,  and,  if  so, 
which,  of  these  statements  correct  ?  Some 
years  ago  I  was  present  in  the  Russian  Em- 
bassy Chapel  on  a  weekday  in  Lent  when  the 
Liturgy  of  the  Presanctified  was  being  offered 
for  the  dead,  and  on  that  occasion  the  priest 

wore  a  green  chasuble.  What  are  the  colours 
in  use  in  the  Russian  Church  ;  and  when  are 
they  severally  employed  1  I  should  be  very 
glad  of  any  information  on  these  points,  and 
also  as  to  the  name,  origin,  and  history  of 
the  metal  crown  or  tiara  worn  by  a  Greek  or 
Russian  bishop  on  great  ceremonial  occasions. 

J.  B.  W. 

BOBBINS  FAMILY.  —  In  Burke's  'Armory' 
the  Bobbins  family  of  Redmarsley  appears. 
What  became  of  this  family  1  Is  there  any 
pedigree  in  existence?  There  were  three 
Hobbinses  (William,  Joseph,  and  Thomas)  in 
the  navy  in  Nelson's  time,  and  they  were 
the  sons  of  William  Bobbins  and  Sindonia 
(Stanton).  William  was  born  in  1781  at 
Puckrage  in  Herts,  and  Thomas  at  Falmouth 
in  1788.  Their  parents  are  believed  to  have 
come  from  Redmarsley  in  Herefordshire,  but 
I  cannot  trace  the  parents  of  William  Bobbins 
the  elder,  neither  can  I  find  any  particulars 
of  the  Redmarsley  family.  Sindonia  Stanton 
was  of  the  Stantons  of  Presteign.  Any 
information  as  to  the  family  previous  to 
1780  I  shall  be  very  glad  to  have. 

F.  WARD. 

5,  Langham  Chambers,  W. 

CAMBS. — I  should  be  glad  of  any  information 
relating  to  the  above  family.  They  appear 
to  have  lived  in  Cottenham  for  over  300 
years.  Any  particulars  will  be  thankfully 
received.  CHAS.  HALL  CROUCH. 

5,  Grove  Villas,  Wanstead. 

R.  WENTWORTH  SMYTH-STUART,  born  1681, 
died  1745,  was  the  only  surviving  natural 
son  of  the  Duke  of  Mon  mouth  and  Henrietta, 
Lady  Wentworth.  Can  any  reader  tell  me 
what  R.  stands  for  ?  GEORGE  GILBERT. 

GLASGOW. — John  Baxter  was  one  of  the  three 
sons  of  John  Baxter  (b.  1768,  m.  1797,  d.  1855), 
of  Findo-Gask  (co.  Perth),  and  his  wife  Janet 
Din.  He  settled  at  Perth  and  had  three 
daughters,  the  eldest  of  whom  married  a 
Mr.  Cummings  ;  the  youngest  bore  the  name 
of  Catharine.  He  had  also  two  sons,  who 
are  reported  to  have  gone  to  Glasgow.  Is 
anything  known  of  any  of  the  above  and 
their  descendants  ?  RONALD  DIXON. 

46,  Marlborough  Avenue,  Hull. 

KNIGHTHOOD. — A  writ  appears  to  have 
been  addressed  to  the  Sheriffs  of  London, 
anno  1  James  I.,  directing  them  to  make 
proclamation  warning  all  of  401.  in  land  or 
rents  in  hand  to  their  own  use  to  come  in  and 
receive  knighthood  (if  not  already  knights) 

8.x.  JULY  12,1008.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


before  his  coronation.  I  should  like  to  know 
what  action  was  taken  on  that  writ,  and 
whether  any  knighthoods  resulted.  LOBUC. 

" FETLOCKED." — Mr.  Lowell,  in  the  "  Camelot " 
edition  of  his  '  English  Poets,'  is  made  to  say 
(p.  86)  that  Shakespeare  had  the  advantage 
of  using  a  language  "  to  a  certain  extent 
established,  but  not  yet  fetlocked  by  diction- 
ary and  grammar  mongers."  Is  this  use  of 
the  word  "fetlocked"  established,  and,  if  so, 
what  does  it  mean  1  C.  C.  B. 

[Fetlocked  appears  in  the  '  H.E.D.' with  the  defini- 
tion "  Hobbled  or  fastened  by  the  fetlock  ;  hence, 
hampered.shackled."  The  illustrative  quotations 
are  from  Pattison  in  '  Prior's  Poems '  (1725)  and 
this  from  Lowell.] 

reason  why  this  author  received  his  second 
Christian  name.  I  do  not  find  it  in  the 
'  D.N.B.'  T.  WILSON. 


FOUNTAIN  PEN.— In  the  diary  and  corre- 
spondence of  Miss  Burney  (Madame  d'Arblay) 
occurs  the  following,  under  date  18  August, 
1789  :  "  I  spent  the  time  very  serenely,  in  my 
favourite  wood,  which  abounds  in  seats  of 
all  sorts  ;  and  then  I  took  a  fountain  pen 
and  wrote  my  rough  journal  for  copying  to 
my  dear  Sorelle."  I  should  be  much  obliged 
by  a  description  of  such  a  pen  in  use  the 
century  before  last.  LIESE  M.  SHERRING. 

Willesden,  N.W. 

STATISTICAL  DATA.— I  should  like  to  know 
of  any  book  or  publication  containing  such 
data  as  the  height  of  St.  Paul's  dome,  that 
of  the  Monument,  length  of  Westminster 
Abbey,  weight  of  London  Bridge,  &c.  I  want 
to  make  certain  comparisons,  on  the  Holt- 
Schooling  method,  between  the  output  of  a 
large  factory  and  startling  figures  connected 
with  well-known  buildings,  &c.  SIGMA. 

HEBREW  INCANTATIONS.— I  have  often  had 
it  in  mind  to  write  a  query  upon  a  point  over 
which  many  a  literary  spirit  in  'N.  &  Q.' 
might  unburden  his  heart.  Why  is  it  that 
writers  of  romance  invariably  make  their 
magicians  deliver  their  incantations  in  the 
lingua  sacra  or  turn  to  "some  Hebrew 
volume  "  in  the  presence  of  some  seeker  after 
things  hidden  from  human  ken  ?  I  note  in 
Douglas  Jerrold's  story  '  The  Tragedy  of  the 
Till '  that  the  author  makes  Father  Lotus — 
who  does  not  appear  to  be  of  Semitic  seed  ; 
the  name  is  far  from  that—"  nurse  a  white 
cat  and  turn  over  a  little  Hebrew  volume." 
Jerrold  had  too  large  a  heart  to  mean  any 
disrespect  towards  Jews.  There  must  be  some- 

thing deeper  than  this—  this  association  of 
the  abracadabra  of  magic  with  Hebrew.  The 
Kabbala,  of  which  the  great  work  is  the 
Tohar,  is  mystical,  but  not  magical. 

M.  L.  R.  BRESLAR. 

ARMS  ON  FIREBACK,  —  In  an  old  farmhouse 
in  Sussex,  E.  Grinstead  Division,  at  the  back 
of  what  is  now  the  kitchen  fire,  is  an  iron  fire- 
back  with  this  device  on  it  :  an  anchor  with 
two  coils  of  rope  above  its  arms—  single  barb 
to  the  flukes—  surrounded  by  four  fleur-de- 
lys  ;  above  the  anchor  the  date  1588,  and 
below  this  the  initials  I.  F.  C.  In  the  same 
house  is  another  fireback  bearing  on  it  three 
swords  :  the  centre  sword  with  hilt  upper- 
most, point  down,  the  other  two  swords  right 
and  left  of  it,  hilts  downwards,  and  each 
within  a  lozenge-shaped  shield.  Can  any  one 
tell  me  to  whom  those  arms,  if  such  they  are, 
belonged  ?  COLONEL. 


(9th  S.  ix.  241,  330.) 

THE  following  notes,  which  are  mainly  the 
outcome  of  recent  inquiries,  may  possibly  be 
of  use  to  MR.  UDAL, 

1.  The  earliest  krro'wn  common  seal  of  Win- 
chester College  bore  the  founder's  personal 
arms.   A  description  of  it,  from  an  impression 
attached  to  a  document  of  10  Rich.  II.  (1386), 
is  given  by  Mr.  Kirby  in  Archceologia,  Ivii. 

2.  Apparently    the    arms    of    Winchester 
College  nave  never  been  officially  recorded 
at  Heralds'  College.     The  three  lilies  attri- 
buted   to  Winchester    College  in    Guillim's 
'  Display  '  are  also  attributed  to  it  in  a  manu- 
script book  at  Heralds'  College,  known  as 
Vincent  187  (fol.  67).     But  this  book  is  not 
an  official  record,  and  its  authorship  is  un- 
known.   It  belonged  to  Augustine  Vincent, 
Windsor  Herald,  who  died  in  1625/6,  and  it 
passed,  with  'other  books,  to  Heralds'  College 
under  the  will  of  Ralph  Sheldon,  the  anti- 
quary,   who    died    in    1684.      Sheldon    had 
obtained  these  books  from  John  Vincent,  the 
herald's  son.    Cf.  '  D.N.B.,'  lii.  23  ;  lyiii.  357. 

3.  The  'Display'  was    first    published  in 
1610.     The  date  of  Vincent  187,  fol.  67,  is 
less  certain.    It  is  probably  not  later  than 
the  opening  years  of  the  seventeenth  cen- 
tury ;   but  until   more  is  known  about  its 
date  it  seems  idle  to  consider  what  relation 
this  book  may  bear  to  Guillim's  statement 
about  Winchester  College. 

4.  The  three  lilies  were  also  attributed  to 



s.  x.  JULY  12,  im 

the  college  by  Thomas  Dingley,  who  died  in 
1695,  in  his  '  History  from  Marble '  (see  the 
Camden  Society's  photolithographic  repro- 
duction, 1867-8,  vol.  i.  p.  xciv).  But  I  sus- 
pect that  Dingley  borrowed  herein  from  the 
'Display.'  His  text  repeats,  with  verbal 
alterations,  Guillim 's  text,  as  cited  (in  part) 
at  the  first  reference.  In  the  "Table  of 
Contents"  to  the  Camden  Society's  repro- 
duction the  lilies  are  assigned  by  mistake  to 
New  College,  Oxford. 

5.  In  Papworth  and  Morant's  'Ordinary 
of  British  Arms'  (1874),  p.  861,  "Sable,  three 
lilies  proper,"  are  attributed  to  Winchester 
city  as  well  as  to  Winchester  College.     (But 
see  also  pp.  371,  545-6.)    The  city  was  evi- 
dently using  its  present   well-known  arms 
(with  five  castles  and  two  lions)  at  the  end 
of  the  sixteenth  century.    See  Woodward's 
4  Hampshire,'  i.  276,  n.,  where  mention  is  made 
of  the  seal  with   these  arms  set  in  a  ring 
given  to  the  corporation  by  Edward  White  in 
1600.    Nevertheless,  in  '  Analogia  Honorum,' 
a  work  appended  to  the  1679  and  1724  editions 
of  Guillim's  '  Display,'  it  was  stated  that  the 
city's  arms  were  "  Sable,  three  lilies  proper." 
This  book  was   probably  one  of  Papworth 
and   Morant's  authorities.     I  abstain  from 
guesswork  as  to  the  source  of  the  statement 
in  '  Analogia.'    The  authors  of  'The  Book  of 
Public  Arms '  (1894),  p.  55,  refer  to  a  manu- 
script book  in  "Ulster's  Office,"  which  (they 
say)  assigns  Sable,  three  lilies  argent,  leaved 
vert,  to  Winchester  city  ;  but  they  give  no 
information  about  the  date  of  this  manu- 

6.  Three  lilies  appear  on  one  of  the  shields 
which  adorn  the  portrait  of  "Florence  de 
Lunn,  Esqr,  First  Mayor  of  Winchester,  A.D. 
1184,"  forming  the  frontispiece  to  'The  His- 
tory and  Antiquities  of  Winchester'  (1773), 
vol.  ii      But  this  portrait  is  a  sham  antique 
(cf.  3rd  S.  viii.  243),  and  I  would  suggest  that 
its  engraver,  I.  Taylor,  produced  it  by  copy- 
ing, with  small  variations  of  detail,  Grignion's 
engraving  of  the  portrait  of    Henry  Fitz- 
alwine,  first  Lord  Mayor  of  London,  as  it 
appears  in  Entick's  '  New  History  of  London ' 
(1766),  vol.  ii.,  frontispiece.    The  resemblance 
between  the  engravings  is  too  great  to  be 
the  result  of    mere  chance.     The  question 
whether  Taylor  intended  the  lilies  for  the 
arms  of  the  city  is   therefore  of  no  great 

7.  Pleasant  theories  as  to  the  origin  of  the 
lilies  in  the  coats  of  Eton  College  and  Mag- 
dalen College,  Oxford,  may  be  built  upon 
the  hypothesis    that    lilies   were    "the    old 
arms  "  of  Winchester  College,  which  reckons 
amongst  its  head  masters  Waynflete,  after- 

wards head  master  and  provost  of  Eton 
and  founder  of  Magdalen.  But  that  hypo- 
thesis cannot  be  regarded  as  safe  in  the 
absence  of  satisfactory  evidence  that  Win- 
chester College  had  a  grant  of  these  arms 
or  assumed  them.  Vincent  and  Guillim  are 
great  authorities,  but  bare  statements  by 
them  concerning  the  college  arms  seem  to  be 
outweighed  by  the  evidence  which  goes  to 
show  that  the  college  has  always  used  its 
founder's  arms  as  its  own,  and  has  never 
borne  arms  with  lilies  in  them.  See  the 
extract  from  Mr.  R.  T.  Warner's  book  at  the 
first  reference. 

8.  In  the  article  mentioned  at  the  second 
reference  Mr.  E.  E.  Dorling  argued  that 
Guillim  confused  Winchester  College  with 
Magdalen,  and  he  explained  the  confusion 
by  suggesting  that  Magdalen  was  originally 
known  as  Winchester  College,  Oxford.  The 
weakness  of  this  explanation  seems  to  me  to 
lie  in  the  lack  of  proof  that  Magdalen  was, 
in  fact,  known  by  that  name.  Its  founder 
dedicated  it  to  many  patron  saints  of  Win- 
chester Cathedral,  but  he  styled  it  "Seynte 
Mary  Magdalen  College  in  the  Universite  of 
Oxon  vulgariter  nuncupatum."  See  the  pre- 
fatory clauses  of  the  college  statutes  in 
4  Statutes  of  the  Colleges  of  Oxford '  (1853), 
vol.  ii.  p.  5.  Consequently  the  statement  in 
Dr.  Woodward's  '  Ecclesiastical  Heraldry ' 
(1894),  p.  431,  that  the  college  was  "  founded 

under  the  name  of  Winchester  College," 

seems  to  be  erroneous.  H.  C. 

In  '  The  Particuler  Description  of  England, 
with  Portratures  of  the  Cheiffest  Citties  and 
Townes,'  by  William  Smith,  Rouge  Dragon, 
dated  1588  (B.M.,  Sloane  MS.  No.  2596),  there 
is  on  leaf  27  a  profile  sketch  of  the  city  of 
Winchester  with  a  shield— Sable,  three  garden 
lilies  slipped  proper — in  the  right-hand  top 
corner,  as  if  these  were  the  arms  of  the  city. 
Smith  makes,  however,  no  statement  to  that 
effect.  E.  E.  DORLING. 

Burcombe  Vicarage,  Salisbury. 

(9th  S.  x.  1). — The  note  with  the  well-known 
signature  of  J.  S.  S.  reminds  me  of  how  often 
we  sang  this  hymn  in  years  gone  by.  It 
was  set  to  Haydn's  music,  the  Austrian 
National  Anthem,  and  was  included  in  Hul- 
lah's  Part-Music  :  Sacred  Songs,  published  at 
first  by  John  W.  Parker  in  1842,  and  now 
by  Novello  &  Co.  Among  many  poems  by 
Chorley  was  one,  a  prayer  for  peace,  "  Give 
to  us  peace  in  our  time,  O  Lord."  This  was 
set  to  the  music  of  the  Russian  National 
Anthem,  and  was  frequently  sung  at  the  time 

9«>  s.  x.  JULY  12, 



of  the  war  with  Russia.  This  also  belonged  tc 
the  same  series,  the  secular  volumes  of  which 
likewise    include  three   songs    by   Chorley 
No.  1,  '  May  Day,'  "  The  sun  already  from 
the  skies,"  and  No.  2,  the  well-known  harves 
song,  "Thro'  lanes  with  hedgerows  pearly, 
as  well  as  a  fireside  song,  "O,  never  fear 
though  rain  be  falling."    The  hymn  for  peace 
is  included  in  the   'Congregational  Church 
Hymnal.'     The  'Hymnal    Companion'   also 
contains  four  of  the  six  verses. 

Many  of  Chorley's  poems  appeared  first  in 
the  Athenaeum;  a  list  of  these  is  given  in 
4  John  Francis,  Publisher  of  the  Athenaeum 
(Macmillan  &  Co.).    Two  of  them  are  quoted 
one,  a  '  Hymn   of  the  Old   Discoverers,'  is 
full  of  beauty.  A.  N.  Q. 

THE  NATIONAL  FLAG  (9tb  S.  ix.  485).— Afc 
35,  Belgrave  Square,  the  residence  of  a  dis- 
tinguished general,  there  is  hanging  as  a 
Coronation  decoration,  alongside  of  our 
national  flag,  an  enormous  standard,  pro- 
bably captured  from  our  recent  enemies  in 
South  Africa.  It  has  the  "Four  Colours," 
the  band  of  green  by  the  staff,  and  crosswise 
from  it  the  horizontal  tricolour  of  the  same 
three  colours  as  those  of  Russia,  France,  and 
Holland ;  the  red  stripe  topmost,  which 
gives  the  flag  its  close  resemblance  to  the 
so-called  "red,  white,  and  blue"  flag  which 
some  ignorant  Britons,  until  corrected  by 
'  N.  &  Q.,'  believed  to  be  a  standard  of  our 
country.  T.  N.  F. 

DEAD  SEA  LEVEL  (9th  S.  ix.  488).— The 
Ordnance  survey  of  Western  Palestine  was 
completed  by  Lieut,  (now  Viscount)  Kitchener 
in  1878.  The  level  of  the  Dead  Sea  below  sea- 
level  is  given  as  minus  1292'!  feet  on  the  P.  E. 
Fund's  map.  Recent  observers  have  reported 
a  considerable  rise,  which  has  greatly  modi- 
fied the  coast  line,  but,  of  course,  not  altered 
the  main  fact  that  the  Dead  Sea  lies  in  the 
deepest  depression  known.  C.  S.  WARD. 

Wootton  St.  Lawrence. 

^  The  discovery  of  the  fact  that  the  Dead 
Sea  was  very  much  below  the  level  of  the 
Mediterranean  was  made  independently  by 
Schubert,  on  the  one  hand,  and  Moore  and 
Beek,  on  the  other,  in  1837,  and  confirmed 
by  Russegger  and  Symonds  ('  Encyclopaedia 
Biblica ').  In  May,  1848,  Lynch  calculated 
that  the  Dead  Sea  was  1,316  feet  below  the 
level  of  the  Mediterranean  at  Jaffa.  This 
calculation  was  made  by  levelling  across 
country.  By  the  barometer  he  calculated  that 
the  level  was  1,234  feet.  The  level  varies  at 
different  times  of  year,  but  as  39?,  to  395  metres 
(1,285-1,289  feet)  is  given  by  'La  Grande  Ency- 

clopedie,'  and  about  1,300  feet  by  the  'Ency- 
clopaedia Biblica,'  it  -may  be  taken,  that  the 
figure  is  fairly  well  settled.  A  number  of 
other  calculations  are  given  in  Smith's  '  Dic- 
tionary of  the  Bible,'  1863,  vol.  iii.  1175.  In 
that  work  Lake  Assal,  in  East  Africa,  is 
said  to  be  570  feet  below  the  ocean,  and 
to  furnish  the  closest  parallel  to  the  Dead 
Sea.  W.  R.  BARKER. 

10,  Old  Square,  Lincoln's  Inn. 

CATHERINE  BABINGTON  (9th  S.  ix.  449). — 
Previous  correspondents  in  '  N.  &  Q.'  have 
stated  that  Catherine  Babington  was  the 
widow  of  Thomas  Babington  of  the  Green  - 
fort  family  when  she  married  Col.  John 
Pigott  on  2  August,  1740.  She  died  in 
November,  1758.  Her  maiden  name  is  not 
given.  See  6th  S.  ix.  490 ;  x.  57,  111,  177. 

71,  Brecknock  Road. 

ARMS  OF  KNIGHTS  (9th  S.  ix.  328,  398).— 
There  appear  to  have  been  three  distinct 
branches  of  the  Sturmey  family,  all  bearing 
different  arms. 

Of  the  Wiltshire  family  Fuller  in  his 
'  Worthies '  says  : — 

"  They  were  lords  of  Woolf-hall  in  this  county  ; 
and  from  the  time  of  King  Henry  the  Second  were, 
by  right  of  inheritartte,  the  bailiffs  and  guardians  of 
the  forest  of  Savernake,  lying  hard  by,s  which  is  of 
great  note  for  plenty  of  good  game,  and  for  a  kind 
jf  fern  there  that  yieldeth  a  most  pleasant  savour : 
in  remembrance  whereof,  their  hunter's  horn,  of  a 
mighty  bigness,  and  tipt  with  silver,  is  kept  by  the 
Seymors,  dukes  of  Somerset,  unto  this  day,  as  a 
monument  of  their  descent  from  such  noble  ances- 


William  Sturray,  miles,  of  Woolf-hall,  was 
High  Sheriff  of  Wilts  6  Henry  V.,  and  Henry 
Sturmy  from  35  Edward  III.  for  six  years, 
and  again  in  47  Edward  III.  They  used  as 
arms  Argent,  three  demi-lions  gules. 

A  third  branch  were  resident  at  Dromon  by, 
n  Yorkshire,  and  ended  with  Alice,  daughter 
ind  heir  of  John  Sturmy,  who  married  Robert 
Constable  '(see  Constable  of  Dromonby, 
Visitation  of  Yorks,  1584-5 ').  The  arms  of  this 
ine  are  variously  given  as  Sable,  a  lion  ram- 
oant  argent,  and  Sable,  a  lion  salient  argent. 

In  31  Edward  I.  William  Stormy,  jun., 
eld  twelve  bovates  of  the  Percy  fee  (in  Kil- 
lale)  in  North  Cave ,  and  in  Kirkby's  '  Inquest ' 
he  name  several  times  occurs. 

John  Constable,  of  Halsham,  married  Al- 
breda  Bulmer,  relict  of  John  Sturmy  ;  and 

lizabeth,  daughter  and  heir  of  Sir  William 
Sturmyn,  Kt.,  26  Edward  III.,  married  first 
Sir  Laurence  Acton,  Kt.,  and  secondly  Wil- 
iam  Kingsman. 

According    to  Plantagenet    Harrison,  Sir 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        [9th  s.  x.  JULY  12, 1902. 

Robert  Musgrave,  Kt.,  of  Musgrave,  married 
Emma,  daughter  and  heir  of  Thomas  Sturmey, 
of  Danby  and  Ormsby-upon-Swale,  a  state- 
ment which,  I  think,  requires  further  proof, 
as  I  am  unable  to  trace  this  Thomas  in  any 
contemporary  records.  H.  R.  LEIGHTON. 
East  Boldon,  R.S.O.,  co.  Durham. 


(9th  S.  ix.  425,  476). — Magicians  perform  their 
marvellous  acts  through  the  agency  of  spirits, 
and  obtain  their  knowledge  of  what  is  and 
of  what  will  be  from  them.  They  are  some- 
times supposed  to  exercise  their  power  over 
spirits  of  water  by  hydromancy,  their  power 
over  spirits  of  earth  by  geomancy,  &c. ;  and 
their  impressions  on  the  ground  may  be 
an  invocation  of  the  earth  spirits,  though  I 
think  that  geomancy  is  also  used  for  super- 
natural inquiry  without  reference  to  the 
spirits  of  the  earth.  When  lamblichus  evoked 
daemons  from  fountains  he  may  have  done  so 
through  hydromancy  ;  for,  though  that  sig- 
nifies divination  by  means  of  water,  it  may 
include  the  evocation  of  spirits  from  water. 
The  classical  daemons  were  supposed  to  in- 
habit the  planets  and  the  elements,  more 
especially  the  upper  regions  of  the  air,  and, 
though  they  were  usually  considered  by  the 
pagans  benign  beings,  they  were  thought  by 
the  Christians  to  be  actual  devils.  Satan  in 
'  Paradise  Regained,'  addressing  his  com- 
panions, says  : — 

Princes,  Heaven's  ancient  Sons,  etherial  Thrones, 
Demonian  Spirits  now,  from  the  element 
Each  of  his  reign  allotted,  rightlier  called 
Powers  of  Fire,  Air,  Water  and  Earth  beneath. 

The  teraphim  were  connected  with  magical 
rites.  So  says  Dr.  Smith  in  his  Bible  dic- 
tionary. The  hell-birth  must  mean  that  the 
ork  came  from  hell.  A  devil  evidently  was 
obliged  by  a  magician  to  assume  this  form. 
Perhaps  Proteus  was  forgotten  when  the 
lines  in  the  sonnet  were  written  ;  but  1  do 
not  know  the  rest  of  the  sonnet,  and  cannot 
say  whether  he  is  mentioned  in  it  or  not. 


Some  little  time  ago  I  had  the  opportunity 
of  perusing  the  church  books  belonging  to  a 
Nonconformist  community  in  this  county. 
Under  date  30  January,  1829,  I  noted  that 
a  member  was  dismissed  for  "geomancy  and 
falsehood."  JOHN  T.  PAGE. 

West  Haddon,  Northamptonshire. 

THE  ROYAL  STANDARD  (9th  S.  vii.  268,  353  ; 
viii.  313,  425).— I  will  not  enter  into  a  dis- 
cussion upon  MR.  YARDLEY'S  statement  at  the 
last  reference  as  to  the  use  of  the  lion  as 
heraldry  at  or  before  the  siege  of  Thebes.  I 
will  only  refer  him  to  what  the  late  Dr. 

Woodward  has  said  so  well  on  the  subject  of 
the  alleged  early  origin  of  heraldic  insignia  in 
his  work  on  '  British  and  Foreign  Heraldry,' 
of  which  a  new  and  enlarged  edition  was 
published  in  two  volumes  in  1896.  (See  vol.  i. 
pp.  18-19.) 

May  I  say  that  my  first  contribution  to 
'  N.  &  Q.,'  now  some  thirty  years  ago  or  more, 
was,  if  I  remember  rightly,  upon  the  arms 
of  Adam  and  Eve?  J.  S.  UDAL,  F.S.A. 

Antigua,  W.I. 

EXHUMATION  OF  HENRY  IV.  (9th  S.  ix.  369, 
433).— The  late  Dean  Saunders,  of  Peter- 
borough, wore  a  ring  in  which  was  a  very 
little  hair ;  this,  he  told  me,  was  the  hair  of 
Henry  IV.,  taken  from  the  coffin  when  the 
king's  body  was  exhumed  at  Canterbury 
Cathedral.  W.  D.  SWEETING. 

Holy  Trinity  Vicarage,  Rotherhithe. 

GREEN  AN  UNLUCKY  COLOUR  (9th  S.  viii. 
121, 192  ;  ix.  234,  490).— Green  has  not  always 
been  regarded  as  an  unlucky  colour.  Gio- 
vanni Aurelio  Augurelli  (1441-1524)  dedicated 
his  alchemical  treatise  '  Chrysopceia  '  to  Pope 
Leo  X.,  who  in  return  gave  him  "  a  large  and 
handsome,  but  empty  purse " ;  see  Roscoe's 
'  Life  and  Pontificate  of  Leo  the  Tenth,' 
1846,  ii.  149.  Lacinius,  in  the  preface  to 
his  collection  entitled  'Pretiosa  Margarita,' 
Venice,  1546,  tells  us  what  Roscoe  omits, 
that  the  purse  was  of  green  silk,  "which 
colour  is  commonly  supposed  to  indicate 
future  hope."  The  ecclesiastical  colour  for 
all  the  weeks  after  Trinity  until  Advent  is 
green.  W.  C.  B. 

DEFOE  (9th  S.  ix.  207,  318).— In  connexion 
with  the  previous  references  to  Daniel  Defoe 
the  following  note  in  the  Eastern  Mwning 
News  (Hull)  of  8  May  is  of  some  little 
interest : — 

"  We  read  yesterday  that  the  remains  of  Miss 
Mary  Ann  Defoe,  the  great-great-granddaughter 
and  last  lineal  descendant  of  Daniel  Defoe,  were 
laid  to  rest  in  Abney  Park  Cemetery.  Like  that  of 
Sir  Walter  Scott,  the  line  of  Defoe  becomes  extinct. 
There  is  no  one  left  to  claim  as  a  family  possession 
the  fame  and  glory  of  this  great  ancestor." 

46,  Marlborough  Avenue,  Hull. 

"CIRCULAR  JOYS"  (9th  S.  ix.  466).— The 
suitability  of  the  circle  as  an  emblem  of 
eternity  is  perhaps  best  explained  by  marking 
upon  its  circumference  three  points,  which 
in  order  may  be  named  "  past,"  "  present," 
"future."  It  is  obvious  that  although  this 
sequence  may  be  repeated  upon  a  perfectly 
straight  line,  it  gains  a  new  significance  when 
we  proceed  to  consider  it  in  relation  to  the 

9«>s.x.  JULY  12, 1902.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


centre  of  the  circle.  For  the  latter,  invisible 
may  be,  yet  essential,  since  it  is  the  basis 
upon  which  the  circumference  rests,  admits  of 
no  difference  in  distance,  priority,  or  import- 
ance in  respect  of  the  position  of  any  one  of 
these  temporal  points,  since  all  alike  are 
equally  related  to  itself.  In  this  conception 
dwells  the  fitness  of  the  simile. 

67,  Douglas  Road,  Handsworth,  Birmingham. 

TIB'S  EVE  (9th  S.  ix.  109,  238,  335).— 
Halliwell  in  his  dictionary  gives  Tibbie  as  a 
Norfolk  diminutive  of  Isabella.  The  name 
Isopel  is  used  in  the  Berners  family.  In 
1876  I  saw  Tibbie  Shields  in  the  flesh  in  her 
cottage  at  the  head  of  St.  Mary's  Loch,  "  a 
wren's  nest  round  and  theekit  wi'  moss," 
as  it  is  called  in  No.  xxxvi.  of  the  '  Noctes 
Ambrosianse'  (1834).  In  the  'Monastery' 
we  are  introduced  to  the  faithful  bower- 
woman  of  the  Lady  of  Avenel,  Tibb  Tacket, 
who  takes  shelter  with  her  lady  in  the  tower 
of  Glendearg.  Sir  Walter  Scott  was  skilled 
in  sketching  faithful  domestics. 


Newbourne  Rectory,  Woodbridge. 

According  to  Dr.  Brewer  ('Reader's 
Handbook,'  &c.,  and  also  his  '  Dictionary  of 
Phrase  and  Fable ')  this  expression  is  equiva- 
lent to  "  never."  He  writes,  "  St.  Tibs  is  a 
corruption  of  St.  Ubes.  There  is  no  such 
saint  in  the  calendar  ;  and  therefore  St.  Tib's 
Eve  falls  on  the  Greek  Kalends"  (also  s.v. 
'Never').  C.  S.  HARRIS. 

"  KEEP  YOUR  HAIR  ON  "  (9th  S.  ix.  184,  335). 
—Referring  to  the  quotation  from  Barrere 
by  MR.  CLAYTON,  I  heard  a  janitor  of  a 
gymnasium  complain  of  unsuccessful  remon- 
strance with  intruders  in  these  terms  :  "  I 
spoke  to  them  about  it,  but  they  began  to 

get  a  bit  shirty,  so  I  had  to  fetch  Mr. 

[his  superior  officer]  to  talk  to  them."  A 
schoolfellow  said  once  to  me :  "  You  are 
sivotting  for  top  place "  :  an  equivalent  for 
sweat  or  grind,  no  doubt. 


Brixton  Hill. 

This  expression  is  common  or  is  frequently 
heard  in  Gloucestershire.  Its  origin  is 
supposed  to  be  coeval  with  wigs  or  the  wig 
period.  Irascible  and  aged  gentlemen,  "  when 
mad  with  passion,"  have  been  known  not 
only  to  curse  and  swear,  but  to  tear  their 
wigs  from  their  heads,  and  to  trample  them 
under  their  feet,  or  to  throw  them  into  the 
fire.  Very  often  when  I  have  manifested 
symptoms  of  anger  I  have  been  admonished 
by  country  fellows,  "  Kip  thee  yar  on, 

maystur  ! "  This  expression  is  synonymous 
with  keep  your  temper,  or  don't  get  into  a 
rage.  Whenever  I  have  heard  the  expression, 
I  have  invariably  associated  it  with  the  old 
country  squire  who  got  into  a  thundering 
rage  and  threw  his  wig  off  his  bald  head 
and  trampled  it  under  his  feet.  Some- 
times a  similar  expression  or  mandate  is 
used,  "  Kip  the  wig  on,  ould  mon."  I  have 
frequently  heard  old  country  farmers  and 
farm  labourers  say,  "  Daz  my  wig  !"  or  "  Dash 
my  wig  if  I  wool,"  or  "I  dooes.  In  the  old 
days,  if  a  man  wished  in  his  passion  to  be 
emphatic,  he  threw  off  his  wig. 

H.  Y.  J.  TAYLOR. 

It  is  surprising  to  hear  that  this  catch- 
phrase  was  in  use  so  early  as  1853.  Since 
this  is  the  case,  is  it  not  probable  that  it 
existed  even  much  earlier,  that  it  may  indeed 
be  traced  to  the  latter  half  of  the  eighteenth 
century,  which  saw  a  serious  change  of  fashion 
in  the  disuse  of  the  peruke  and  the  return  to 
the  custom  of  wearing  one's  natural  hair  1  '  1 
strongly  suspect  that  the  phrase  has  some 
relation  in  its  origin  to  that  of  "Wigs  on 
the  green,"  for  there  must  be  an  unusual 
difficulty,  where  there  are  "  wigs  on  the 
green  "  (see  9th  S.  iii.  492),  in  "keeping  one's 
hair  on."  J.'HoLDEN  MACMICHAEL. 

I  remember  in  1885,  when  I  was  an  articled 
clerk  in  Derbyshire,  hearing  a  discussion 
between  a  solicitor  and  a  farmer  in  a  room 
of  the  comfortable  old  hostelry  which  forms 
part  of  the  Derby  Law  Courts.  The  farmer 
was  endeavouring  to  end  a  misunderstanding 
which  had  arisen  by  saying,  in  reference  to 
some  prior  dispute  between  them,  "That 
was  where  you  got  your  hair  off,"  a  phrase 
he  repeatea  several  times,  to  the  great 
annoyance  of  the  solicitor,  who  happened  at 
the  same  time  to  be  rather  young,  very  bald, 
and  extremely  irascible. 


Town  Hall,,  Cardiff. 

At  the  latter  reference  a  passage  is  quoted 
from  Barrere's  '  Argot  and  Slang.'  The  last 
word  of  this  quotation  ought,  I  suspect,  to 
have  been  front,  and  not  "front."  H.  C. 

AIX-LA-CHAPELLE  (9th  S.  ix.  467j.— 
Cultivated  Frenchmen  pronounce  Aix-la- 
Chapelle,  Aix-les-Bains,  and  Aix  in  Provence 
as  Aiks,  but  your  correspondent  may  well 
have  heard  people  say  ^'ss-la-Chapelle,  as 
some  French  people,  through  what  is  termed 
paresse  de  langage,  pronounce  x  very  much 
like  ss.  The  dislike  of  the  lower  orders  to 
the  sound  of  x  is  general,  and  it  is  well 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        [9*  s.  x.  JULY  12, 1902. 

known  that  the  late  President  was  commonly 
called  Felisque  Faure  by  the  Parisian  popu- 
lace when  they  did  not  say  Felisque  tout 
court.  My  personal  experience  is  that, 
living  in  France  and  having  a  dog  named 
Fox,  I  used  to  hear  the  servants  call  him 
Fosque,  while  one  or  two  specially  idle  ones 
would  say  Foss.  X  has,  of  course,  disappeared 
from  Italian  altogether.  M.  HAULTMONT. 

As  Aix  is  a  phonal  abbreviation  of  the 
plural  of  Aqua  (probably  late  Latin  Aques), 
the  pronunciation  should  be  aiks.  From 
this  point  of  view  ai  and  aiss  are  alike 
incorrect.  G.  W.  JACKSON. 

14,  Church  Hill,  Walbhamstow. 

"  LUPO-MANNARO  "  (9th  S.  ix.  329,  476).— 
My  brother,  the  late  Mr.  Clement  Southam, 
F.S.A.,  contributed  an  article  on  werewolves 
to  All  the  Year  Hound,  October,  1883.  If 
MR.  CLARE  JERROLD  has  not  seen  this,  there 
are  references  which  may  be  of  interest  to 


DISAPPEARING  CHARTISTS  (9th  S.  ix.  144, 
251,  391,  496).  — The  latest  contribution  of 
MR.  HOLYOAKE  hardly  justifies  the  virile 
octogenarian's  dictum  therein,  that  "  the 
correction  of  error  is  the  establishment  of 
truth."  MR.  HOLYOAKE  confounds  the  name 
of  MR.  W.  E.  ADAMS,  Newcastle-on-Tyne, 
with  that  of  MR.  F.  ADAMS,  London,  and 
attributes  to  the  latter,  instead  of  to  the 
former,  the  note  on  '  Disappearing  Chartists,' 
in  which  some  trifling  errata  in  communica- 
tions of  MR.  HOLYOAKE  and  MR.  CECIL  CLARKE 
are  pointed  out.  The  spheres  of  activity  of 
MR.  HOLYOAKE  and  MR.  F.  ADAMS  are  so 
'  widely  apart  that  a  certain  degree  of  ignor- 
ance of  each  other's  work  is  pardonable. 
The  veteran  "  agitator  " — I  use  trie  term  in 
no  invidious  sense — should  not,  however,  have 
permitted  himself  to  assert  that  "MR.  W.  E. 

ADAMS has  spent  his  life  in  reading  for 

'literals.'"  MR.  F.  ADAMS— unquestionably 
the  gentleman  MR.  HOLYOAKE  had  in  his 
mind  when  he  wrote  last  to  '  N.  &  Q.' — is, 
without  disparagement  to  any  of  his  col- 
leagues, the  most  accomplished  member  of 
the  reading  staff  of  Messrs.  Sppttiswoode  & 
Co.,  and  his  erudition  and  lucidity  of  style— 
a  somewhat  rare  combination — have  been  ex- 
hibited, to  the  delight  and  instruction  of  the 
readers  of  'N.  &  Q.,'  for  a  number  of  yean 
past.  JOHN  GRIGOR. 

"  LE  FIZGERT  "  (9th  S.  ix.  487).— The  mean 
ing  of  this  is  "  the  son  of  Gert."    Fiz,  more 
familiar  to  us  as  Fitz,  was  the  regular  Anglo- 
Norman  form  of  fils.    So  David  is  "le  fiz 

Tesse  "  (Garnier's  '  Vie  de  Saint  Thomas,'  1. 96), 
Tesus  "  le  fiz  Deu  "  ('  L'Evangile  de  Nicodeme,' 
p.  79,  1.  187,  Soc.  des  Anc.  Textes  Franc,.), 
and  Harold  "  le  fiz  God  wine "  (Wright's 
Feudal  Manuals,'  p.  80). 

But  is  not  "  Gert "  an  error  for  "  Gent "  ? 
'  Cresse  filius  Gente"  is  mentioned  frequently 
Between  the  dates  1244  and  1282  in  the 
ifteenth  volume,  recently  published,  of  the 
Selden  Society's  publications.  *  In  the  earliest 
of  these  instances  (p.  9)  he  appears  as  "  Deu- 
ecresse  filius  Gente,"  and  at  p.  38  the  name 
"  Cresse  "  is  explained  in  a  foot-note  as  fol- 
ows  :  —  "  More  properly  Deulecresse  (i.e. , 
Deus  eum  crescat,'  a  barbarous  Latinization 
of  the  Hebrew  in^nj)."  F.  ADAMS. 

115,  Albany  Road,  Camberwell. 

EVOLUTION  OF  A  NOSE  (9th  S.  ix.  445).— 
SIR  D.  OSWALD  HUNTER-BLAIR  is  mistaken 
in  supposing  the  Somerset  nose  came  from 
the  Leveson-Gowers.  It  came  by  the  mar- 
riage in  1766  of  Elizabeth  Boscawen,  daughter 
of  Admiral  the  Hon.  Edward  Boscawen,  with 
Henry,  fifth  Duke  of  Beaufort.  Admiral 
Boscawen  had  it  in  a  very  marked  degree, 
and  it  has  continued  in  all  his  descendants, 
Boscawens  and  Somersets,  in  none  more 
markedly  than  in  his  grandson  F.M.  Lord 
Raglan.  The  Leveson-Gowers  at  that  time 
had  no  particular  nose.  INVESTIGATOR. 

" DAGGERING":  " DOGGERING"  (9th S. ix.  507). 

If  COL.  HOZIER  will  refer  to  the  '  N.E.D.' 
at  the  article  dogger1,  he  will  find  that  his 
word  is  a  correct  reproduction  of  the  West- 
Country  pronunciation  of  daggering,  or  pri- 
vateering. Q.  V. 

S.  ix.  506). — MR.  CHARLES  HIATT  says,  "  The 

rochet is  in  the  case  of  the  bishops  to 

give  way  to  splendid  copes."  This  would, 
indeed,  be  a  new  departure,  for  the  cope  is 
worn  over  surplice,  or  alb,  or  rochet,  not 
without  one  or  other  of  these  vestments. 


St.  Andrews,  N.B. 

(9th  S.  ix.  408,  512).— The  lists  to  which  DR. 
MACRAY  refers  do  not  contain  the  names  of 
the  sworn  clerks  (otherwise  known  as  the 
sixty  clerks).  J.  B.  W. 

SHERIFFS  OF  STAFFORDSHIRE  (9th  S.  ix.  342, 
415,  514).— In  1898  the  Stationery  Office  pub- 
lished a  "List  of  Sheriffs  for  England  and 
Wales  from  the  earliest  times  to  A.D.  1831, 

*  '  Select  Pleas,  Starrs,  and  other  Records  from 
the  Rolls  of  the  Exchequer  of  the  Jews,'  edited  by 
J.  M.  Rigg,  1901. 

9*s.x.  JULY  12, 1902.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


compiled  from  Documents  in  the  Public 
Record  Office,"  incorporating  and  super- 
seding the  list  referred  to  by  DR.  MACKAY, 
which  is  now  out  of  print.  I  am  unable  to 
say  how  far  it  adds  to  the  published  lists  as 

regards  Staffordshire. 

O.  O.  H. 

THE  LOCOMOTIVE  AND  GAS  (9th  S.  vi.  227, 
358;  ix.  118,  317,  372).  — The  inflammable 
aeriform  fluid,  carburetted  hydrogen,  was 
first  evolved  from  coal  by  Dr.  Clayton,  in 
1739  (Phil.  Trans.).  Its  application  to  the 
purposes  of  illumination  was  first  tried  by 
Mr.  Murdoch,  in  Cornwall,  in  1792.  The 
first  display  of  gas  lights  was  made  at  Boul- 
ton  &  Watt's  foundry  in  Birmingham,  on  the 
occasion  of  the  rejoicings  for  peace  in  1802. 
Gas  was  permanently  used,  io  the  exclusion 
of  lamps  and  candles,  at  the  cotton  mills 
of  Phillips  &  Lee,  Manchester,  where  1,000 
burners  were  lighted,  1805  (see  '  Haydn's  Dic- 
tionary of  Dates ').  Gaslights  were  first 
introduced  in  London  in  Golden  Lane,  1807, 
first  used  in  lighting  Pall  Mall,  1809,  and 
were  general  through  London  in  1814  (ibid., 
and  the  Lady's  News,  1852).  It  was  the  Mr. 
Winsor  of  whom  K.  B.  speaks  who  first  lit 
the  Lyceum  Theatre  with  gas  in  1803,  and  to 
him,  says  Beckmann  in  his  'History  of 
Inventions'  (Bohn,  1846,  vol.  ii.  p.  183),  the 
world  may  fairly  be  said  to  be  indebted  for 
the  vast  oenefit  conferred  upon  it  by  gas 
illumination.  Soon  after  one  side  of  Pall 
Mall  had  been  lighted  with  gas,  companies 
were  formed  for  carrying  on  the  manufacture 
of  gas  upon  an  extensive  scale. 


I  understand  that  Frederick  A.  Winsor, 
mentioned  at  the  last  reference,  is  buried  in 
Pere  la  Chaise  Cemetery,  Paris.  Will  some 
French  correspondent  kindly  supply  a  copy 
of  the  inscription  over  his  grave?  Any 
particulars  concerning  the  erection  of  the 
memorial  in  Kensal  Green  Cemetery  would 
be  welcome.  JOHN  T.  PAGE. 

West  Haddon,  Northamptonshire. 

S.  ix.  22,  229). —  In  my  paper  on  'The 
Essenes'  (9th  S.  ix.  103)  I  have  succinctly 
outlined  the  genesis  of  demonology  in 
Judaism.  The  graft,  however,  never  took 
firm  root  in  the  soil,  and  Jews  have  ever 
remained  loyal  to  the  everlasting  principle 
of  unity.  Too  much  stress  must  not  be 
laid  on  the  'Jobeid,'  from  which  a  very 
erroneous  conception  of  the  Jewish  stand- 
point is  likely  to  ensue.  With  reference 
to  Psalm  Ixxviii.  49,  I  have  looked  at  the 
context  of  the  chapter,  and  as  I  forecasted, 

so  it  is.  The  word  rtiallach  is  used  in  many 
instances  as  "agent,"  " medium,"  a  "  messen- 
ger." Mallachi  ronge$m="  agents  of  destruc- 
tion," as  MR.  BOSWELL  rightly  discerns.  In 
fact,  no  other  significance  can  be  attached  to 
the  phrase  by  a  genuine  Hebraist,  and  I  am 
surprised  the  Revisionists  did  not  "  modern- 
ize "  to  that  extent.  "  Angels  of  evil "  is  a 
contradiction  in  terms  to  my  mind. 

M.  L.  R.  BRESLAR. 

MR.  BOSWELL  says  that  the  devil  got  his 
name  of  Old  Scratch  from  Skratt,  the  wood- 
spirit  ;  and  so  says  Keightley  in  his  '  Fairy 
Mythology' ;  but  I  am  inclined  to  think  that 
he  got  it  from  the  old  story,  told  again  by 
Rabelais,  in  which  a  man  agrees  to  have  a 
scratching  match  with  the  devil,  and  in  which 
the  devil  is  utterly  discomfited  by  the  man's 
wife.  I  would  also  remark  that  Ovid,  who 
mentions  the  slaying  of  the  serpent  Python, 
does  not  make  Apollo  the  sun.  He  rightly 
considers  him,  as  .do  Homer  and  Hesiod,  a 

quite  different  deity. 


BAPTISMAL.  FONTS  (9th  S.  ix.  447).— A  similar 
request  appeared  many  years  ago.  Some 
correspondents  contributed  the  names  of  a 
few  of  the  churches  in  which  curious  and 
ancient  fonts  were  still  to  be  found,  for  which 
see  5th  S.  xii.  443  ;  6,th  S.  i.  26,  215,  405. 


71,  Brecknock  Road. 

467). — The   statement  that  Thomas  Phayer 
resided  in  South  Wales  from  1555  to  1560, 
and  that  he  died  and  was  buried  in  the  latter 
year  at  Cilgerran,  which  is  situated  within  a 
few  miles  of  Cardigan,  though  itself  in  Pem- 
brokeshire, appears  to  have  originated  with 
Wood.    Pits,  on  the  other  hand,  says  that  he 
died  in  London  in  1550.    Bulleyn,  in  his  '  Bui 
warke  of  Defence '  (part  2),  alludes  to  him  in 
these  words :   "  Thomas  Faire  is  not  deade, 
but  is  transformed  and  chaunged  into  a  new 
nature  immortal."      This  was  published  in 
March,  1562. '  Where  Phayer  practised  medi- 
cine is  uncertain,   but  it  was  probably  in 
London ;    and    though  the  only  degree   or 
licence  with  which  he  is  credited  was  M.D. 
Oxon.,  1559,  he  likely  enough  practised  pre- 
vious to  that  date.    It  would  be  interesting 
to  know  if  he  possessed  a  licence  from  the 
Bishop  of  St.  David's. 

May  I  suggest  to  your  correspondent  that 
be  should   search  (1)    'The  History  of  Cil- 
;erran,'   (2)  'A  List  of  the  Sheriffs  of  Car- 
iganshire  from  1539,  with  Genealogical  and 
Historical  Notes,'  each  of  these  being  the 
work     of     John     Roland     Phillips  ?      His 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [9*  s.  x.  JXTLY  12, 1902. 

funeral  certificate,  if  extant,  would  give  the 
very  information  required.  So  far  as  I  am 
aware  there  was  no  other  physician  of  the 
name.  GEORGE  C.  PEACHEY. 

This  is  the  same  person  as  the  M.P.  for 
Cardigan.  His  pedigree  is  to  be  found  in 
Lewys  Dwnn's  'Heraldic  Visitations  of  Wales,' 
i.  150,  and  (with  his  arms  and  crest)  in  the 
'  Golden  Grove  Books,'  now  deposited  in  the 
Public  Record  Office,  B.  392.  H.  O. 

I  copy  the  following  from  'The  Parlia- 
mentary History  of  the  Principality  of  Wales,' 
by  Mr.  W.  R.  Williams,  1895,  under  the  mem- 
bers for  the  Cardigan  Boroughs  : — 

"  1555,  Sept.  24,  Thomas  Phaer,  of  Forest,  near 
Cilgerran,  son  of  Thomas  Phaer  of  Norwich  (by 
Clara,  dau.  of  Sir  William  Goodyear,  Knt.,  of  Lon- 
don), became  a  member  of  Lincoln's  Inn,  and  was 
probably  called  to  the  Bar,  took  the  degree  of  M.B. 
at  Oxford  University,  and  admitted  to  practise 
6  Feb.,  1559;  M.D.  21  March,  1559;  was  also  solicitor 
to  the  Council  of  the  Marches  of  Wales,  and  soli- 
citor to  Queen  Mary,  J.  P.  and  Custos  Rotulorum  of 
co.  Pembroke,  Constable  of  Cilgerran,  M.P.  Car- 
marthen 1547-52,  Cardigan  1555-8  and  January  to 
May,  1559 ;  married  Anne,  daughter  of  Alderman 
Thomas  Walter,  of  Carmarthen;  made  his  will 
12  August,  1560 ;  died  at  Forest  the  same  year,  and 
was  buried  in  Cilgerran  Church  (monumental  in- 
scription). Dr.  Phaer  was  a  great  classical  scholar 
and  translated  several  books  of  Virgil's  '  ^Eneid.' 
His  neighbour  George  Owen  said  of  him,  '  Thomas 
Phaer,  doctor  of  physic,  a  man  honoured  for  his 
learninge,  commended  for  his  governmente,  and 
beloved  for  his  pleasant  natural  conceiptes.'  He 
left  two  daughters  and  co-heirs,  and  his  widow  re- 
married to  John  Revell,  of  Forest." 

I  notice  that  Mr.  Williams,  when  recording 
his  election  for  Carmarthen,  October,  1547, 
spells  the  surname  Phayer.  There  is  a  still 
further  difficulty  in  the  record  as  given  by 
Mr.  Williams  in  the  fact  that  while  he  states 
Mr.  Phaer  was  member  for  Cardigan  only 
until  May,  1559,  and  that  he  died  in  1560, 
he  records  no  election  for  the  Cardigan 
Boroughs  after  the  election  of  Mr.  Phaer, 
11  January,  1559,  until  1563,  when  John 
G  wynne,  who  had  previously  sat  for  the 
borough,  was  again  elected.  Would  A.  W.  C.  B. 
kindly  inform  me  where  I  can  get  a  copy  of 
the  list  which  he  quotes  from?  D.  M.  R. 

QUOTATIONS  (9th  S.  ix.  268).— The  nineteen 
iambic  trimeter  lines  beginning 

o-nQciv  Tracrt  []  TOIS  a'£iois 
6  Gfos,  TOIS  8e  roiovTOts  cr<j>68pa., 
cited  by  Theophilus  ('Ad  Autolycum,'  i.  5, 
p;  296  s?.)  with  the  prefatory  remark,  Ilepl 
fj.fv  Qtoi,  KCU  Trpovoias  'Api'o-rwv  e<£?7,  may  be 
found,  discussed  and  emended,  on  p.  ix  sq. 
of  the  "Prsefatio"  of    Meineke's    'Historia 
Critica  Comicorum  Grsecorum,'  J839  (being 

vol.  i.  of  his  '  F  ragmen  ta  Comicorum  Graeco- 
rum ').  They  are  also  given,  with  some  dif- 
ferences as  regards  emendation,  by  F.  G. 
Wagner  in  his  '  Poetarum  Tragicorum  Grseco- 
rum Fragments,,'  p.  77  in  the  edition  pub- 
lished by  Firmin-Didot,  1878. 

The  University,  Adelaide,  South  Australia. 

AUTHORS  OF  BOOKS  WANTED  (9th  S.  ix.  488). 
— According  to  Kirk's  '  Supplement  to  Alli- 
bone's  Critical  Dictionary  of  English  Litera- 
ture,' vol.  i.,  1891,  "  Harper  Atherton  "  was 
an  English  journalist  named  Frank  Fowler 
(1833  -  63).  He  was  the  author  of  several 
works,  and  editor  of  the  Literary  Budget, 
Lond.,  1862.  CUTHBERT  E.  A.  CLAYTON. 

Richmond,  Surrey. 

GERALD  GRIFFIN  (9th  S.  ix.  508).— The  lines 
quoted  will  be  found  in  the  life  of  Gerald 
Griffin,  by  his  brother  Daniel  Griffin,  attached 
to  his  'Collected  Works,'  p.  275  (London,  1843). 
It  is  said  that  they  were  found  among  his 
papers  in  a  rather  incomplete  state.  The 
third  line  is  printed  as  follows  : — 

Like  a and  a they  sit  side  by  side, 

and  not  as  quoted.  The  ninth  line  is  as  fol- 
lows : —  , 

Compared  with  such  garbage  the  trash  of  A.  Tenny- 

and  not  "a  Tennyson."        W.  R.  BARKER. 
10,  Old  Square,  Lincoln's  Inn. 

WINDSOR  UNIFORM  (9th  S.  ix.  268,  292).— 
The  following  extract,  though  not  quite  the 
kind  of  reference  to  books  desired  by  COL. 
PARRY,  will  interest  him  no  doubt : — 

"The  angelic  figures  which  support  the  roof  of 
the  nave  had  golden  wings,  and  at  one  time,  to 
shew  the  excessive  loyalty  of  the  town,  the  church- 
wardens took  the  ludicrous  course  of  painting  their 
dresses  blue  and  red,  in  imitation  of  the  Windsor 

This  bonne  bouche  occurs  in  the  '  Early  Recol- 
lections of  the  Collegiate  Church '  of  Man- 
chester, by  Canon  C.  D.  Wray,  M.A.,  which 
form  an  appendix  to  the  '  Memorials '  of  the 
worthy  canon  written  by  his  son,  the  Rev. 
Henry  Wray,  M.A.  The  time  referred  to 
would  be  about  the  year  1815. 


BLACK  MALIBRAN  (9th  S.  ix.  367,  390,  494). 
— At  the  last  reference  it  is  stated,  under 
this  distinctly  unappropriate  heading,  that 
Madame  Malibran  de  Beriot  (died  1836)  was 
finally  buried  at  Brussels.  This  to  a  certain 
extent  is  not  quite  accurate,  as  the  writer  of 
this  note,  when  wandering  some  years  ago 
through  the  curious  cemetery  at  Laeken, 

9">  S.  X.  JULY  12,  1902.] 



came  across  Madame  Malibran's  tomb,  ther 
contained  in  a  small  chapel  in  which  als 
was,  and  is  still,  a  marble  statue  by  Geef: 
Laeken,  though  a  suburb  of  Brussels,  is  no 
contained  in  that  city  itself.  The  writer  we 
remembers  many  anecdotes  of  Madame  Mali 
bran  de  Beriot  told  to  him  by  a  relative,  i.e 
how  that  famous  singer,  who  died  at  the  ag 
of  twenty-eight  years,  used  to  be  quite  * 
celebrated  horsewoman,  and  how  she  used  tc 
enjoy  talking  to  the  country  people  and  sing 
ing  at  the  top  of  her  voice  when  out  ridinj 
in  the  country  —  how  also,  just  before  he 
death,  when  compelled  by  illness  not  t 
appear  at  the  concert  for  which  she  wa 
"  billed,"  she  insisted  upon  her  music  being 
brought  to  her,  and  how  she  then  sang,  whil 
in  bed  at  the  hotel  in  Manchester,  righ 
through  the  songs  which  she  would,  had  al 
been  well,  have  sung  at  the  concert. 

46,  Maryborough  Avenue,  Hull. 

EPITAPH  ON  AN  ATTORNEY  (9th  S.  ix.  345) 
—I  have  not  observed  that  any  correspon 
dent  has  yet  contributed  the  full  version  o: 
these  Jacobite  rimes.  It  runs  thus  : — 

Here  lies  poor  Fred,  who  was  alive  and  is  dead. 
Had  it  been  his  father,  we  had  much  rather. 
Had  it  been  his  brother,  still  better  than  another. 
Had  it  been  his  sister,  no  one  would  have  missec 

Had  it  been  the  whole  generation,  so  much  the 

better  for  the  nation. 

But  since  'tis  only  Fred,  who  was  alive  and  is  dead- 
There  'a  no  more  to  be  said. 

Town  Hall,  Cardiff. 

The  following  curious  epitaph,  which  has 
at  any  rate  the  merit  of  brevity,  is  inscribed 
on  a  tablet  in  the  chancel  of  the  parish 
church  at  Castleton,  co.  Derby  :— 

To  the  memory  of  Micah  Hall,  Gent :  Attorney  at 

Who  died  on  the  9th  day  of  May  1804. 

Aged  79. 

Quid  eram  nescitis. 
Quid  sum  nescitis. 
Ubi  sum  nescitis. 

Newbourne  Rectory,  Woodbridge. 

MONT  PELEE  (9th  S.  ix.  487,  517) —Refer- 
ence to  a  French-English  dictionary  shows 
that  Peleus  is  represented  in  French  by  P4Ue. 
The  origin  of  the  name  PeUe  may  be  found 
by  transposing  it  (to  "  convey  "  a  convenient 
musical  terra)  into  Spanish— the  language  of 
the  discoverers  of  Martinique— when  it  will 
appear  as  pelata,  the  past  participial  adjective 
of  pelar,  to  strip.  It  is  the  bare  mountain, 

as  contrasted  with  the  dense  woods  that 
covered  so  much  of  the.  island.  In  Italian  it 
is  known  as  Monte  Pilata.  O.  O.  H. 

ST.  PAUL  AND  SENECA  (9th  S.  ix.  290,  351, 
497).— See  Prof.  W.  M.  Ramsay's  'St.  Paul 
the  Traveller  and  the  Roman  Citizen  '  (Lon- 
don, Hodder  &  Stoughton,  1900),  chap.  xv. 
sec.  2,  which  begins  as  follows  : — 

"The  question  has  been  much  discussed  what 
relation,  if  any,  existed  between  Seneca  and  Paul 
at  this  time.  A  tradition  existed  in  the  fourth 
century  that  they  had  been  brought  into  close 
relation.  It  is,  however,  exceedingly  doubtful 
whether  this  tradition  had  any  other  foundation 
than  the  remarkable  likeness  that  many  of  Seneca's 
phrases  and  sentiments  show  to  passages  in  the 
New  Testament.  But,  however  striking  these 
extracts  seem  when  collected  and  looked  at  apart 
from  their  context,  I  think  that  a  careful  considera- 
tion of  them  as  they  occur  in  the  books  must  bring 
every  one  to  the  conclusion  advocated  by  Light-foot, 
by  Aube,  and  by  many  others,  that  the  likeness 
affords  no  proof  that  Seneca  came  into  such  rela- 
tions with  Paul  as  to  be  influenced  in  his  sentiments 
by  him." 

The  University,  Adelaide,  South  Australia. 

GILLESPIE  GRUMACH  (9th  S.  ix.  486).— 
find  among  my  notes  that  the  Weekly 
Intelligencer  of  the  period  mentions  Hamilton 
having  told  King  Charles  that  Argyll  "  had 
as  great  an  imperfection  in  the  eye  of  his 
mind  as  in  the  eye  of  his  body."  This  Argyll 
was  nicknamed  "the  glee'd  Marquis,"  and 
Sir  Walter  Scott  in  the  'Tales  of  a  Grand - 
!ather,'  chap,  xlix.,  says  of  him  : — 

"He  faced  death  with  a  courage  which  other 
passages  of  his  life  had  not  prepared  men  to  expect, 
'or  he  was  generally  esteemed  to  be  of  a  timorous 
disposition.  On  the  scaffold,  he  told  a  friend  that 
ic  felt  himself  capable  of  braving  death  like  a 
Ionian,  but  he  preferred  submitting  to  it  with  the 
jatience  of  a  Christian.  The  rest  of  his  behaviour 
nade  his  words  good  ;  and  thus  died  the  celebrated 
Vlarquis  of  Argyle,  so  important  a  person  during 
his  melancholy  time  He  was  called  by  the  High- 
anders  Gillespie  Grumach,  or  the  Grim,  from  an 
bliquity  in  his  eyes,  which  gave  a  sinister  expres- 
ion  to  his  countenance." 

Scott,  Carlyle,  Rawson  Gardiner,  Hume 
3rown,  and  others  spell  the  name  "Argyle," 
ind  this  spelling  is  to  be  found  in  many  old 
woks  and  documents.  The  late  Duke  of 

rgyll,  however,  in  his  'Presbytery  Ex- 
mined,'  twice  writes  the  name  of  his  dis- 
inguished  ancestor  as  "Argyll"  (see  second 
dition,  1849,  pp.  131,  185),  and  I  have  a  copy 
f  a  letter  written  by  the  late  Duke  about 
he  year  1870,  in  which  he  says  :— 

"In  very  old  times  all  spelling  was  very  un- 
ertain.  You  will  find  Argyll  spelt  '  Argoyle,'  as 
rell  as  'Argyle'  and  'Argile.'  But  my  rule  has 
een  the  signature  of  the  family  for  many  genera- 

NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        9*  s.  x.  JULY  12, 1902. 

tions.  I  have  letters,  charters,  &c. ,  for  a  long  way 
back,  and  the  signature  has  been,  almost  without 
exception,  '  Argyll,'  with  the  double  I." 

W.  S. 

The  following  extract  from  the  'Legend 
of  Montrose '  may  prove  interesting  and 
illustrative  : — 

"  His  dark  complexion,  furrowed  forehead,  and 
downcast  look,  gave  him  the  appearance  of  one 
frequently  engaged  in  the  consideration  of  important 
affairs,  and  who  has  acquired  by  long  habit  an  air 
of  gravity  and  mystery,  which  he  cannot  shake  off 
even  when  there  is  nothing  to  be  concealed.  The 
cast  with  his  eyes,  which  had  procured  him  in  the 
Highlands  the  nickname  of  Gillespie  Grumach, 
or  the  grim,  was  less  perceptible  when  he  looked 
downward,  which  perhaps  was  one  cause  of  his 
having  adopted  the  habit."— Chap.  xii. 

The  probable  date  of  the  story  is  1644,  and 
the  Marquess  is  Archibald,  eighth  Earl  and 
first  Marquess  of  Argyll. 


Newbourne  Rectory,  Woodbridge. 

OLD  SONGS  (9th  S.  ix.  388,  492).— The  march- 
ing tune  of  the  old  Royal  South  Lincoln 
Militia  was  '  The  Lincolnshire  Poacher.'  The 
regiment  trained  in  the  spring,  and  the  beat 
of  this  air  wafted  across  the  fields  seemed  to 
have  as  much  relation  to  the  season  as  haw- 
thorn bloom,  lilac  blossom,  and  the  call  of 
the  cuckoo.  I  have  been  trying  to  reproduce 
the  tum-tum-tum  in  my  solitude,  but  it  does 
not  tally  with  the  metre  of  the  lines  quoted 
by  MR.  PEACOCK.  These  are  a  pleasant  gift, 
though  manifestly  incomplete,  and  I  should 
be  glad  if  some  other  Lincolnshire  corre- 
spondent could  give  me  a  complete  version  of 
the  song  in  a  measure  that  would  fit  the 
melody  which  is  now  vibrating  in  my  mind. 


486).— Doubtless  my  writing  was  responsible 
for  the  name  of  Findo-Gask  (co.  Perth) 
appearing  as  Findo-Gash  in  this  query.  The 
last  information  concerning  William  Baxter 
was  a  letter  written  by  him  dated  5  March,  1841, 
and  containing  the  words,  "  I  intend  leaving 
this  country  on  the  2nd  April  in  the  ship 
England  for  Australia."  Is  it  possible  at  this 
distance  of  years  to  obtain  any  particulars 
about  the  voyage,  the  exact  destination  and 
safe  arrival  of  the  vessel,  and  the  names  of 
the  passengers  ?  RONALD  DIXON. 

46,  Maryborough  Avenue,  Hull. 

"KNIFE"  (9th  S.  ix.  468).— A  knife,  i.e.,  a 
dagger,  was  formerly  a  customary  item  of 
an  Englishman's  accoutrement.  Beckmann, 
writing  towards  the  close  of  the  eighteenth 
century,  says  that  even  then,  in  taverns,  in 
many  countries,  particularly  in  some  towns 

in  France,  knives  were  not  placed  on  the 
table,  because  it  was  expected  that  each 
person  should  have  one  of  his  own  :  a  custom 
which  the  French  seem  to  have  retained  from 
old  Gauls.  Hence,  perhaps,  the  saying 
"  to  have  one's  knife  in  "  a  person.  In  political 
slang,  to  "  knife"  any  one  is  to  endeavour  to 
defeat  a  candidate  of  one's  own  party  in  a 
secret  or  underhand  way.  "  Knife  "  has  always 
been  synonymous  for  sword  or  dagger.  Spen- 
ser ('  Faerie  Queene,'  iii.  iv.  24)  uses  "  knife  " 
for  a  sword — 

And  after  all  his  war  to  rest  hia  wearie  knife  ; 
and   Shakespeare   certainly  alludes    to    the 
dagger  when  he  says,  in  '  Macbeth,'  I.  v., 

That  my  keen  knife  sees  not  the  wound  it  makes. 
The  reply  of  the  heroic  General  Palafox, 
when  summoned  by  the  French  to  surrender 
Saragossa  in  1808,  "War  even  to  the  knife  !" 
would  certainly  not  allude  to  what  is  to-day 
understood  by  the  implement  so  named,  but 
to  close  quarters  with  the  dagger — a  entrance. 
To  "  get  one's  knife "  in  a  person  has  appa- 
rently given  birth  to  the  word  *'  kniferism," 
a  facetious  form  of  an  aphorism  in  allusion 
to  the  cutting  character  of  an  anecdote, 
saying,  &c.—  e.g.,  "Stories  of  the  Don  whose 
verbal  lapses  may  be  called  '  Spoonerisms '  or 
'  Kniferisms,'  as  you  please,  are  numerous  in 
clerical  circles  —  and  keenly  appreciated  " 
(M.A.P.,  18  Feb.,  1899,  p.  153). 


68,  156,  334).— Auguste  Kriiger  was  promoted 
in  1813  to  the  rank  of  sergeant  (Unterofficier) 
in  the  Kolberg  infantry  regiment,  and  in  the 
issue  of  17  December,  1816,  of  the  Hande  und 
Spenersche  Zeitung,  a  Berlin  newspaper,  the 
following  announcement  was  read  : — 

"Notification  of  birth.— It  will  not  be  unwelcome 
to  the  protectors  and  benefactors  of  Auguste  Kriiger, 
who  has  become  known  as  a  heroic  maiden,  to  read 
that  she  has  presented  her  good  husband,  the  lancer- 
sergeant  (Uhlanen- Unterofficier)  Karl  Kohler,  on 
the  13th  inst.,  with  a  healthy  daughter,  and  that  as 
a  happy  wife  and  mother  she  still  remembers  with 
emotion  the  benefits  bestowed  on  her.  Berlin,  the 
16th  December,  1816.  By  the  wish  of  the  happy 
couple." — Extract  from  the  '  Unterhaltungsbeilage" 
of  the  Berliner  LokaJ-Anzeiyer,  30  April,  1902. 

The  name  of  the  maiden  of  Liineburg  was 
Johanna  Stegen,  not  Staegemann,  as  I  gave 
it  erroneously  at  the  last  reference. 


"  UPWARDS  OF  "  (9th  S.  ix.  446,  516).— This 
phrase,  here  in  the  West,  is  very  commonly 
used  in  the  sense  of  almost,  or  nearly, 
perhaps  not  quite,  in  point  of  numbers,  and 
by  no  means  certainly  to  imply  more  than 

9»s.x.  JULY  12, 1902.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


the  quantity  or  number  indicated.  Whether 
"  good  colloquial "  or  not  I  do  not  pretend  to 
judge,  but  the  term  is  an  ambiguous  one,  and 
only  to  be  rightly  understood  by  the  con- 
text. Dialect  speakers  would  simply  use 
"  up,"  where  polite  persons  would  say  "  up- 
wards of."  For  instance,  "  I  count  I  've  agot 
up  a  score  "  in  polite  form  would  be  "  I  believe 
I  have  upwards  of  twenty,"  meaning  nearly 
or  about  twenty  in  both  cases.  If  either 
speaker  had  added  "or'more"  to  his  sentence, 
then  "up"  and  "upwards  of"  would  alike 
have  signified  "  quite  "  or  "  fully."  In  speak- 
ing of  age,  "  So-and-so  must  be  upwards  of 
eighty,"  it  would  be  understood  that  over 
eighty  was  meant.  Generally,  I  should  say  that 
both  "  up"  and  "  upwards  of  "  would  be  taken 
to  denote  less  rather  than  over  the  number 
referred  to.  F.  T.  ELWORTHY. 

LADY-DAY  DAY  (9th  S.  ix.  447,  517).— In 
the  chapter  devoted  to  'Our  People'  in  'A 
Cornish  Parish,'  the  Eev.  J.  Hammond,  vicar 
of  St.  Austell,  informs  us  of  a  similar  pecu- 
liarity of  speech  to  that  mentioned  by  MR. 
F.  T.  ELWORTHY.  Instead  of  widower,  the 
St.  Austell  man  will  say  "  widew  -  man "  ; 
"  widow- woman  "  for  widow  ;  "  two  twains  " 
for  twins  ;  and  they  never  speak  of  April  or 
May,  but  April  month  and  May  month. 



Nottingham  Parish  Registers.  —  Marriages,  St. 
Mari/s  Church,  1666-1813.  Edited  by  W.  P.  W. 
Phillimore  and  James  Ward.  2  vols.  (Phillimore 

THESE  registers  have  been  transcribed  by  Mr.  J.  T. 
Godfrey.  So  far  as  we  have  been  able  to  test  them 
without  having  the  original  manuscripts  before  us, 
the  copy  seems  to  be  satisfactory.  The  editors  have, 
we  are  sorry  to  say,  not  given  an  index ;  they 
believe  it  to  be  more  advisable  to  secure  in  print 
as  many  registers  as  possible,  and  to  defer  the 
work  of  the  index-maker  to  a  future  time.  There 
is,  of  course,  something  to  be  said  for  this  plan, 
but,  all  things  considered,  it  is  not  satisfactory. 
Some  few  people  regard  it  as  a  pleasant  recreation 
to  read  through  the  whole  of  a  parish  register— we 
are  ourselves  among  the  number  —  but  to  most 
persons  it  is  an  irksome  labour.  To  go  through  the 
whole  of  these  two  thick  volumes,  containing  su 
they  do  some  thirty-five  entries  on  a  page,  wouk 
be  distracting  work  for  any  one  at  a  time  when  the 
mind  was  occupied  by  one  particular  race,  or  even 
a  group  of  families.  It  is,  moreover,  a  misfortune 
that  the  entries  are  abridged,  not  given  in  full,  a: 
written,  for  not  only  is  the  old  flavour  impaired 
but  in  the  entries  after  1754  we  miss  the  names  o 
the  witnesses.  This  is  very  unfortunate,  as  these 
often  afford  to  the  genealogist  hints  as  to  relation 
ships,  connexions,  and  friendships  which  throw 
light  on  family  history. 

Though  we  have  felt  bound  to  point  out  that 
hese  volumes  are  not  all  that  could  be  desired,  we 
re  glad  to  have  them.  Nottingham  has  always 
een  an  important  town,  and  St.  Mary's  parish,  on 
ccount  of  its  central  position,  has  all  along  filled 

great  place  therein.  Before  access  to  London 
ecame  relatively  easy  the  local  gentry  had  their 
own  houses  in  Nottingham,  as  the  Devonians  had 
t  Exeter  and  North-Countrymen  at  York,  there- 
ore  weddings  which  it  would  be  more  natural  to 
ook  for  in  other  places  are  frequently  found  to 
iave  occurred  at  St.  Mary's.  We  are  also  informed 
hat  this  church  was  a  place  wherein  clandestine 
marriages  were  often  celebrated.  There  is  a 
topular  opinion  that  the  statute  known  as  Lord 
lardwicke's  Act  (1753)  had,  as  it  was  assuredly 
ntended  to  have,  the  effect  of  putting  an  end  to 
hese  irregular  unions.  Such,  however,  was  not 
he  case.  They  flourished  in  a  different  manner 
or  many  years  after,  and  it  would  be  very  rash  to 
ay  that  they  do  not  occur  at  the  present  day. 

Archbishop  Rotherham.    By  H.  L.  Bennett,  M.A. 

(Lincoln,  Ruddock.) 

THE  subject  of  this  memoir  held  a  high  and  honour- 
able position  at  the  Court  of  Edward  IV.,  rising  to 
)e  Lord  High  Chancellor  of  England  and  Chancellor 
of  the  University  of  Cambridge.  Mr.  Bennett,  • 
when  writing  his  shorter  notice  of  the  prelate  for 
;he  '  Dictionary  of  National  Biography,  found  he 
lad  some  good  matter  left  on  his  hands  that  could 
not  be  utilized  in  a  sketch,  but  might  well  find  a 
alace  on  a  larger  canvas.  The  result  is  the  present 
>ctavo.  The  actual  facts  known  about  Archbishop 
Rotherham,  sooth  to  say,  are  scanty  enough,  and 
the  author,  in  default  o*  personal  details,-has  had 
recourse  to  elaborating  the  milieu  or  environment 
in  which  the  great  archbishop  lived  and  made  his 
mark.  In  his  third  chapter,  e.g.,  he  gives  us  a 
pretty  full  account  of  life  in  Cambridge  as  it  was 
in  the  early  part  of  the  fifteenth  century,  and  so 
throughout  he  expatiates  on  historical  and  anti- 
quarian matters,  always  of  interest,  and  more  or 
less  germane  to  the  subject.  The  best  claim 
Rotherham  has  to  be  remembered  consists  in  his 
splendid  benefactions  to  the  places  of  education 
which  he  generously  fostered.  In  this  respect  he  is 
worthy  of  a  niche  in  the  temple  of  fame  beside 
Wykeham  and  Wolsey.  Some  reproductions  of 
ancient  prints  serve  to  illustrate  the  memoir. 

THE  arrival  of  peace  will,  it  is  to  be  hoped,  shortly 
bring  some  change  in  the  contents  of  the  reviews 
and  magazines,  the  pages  of  which  will  before  long 
be  able  to  devote  more  space  to  literature  and  art 
than  has  recently  been  assigned  these  subjects. 
South  Africa,  however,  still  looms  large,  and  the 
July  Fortnightly  gives,  in  addition  to  '  England 
after  War '  and  '  The  Empire  and  the  Coronation,' 
articles  on  'Alfred  Milner'  and  ' Magersfontein.' 
Better  suited  to  our  columns,  if  not  inherently 
more  interesting,  are  other  contributions.  '  Dumas 
the  Elder,'  by  Mr.  Francis  Gribble,  deals  with  the 
later  rather  than  the  earlier  life  of  that  Cyrano  de 
Bergerac  of  literature.  Quaint,  but  more  than  a 
little  saddening,  is  the  account  of  his  visitors,  his 

Earasites,  and  his  mistress :  "  He  never  seems  to 
ave  had  a  romantic  attachment  to  any  woman, 
but  the  pleasures  of  la  vie  galante  were  necessary 
to  him.  One  might  almost  say  he  was  fond  of 
women,  as  some  people  are  fond  of  children.  He 
liked  to  have  them  about  him.  There  were  gener- 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [9*  s.  x.  JULY  12, 1902. 

ally  several  of  them  living  in  his  house  at  the  same 
time.   Every  now  and  again  he  burst  into  a  volcanic 

Eassion  and  turned  one  of  them  out."  The  end  of 
is  life  is  declared  to  have  been  tragic :  "  The  lord 
of  Monte  Cristo  became  a  client  of  the  pawnshop, 
or  lived  on  small  loans  from  publishers  and  dramatic 
agents  and  the  son  of  the  woman  whom  he  had 
betrayed  and  abandoned."  Anton  Tchekhoff,  a 
Russian  writer,  concerning  whom  Mr.  R.  E.  C. 
Long  writes,  is  little  heara  of  as  yet  in  England, 
but  will  not  be  long  in  making  himself  known. 
Miss  Laurence  Alma-Tadema  has  an  interesting 
artice  on  '  Monna  Vanna,'  the  play  of  M.  Maurice 
Maeterlinck,  in  regard  to  which,  our  English  Cen- 
sure has  contrived  to  show  itself  more  idiotically 
incapable  than  usual. — In  the  Nineteenth  Century 
Mr.  W.  H.  Mallock  once  more  espouses  the  side 
of  Mrs.  Gallup  with  regard  to  the  much-discussed 
bi-literal  cipher.  His  advocacy  is  not  very  warm. 
While  holding  that  a  cipher  exists,  he  thinks  that 
Mrs.  Gallup  nas  unintentionally  taken  the  best 
way  to  discredit  her  own  theory  in  the  eyes  of 
sensible  people.  Mr.  Walter  Frewen  Lord  is  re- 
sponsible for  a  Philistine  and  not  very  good-natured 
article  on  M.  Maeterlinck  and  '  Monna  Vanna,' 
entitled  '  The  Reader  of  Plays  to  the  Rescue.' 
His  advocacy  is  not  likely  to  benefit  greatly  that 
indiscreet  and  ill-starred  official,  who  in  this  case 
may  perhaps  be  regarded  as  a  scapegoat.  Mr.  Lord, 
however,  returns  to  forms  and  methods  which  we 
thought  belonged  to  the  past.  Mrs.  Aria  gossips 
concerning  playgoers.  She  is  bright  and  amusing, 
but  not  always  convincing.  Mr.  Walter  Sichel 
finds  an  attractive  subject  in  '  The  Prophecies  of 
Disraeli.'  Khuda  Bukhsh,  a  late  Chief  Justice  of 
Hyderabad,  writes  on  '  The  Islamic  Libraries.'  The 
information  he  supplies  will  be  new  to  most  readers, 
and  his  article  deserves  to  be  closely  studied. — 
In  the  Poll  Mall  Mr.  R.  L.  Pocock  writes  concern- 
ing '  Animals  and  Confederates.'  Very  far  is  he 
from  seeing  in  the  service  rendered  by  birds  to  the 
rhinoceros  or  the  alligator  the  proof  of  senti- 
mental attachment  such  as  some  have  discovered. 
On  the  contrary,  he  holds  that  "Look  after  yourself 
and  your  family,  and  rob  your  neighbour  if  you  can," 
is  "  Nature's  first  and  great  commandment."  Illus- 
tration and  letterpress  are  alike  excellent,  though 
some  of  the  explanations  furnished — e.g.,  those  in  the 
case  of  the  carpenter  bee — seem  ingenious  rather  than 
convincing.  Auguste  Rodin  at  Home '  is,  natur- 
ally, enthusiastic  concerning  the  great  sculptor, 
and  supplies  some  admirable  drawings  of  his  prin- 
cipal works.  '  A  Revolution  in  Railway  Signalling ' 
describes  some  marvellous  improvements  recently 
effected.  Mr.  J.  H.  Yoxall,  M.P.,  is  very  much 
struck  by  the  name  of  Yolande  de  Flandre,  whose 
turbulent  career  he  briefly  describes.  '  The  Tragedy 
of  Empire,'  which  deals  with  recent  Cuban  history, 
is  well  illustrated  by  photographs.  Mr.  Andrew 
Lang  has  a  further  excursus  upon  Mrs.  Gallup  and 
Bacon.  A  ghost  story  concerning  Knebworth  is 
romantic,  and  its  origin  no  less  so.  An  account  of 
the  volcanic  eruption  in  the  West  Indies  constitutes 
a  noteworthy  feature  in  the  contents. — '  In  an  Old 
French  Garden,'  by  W.  H.  Low,  which  appears  in 
Scribner's,  is  interesting  in  itself,  and  abounds  with 
those  delicately  coloured  illustrations  which  are  a 
specialty  of  the  magazine.  'In  Burma  with  the 
viceroy,'  by  Mrs.  Everard  Cotes,  gives  a  series  of 
capital  pictures  of  scenes  and  personages,  and  a 
very  interesting  account  of  tne  latter.  /  The 
Abitibi  Fur  Brigade '  supplies  a  striking  account  of 

the  way  in  which  the  last  brigade  of  the  once  famous 
canoe  flotillas  collects  and  carries  its  precious 
freight.  The  entire  number  is  excellent.  —  In 
the  Cornhill  Canon  Hensley  Henson  gives  an 
historical  and  descriptive  account  of  Westminster 
Abbey.  Mr.  W.  Laird  Clowes's  account  of  the 
Mutiny  at  the  Nore  is  profoundly  interesting,  and 
seems  to  have  historical  value.  A  new  '  Dialogue 
of  the  Dead '  gives  a  Lucianesque  discussion  between 
Odysseus  and  Aristotle.  This  is  humorous,  even 
if  a  trifle  extravagant.  Mr.  Andrew  Lang  writes 
on  '  Bibliomania,'  and  is,  according  to  custom, 
sensible  and  brilliant.  It  would  not  be  difficult, 
however,  to  answer  his  paper.  Mr.  Aflalo  writes 
on  '  Some  Habits  of  Fishes.'  The  fiction,  both 
short  stories  and  serials,  is  excellent  in  all  respects. 
— '  The  Exposition  of  Bridge,'  by  Mr.  J.  S.  McTear, 
in  the  Gentleman's,  is  by  a  writer  with  a  strong 

Erejudice  in  favour  of  whist.  At  the  close  some 
tults  in  the  construction  of  bridge  are  mentioned. 
Mr.  W.  J.  Lawrence  sends  '  The  History  of  a 
Peculiar  Stage  Curtain.'  Dr.  Japp  writes  on  '  Bird 
Courtship.' — In  Longman's  Mr.  Fred.  Whishaw  con- 
tinues his  interesting  and  well-written  sketches  '  In 
a  Devonshire  Garden.'  Under  the  title  '  A,  B,  C,' 
Mr.  Frank  Ritchie  advocates  a  scheme  of  spelling 
reform.  Mrs.  Percy  Frankland  writes  on  '  Bacteria 
and  Ice.'  In  '  At  the  Sign  of  the  Ship'  Mr.  Andrew 
Lang  deals  characteristically  with  forgeries  and 
swindles.  —  In  the  midst  of  much  romance  and 
fiction  appears,  in  an  excellent  number  of  the  Idler, 
'  The  Search  for  the  Missing  Link,'  with  an  account 
of  the  work  of  Prof.  Ernest  Haeckel. — To  the  Play- 
goer Miss  Clara  Morris  contributes  some  interesting 
recollections  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Charles  Kean. 

We  must  call  special  attention  to  the  following 
notices  :— 

ON  all  communications  must  be  written  the  name 
and  address  of  the  sender,  not  necessarily  for  pub- 
lication, but  as  a  guarantee  of  good  faith. 

WE  cannot  undertake  to  answer  queries  privately. 

To  secure  insertion  of  communications  corre- 
spondents must  observe  the  following  rules.  Let 
each  note,  query,  or  reply  be  written  on  a  separate 
slip  of  paper,  with  the  signature  of  the  writer  and 
such  address  as  he  wishes  to  appear.  When  answer- 
ing queries,  or  making  notes  with  regard  to  previous 
entries  in  the  paper,  contributors  are  requested  to 
put  in  parentheses,  immediately  after  the  exact 
heading,  the  series,  volume,  and  page  or  pages  to 
which  they  refer.  Correspondents  who  repeat 
queries  are  requested  to  head  the  second  com- 
munication "  Duplicate." 

M.  M.  THOMPSON  ("The  thin  red  line").— This 
appears  in  no  dispatches,  but  was  written  by  Dr. 
(now  Sir)  W.  H.  Russell  of  the  93rd  Regiment  at 
Balaclava.  See  8th  S.  vii.  191. 


Editorial  communications  should  be  addressed 
to  "  The  Editor  of  '  Notes  and  Queries'" — Adver- 
tisements and  Business  Letters  to  "  The  Pub- 
lisher " — at  the  Office,  Bream's  Buildings,  Chancery 
Lane,  E.C. 

We  leave  to  state  that  we  decline  to  return 
communications  which,  for  any  reason,  we  do  not 
print ;  and  to  this  rule  we  can  make  no  exception. 

9th  S.  X.  JULY  19,  1902.] 



LONDON,  SATURDAY,  JULY  19,  1903. 

CONTENTS. —  No.  238. 

NOTES  :— The  'Craftsman'  on  Chess,  41  —  Bacon- Shake- 
speare, 43  — Dunwich  or  Dunmow  a  Bishop's  See,  44  — 
Of  Alley— " Motherland " —  "Curmudgeon"  —  "Coke'' — 
Hiddenite,  45  —  Young's  '  Night  Thoughts  '  —  Comic 
Scotch—"  Wedgewood,"  46. 

QUERIES  :— Lowell  Quotation— Monastic  Sheep-farming— 
Lambrook  Stradling  — "  Tressher"  —  Byron's  Bust,  47— 
Pronunciation  of  O  —  Dictionary  of  Greek  Mythology- 
Douglas— '  Ghost  at  the  Funeral'— Cucking  or  Ducking 
Stool— Sixteenth-Century  Duel— "Care,  vale  "—"  Harry 
Dick  hat " :  "  Adelaide  waistcoat "— "  Armada  "  Chests,  48 
—Stafford  Family— Projection  on  a  Saw— Wellington  Pam- 
phlet—Chi-Rho  Monogram— Botanical— Szechenyi,  49. 

REPLIES  -.—Shelley's  Ancestry,  50— Guest  Family— Straw- 
berry Leaves— Trinity  Monday,  51— Byron's  Grandfather 
—  Honorificabilitudinitas  —  Cockade  of  George  I.  —  Old 
Wooden  Chest,  52  — Westminster  City  Motto  — "Mere- 
steads"  —  Lovel :  De  Hautville  —  Tedula  —  Almanac 
Medals,  53— Tennis— Jews'  Way,  Gate,  &c.— "  Heroina"— 
Metrical  Psalter  —  "  Ycleping  "  the  Church,  54— "  Auto- 
crat "  in  Russian— Merry  England  and  the  Mass— Arthur's 
Crown  —  "Sixes  and  sevens,"  55— Wilcocks — "Babies  in 
the  eyes  " — Londres — Ainsworth,  58— Mrs.  Thrale's  Streat- 
ham  House—"  Flowering  Sunday,"  57— Yarrow  Unvisited 
— Follett— King's  Champion,  58— Gladstone  :  an  Italian 
Address  —  Arms  of  Continental  Cities  —  Trentham  and 
Gower  Families,  59. 

NOTES  ON  BOOKS  :— Arrowsmith's  •  Registers  of  Wigan' 
— '  Catalogue  of  Deeds  in  the  Record  Office,'  Vol.  III.— 
'  Folk-lore.' 

Notices  to  Correspondents. 


1.  IN  its  number  (376)  for  15  September, 
1733,  the  Craftsman — the  chief  contributors 
to  which  were  Bolingbroke,  William  Pulteney, 
Nicholas  Amhurst,  Swift,  Arbuthnot,  Pope, 
Gay,  and  Chesterfield  —  published  a  paper 
styled,  in  its  introduction, '  A  Short  Essay  on 
the  Game  of  Chess.'  It  had,  as  was  to  be 
expected,  an  undertone  of  Toryism,  but  was 
set  off  by  a  more  or  less  allegorical  display  of 
words  and  phrases  drawn  from  the  technical 
vocabulary  of  chess.  It  was  signed  R. 
That  this  signature  throws  no  certain  light 
on  the  authorship  of  articles  to  which  it  is 
affixed  has  been  shown  by  Mr.  Walter  Sichel 
in  the  recently  published  second  part  of  his 
'  Bolingbroke  and  his  Times '  (pp.  248-54) ; 
but  the  author's  analysis  of  the  Craftsman's 
contents,  of  great  value  in  respect  to  so  many 
contributions,  does  not  include  this  essay, 
although  the  statement  is  made  that  "  the 
greater  portion  of  those  signed  'R.'  are  by 
Bolingbroke."  In  an  obliging  response  to  a 
private  inquiry,  Mr.  Sichel  says,  however, 
that "  Bolingbroke  contributed  little,  if  at  all, 
to  the  Craftsman  in  1733,"  and  that  "  there  is 

no  trace  of  his  ever  having  been  a  chess- 
player " ;  while,  in  regard  to  the  essay  on 
chess,  he  adds  :  "  At  all  events,  I  feel  pretty 
sure  that  its  author  was  not  Bolingbroke." 
The  Craftsman  paper  was  reprinted  the  same 
year  in  the  Gentleman's  Magazine  (iii.  473-4). 
Any  suggestions  tending  to  identify  its  writer 
are  greatly  desired. 

2.  Almost  immediately  after  its  publication 
appeared  a  pamphlet  in  reply  to  the  essay. 
It  was  dated  (21  September)  from  Slaughter's 
Coffee-house,  which  was  probably  then,  as  it 
surely  was  a  little  later,  the  principal  London 
resort  of  British  and  foreign  chess-players. 
Its  title  was  :  '  A  Letter  to  the  Craftsman  on 
the  Game  of  Chess,  occasioned  by  his  Paper 
on  the  Fifteenth  of  this  Month ' ;  it  was  like- 
wise to  some  extent  political  (Whig)  in  cha- 
racter, though  assuming  its  main  object  to  be 
criticism  and  correction  of  the  chess  language 
employed    by   the   Craftsman's    contributor. 
This  pamphlet  has  usually  been  ascribed  to 
Lord  (John)  Hervey,  a  well-known  London 
figure,  at  one  time  Lord  Privy  Seal,  the  friend 
of  ("  Cicero  ")  Middleton,  the  object  of  Horace 
Walpole's  odium,  but  especially  remembered 
as  the  husband  of  the  attractive  and  intel- 
lectual Lady  ("Molly")  Hervey.     Is  there 
any  real  ground  for  this  ascription?    Lord 
Hervey,  a  few  months  before,  had  prefixed  a 
dedication  (addressed*'  to  the  patrons1  of  the 
Craftsman  ")  to  another  pamphlet,  '  Sedition 
and  Defamation  Display  d,'  in  which  he  had 
ruthlessly  assailed  Pulteney  and  Bolingbroke, 
an  act  which  had  led  (25  January,  1731)  to  a 
rather  harmless  duel  between  the  former  and 
Hervey.    Have  not  the  two  pamphlets  been 
confounded  1    Did  Hervey  ever  acknowledge 
the  authorship  of  the  chess  tractate  ? 

3.  In  the  year  subsequent  to  its  appearance, 
this  rejoinder  fell  into  the  hands  of  William 
Cosby,   then  Governor  of  New  York,  who 
showed  it  to  a  resident  of  that  colony  noted 
for  his  ability  at  chess.    This  was  the  Rev. 
Lewis  Rou  (as  he  signed  his  name— though 
some  of  his  contemporaries  speak  of  him  as 
"Louis    Roux"),   pastor,  from    1710    to   his 
death,    of   the    most    important    Huguenot 
church  in  America,  a  man  of  learning,  edu- 
cated at  Ley  den,  but  born  at  Paris,  where 
his  father,  Jean   Rou,  was  an   "  avocat  au 
parlement,"  an  influential  Protestant,  and  an 
historical  writer  of  ability.    Obedient,  as  it 
appears,  to  a  request  from  the  Governor,  Rou 
penned  a  response  to  the  brochure  under  the 
title  of  '  Critical  Remarks  upon  the  Letter  to 
the  Craftsman  on  the  Game  of  Chess  occa- 
sioned by  his  Paper  of  the  15th  of  Sept.,  1733, 
and    dated    from   Slaughter's    Coffee-house 
Sept.  21.'    In  this  reply  the  author  paid  no 



x.  JULY  19,  im. 

heed  to  politics,  but  devoted  himself  to  point- 
ing out  "  the  several  mistakes,  errors,  or 
blunders  committed "  by  the  pamphlet's 
anonymous  author.  This  he  does  with  the 
authority  of  a  connoisseur,  exhibiting  an 
extraordinary  acquaintance,  for  the  place 
and  time,  with  the  history  and  literature  of 
the  game,  no  little  familiarity  with  the  classics, 
and  some  knowledge  of  Spanish  and  Hebrew. 
His  style  not  infrequently  betrays  the  hand 
of  the  foreigner,  but  is,  nevertheless,  clear, 
precise,  and  trenchant.  This  slight  but  in- 
teresting contribution  to  American  colonial 
letters  was  never  printed.  Rou's  original 
manuscript  existed  at  New  York  as  late  as 
1858,  in  which  year  it  was  borrowed  by  the 
present  writer  from  Dr.  George  Henry  Moore, 
at  that  time  librarian  of  the  New  York  His- 
torical Society,  and  afterwards  of  the  Lenox 
Library  as  well — to  whom  it  had  been  tem- 
porarily lent  by  its  (now  unknown)  owner. 
After  a  small  part  of  it  had  been  copied,  and 
some  notes  made  on  other  portions,  the  manu- 
script was  duly  returned  to  Dr.  Moore,  since 
which  event  nobody  seems  to  have  seen  it  or 
heard  of  it.  Several  years  after  Dr.  Moore's 
death  search  was  made  for  it  in  the  two 
public  libraries  which  had  been  under  his 
control,  but  without  avail.  Dr.  Moore's  pri- 
vate collections  were  scattered  by  auction  ; 
singularly  enough  they  included  a  brief  auto- 
graphic manuscript  by  Rou,  but  of  an  earlier 
date  and  on  a  different  theme.  Is  it  not 
possible  that  some  one  of  the  numerous 
Transatlantic  readers  of  '  N.  &  Q.'  may  have 
something  to  say  concerning  the  later  his- 
tory or  final  fate  of  Rou's  missing  book  ? 

4.  The  sought -for  manuscript  is  a  thin 
quarto  of  twenty-four  closely  written  pages, 
and  is  divided  in  to  seventeen  short,  numbered 
chapters  or  sections.  It  opens  with  the  title, 
as  already  given,  which  is  directly  followed 
by  a  dedicatory  epistle  "  To  his  Excellency, 
William  Cosby,  Esq.,  Captain-General  and 
Commander-in-Chief  in  and  over  the  Pro- 
vinces of  New  York  and  New  Jersey,  and  the 
Territories  thereon  depending,  in  America, 
Vice-Admiral  of  the  same,  and  Colonel  in  his 
Majesty's  Army,"  occupying  nearly  or  quite 
a  page,  signed  "Lewis  Rou,"  and  dated 
"New  York,  ye  13th,  of  Decemb.  1734."  At 
the  end  of  the  essay  is  a  second  date,  "Ye 
Xlth  Decemb.  1734."  The  ninth  section 
(pp.  22-3)  commences  thus  (the  citation  from 
the  author  he  is  criticizing  italicized) :  "  I 
had  almost  pass'd  by  what  the  author  says 
here  about  the  Check-mate  given  in  two  or 
three  moves  at  the  beginning  of  a  Game,  when 
the  King  seems  in  full  prosperity,  <£c."  After 
further  quotation  Rou  says  :  ' k  I  suppose  he 

means  here  the  Schollars-mate,  or  what  we 
call  among  the  French  the  Shepherds-mate, 
VEschec  et  mat  du  Berger,"  which  he  proceeds 
to  explain  correctly,  snowing  the  inaccuracies 
of  the  London  pamphleteer. 

5.  The  manuscript,  as  it  is  remembered, 
had  all  the  appearance  of  a  completed  work, 
which  had  received  its  final  emendations  and 
was  ready  for  the  printer  ;  but  its  author 
must  have  felt  the  impossibility  of  issuing 
such  a  treatise,  at  that  period,  in  New  York 
or  elsewhere  in  America.  As  he  evidently 
took  no  little  pride  in  his  production,  it  is 
not  unlikely  that,  while  retaining  one  copy 
for  himself  (the  one  described,  which,  it  is 
believed,  continued  for  a  long  time  in  the 
possession  of  his  descendants),  the  reverend 
writer  may  have  made  another  for  presenta- 
tion to  the  dedicatee,  who  was,  of  course, 
politically  and  socially,  the  foremost  per- 
sonage of  the  colony.  Governor  Cosby,  who 
was  of  the  Irish  family  of  Cosby  of  Strad- 
bally,  died  at  New  York,  10  March,  1736,  less 
than  fifteen  months  after  the  date  of  Rou's 
dedication.  What  became  of  his  books, 
papers,  and  correspondence  1  The  object  of 
this  query  is  to  ascertain  whether  Rou's 
work — his  own  copy  having  disappeared — 
may  not  be  restored  to  American  literature 
through  an  examination  of  the  Cosby  or 
other  family  archives.  William  Cosby  left  a 
widow  (Grace,  sister  of  George  Montagu, 
Earl  of  Halifax),  two  sons,  and  two  daugh- 
ters. The  widow,  soon  after  her  husband's 
death,  returned  to  England,  surviving  until 
1767  ;  it  was  said  at  the  time  that  she  joined 
her  elder  daughter  Elizabeth,  who  had 
recently  (about  the  beginning  of  1733) 
espoused  at  New  York  Lord  Augustus 
Fitzroy  (died  1741),  second  son  of  the  second 
Duke  of  Grafton,  by  whom  she  had  two  sons, 
one  of  whom  became  the  third  Duke  of 
Grafton.  Lady  Elizabeth  Fitzroy  married 
secondly  James  Jeffries.  Of  the  two  sons  of 
Governor  Cosby,  the  elder  was  an  officer  in 
the  army,  the  younger  a  captain  in  the  navy 
(died  1753),  both  apparently  unmarried.  His 
younger  daughter  Grace  became  the  wife  of 
a  Mr.  Murray  of  New  York,  in  which  city 
she  doubtless  remained.  What  is  known  of 
this  Mr.  Murray;  and  are  any  of  his  de- 
scendants living?  One  of  his  name,  who 
stood  in  intimate  relations  to  Governor 
Cosby,  is  described  in  a  contemporary 
account  as  "  the  senior  counsel  at  the  bar " 
of  New  York.  It  is  noteworthy  that  Alex- 
ander,^-an  elder  brother  of  William  Cosby, 
was  Lieutenant- Governor  of  Nova  Scotia 
'under  his  brother-in-law  Governor  Richard 
Phillips) ;  that  this  brother  likewise  had  two 

9«>s.x.  JULY  19, 1902.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


sons  and  two  daughters ;  and  that  he  also 
died  (1743)  while  holding  his  colonial  office, 
his  second  son  Phillips  Cosby  succeeding 
ultimately  to  the  headship  of  the  family  and 
the  possession  of  Strad  bally  Hall.  Rou  him- 
self had  a  family  of  fifteen  children,  of  whom 
ten  (owing  in  part  to  an  epidemic)  died 
vary  young.  His  daughter  Marie  Elizabeth 
married  William  Richard,  while  another, 
Denise  Marie,  wedded  John  Harrison — the 
two  husbands  presumably  American.  His 
eldest  surviving  son  Louis  went  early  to 
Curaqoa ;  to  him  his  father  bequeathed  "  my 
old  [Latin  ?]  Bible  in  two  large  folio  volumes 
in  folio,  printed  at  Lyons  in  1511,"  directing 
that  it  should  be  preserved  as  an  heirloom. 

It  will  thus  be  seen  that  Go\  ernpr  Cosby's 
transcript  of  Rou's  dissertation — if,  indeed, 
such  ever  existed — may  have  passed  through 
the  hands  of  various  individuals,  and  have 
found  its  resting-place  in  England,  Ireland, 
or  America.  It  should  be  remarked  that 
Rou's  tract  has  a  certain  bibliographical 
interest  as  the  earliest  composition  on  chess 
(perhaps  even  as  the  first  mention  of  the  game) 
emanating  from  the  Western  continent — 
preceding  Dr.  Franklin's  'Morals  of  Chess' 
by  more  than  half  a  century.  W.  F. 

Reform  Club. 

(Continued  from  9th  S.  ix.  424.) 

DR.  THEOBALD  devotes  much  space  in  his 
book  to  the  learning  and  diction  of  Shake- 
speare, which,  he  says,  have  caused  much 
Srplexity  to  his  critics  and  biographers. 
3  adduces  many  examples  of  Latin  con- 
struction, and  of  words  and  phrases  which 
may  be  traced  to  classic  sources ;  and  he 
argues  that  his  evidence  conclusively  proves 
that  the  poet  not  only  wrote  according  to 
the  usages  of  Latin  grammar,  but  that  his 
own  language  would  not  have  permitted  him 
to  express  himself  in  the  manner  he  does 
if  the  Latin  had  not  taken  such  a  strong 
possession  of  his  mind. 

The  constructions,  the  words,  the  phrases, 
and  the  learning  which  have  such  a  strong 
Latin— and  sometimes  Greek — aroma  about 
them  are  only  what  one  meets  with  in  all 
writers  of  the  period  ;  and  they  merely  indi- 
cate that  in  making  use  of  them  the  poet 
was  following  in  the  footsteps  of  a  host  of 
scholars  whose  training  through  a  long  series 
of  generations  had  gradually  evolved  the 
speech  that  was  ready  to  his  hand. 

The  writer  of  the  plays  and  poems,  accord- 
ing to  Dr.  Theobald,  coined  words.  A  long 
list  of  such  words  is  given,  all,  or  nearly  all, 

of  which  can  be  found  in  contemporary  and 
earlier  authors.  The  following  win"  show 
how  much  reliance  is  to  be  placed  upon  the 
list.  They  are  but  samples. 

Acknown. — This  word  only  occurs  once  in 
Shakespeare,  in  'Othello,'  III.  iii.  319,  and 
Dr.  Theobald  thinks  it  is  probably  an  attempt 
by  its  author  to  bring  the  Latin  word  agnosco 
into  the  language.  'Othello'  was  composed 
in  or  about  1604,  yet  Puttenham,  about  1589, 
and  Kyd,  about  1593,  both  use  the  word  : — 

"  I  would  not  have  a  translatour  to  be  ashamed 
to  be  acknowen  of  his  translation."  — '  Arte  of 
English  Poesie,'  Arber,  p.  260. 

But  ours  of  others  will  not  be  acknowne. 

'  Cornelia,'  Act  11.  1.  229,  Boas. 

Moreover,  in  this  case,  as  in  many  others, 
a  little  trouble  would  have  saved  Dr.  Theo- 
bald from  making  an  egregious  blunder. 
There  are  hills  beyond  Pentland.  Acknown 
is  the  past  participle  of  acknowe,  O.E.  oncna- 
wan,  to  recognize. 

Document.— In  'Hamlet,'  IV.  v.  178,  Shake- 
speare uses  this  word  "in  its  classic  and 
etymological  sense,  from  Latin  doceo,  teach ; 
give  a  lesson  or  instruction ;  documentum= 
a  lesson,  or  example,  &c." 

A  document  in  madness. 

Dr.  Theobald  quotes,  cases  of  the  use  of  the 
word  from  Spenser  afld  Sir  Walter  Raleigh, 
both  of  whom  wrote  much  earlier  than  Shake- 
speare did  in '  Hamlet.'  Some  say  that  Bacon 
also  wrote  Spenser's  work  ;  and  perhaps  Dr. 
Theobald  wishes  us  to  infer  that  he  wrote 
Raleigh's  'History  of  the  World'  as  well. 
Raleigh  had  many  contributors,  and  Bacon 
may  have  been  among  the  number.  How- 
ever, document,  as  used  in  '  Hamlet,'  is  respect- 
able old  English,  and  it  occurs  in  a  curious 
old  play  with  the  funny  title  'The  longer 
thou  livest,  the  more  fool  thou  art,'  circa 
1553-8  :— 

Conscience  accuseth  the  folish  beast, 

That  he  hath  forsaken  wholsom  document. 

LI.  961-2  (Jahrbuch,  vol.  xxxvi.  p.  40). 

Probation.— Shakespeare  in  this  case  uses 
this  word  and  others  "  with  a  meaning 
different  from  that  which  they  ordinarily 
convey,  and  which  could  not  have  been 
attributed  to  them  by  any  one  who  was  not 
thoroughly  informed  as  to  the  precise  powers 
of  their  Latin  originals."  Ergo,  all  men  in 
Shakespeare's  time  and  before  who  used 
words  derived  from  the  Greek,  Latin,  French, 
Spanish,  Dutch,  and  other  languages  which 
helped  to  enrich  English,  were  "  thoroughly 
informed  as  to  the  precise  powers  of  their  " 
originals.  It  is  a  wonderful  argument !  To 
resume,  in  Shakespeare  probation  sometimes 
means  to  prove,  like  the  Latin  probare  ;— 



B.  x.  JULY  19,  woe. 

So  prove  it, 

That  the  probation  bear  no  hinge,  nor  loop, 
To  hang  a  doubt  on. 

'  Othello,'  III.  iii.  365-7. 

Again  I  turn  to  the  curious  old  play  with  the 
queer  title,  and  I  find  probation  used  as 
Shakespeare  uses  it : — 

Have  we  not  had  manifest  probation, 
Have  not  men  of  God  beene  put  to  silence  ? 
LI.  1206-7  (Jahrbuch,  p.  46). 

Now  for  a  case  where  Shakespeare  is 
supposed  to  have  consulted  Plato  in  the 
original  Greek.  I  select  it  because  it  has  the 
place  of  honour  in  Dr.  Theobald's  book,  being 
his  first  shot ;  and  because  it  is  believed  tc 
be  a  poser. 

In  'Troilus  and  Cressida,'  III.  iii.  95-123, 
and  in  '  Julius  Csesar,'  I.  ii.  51-70,  there  are 
distinct  allusions  to  the  Platonic  idea  "  that 
the  eye  sees  not  itself,  but  from  some  other 
thing,  for  instance  a  mirror.    But  the  eye 
can  see  itself  also  by  reflection  in  another 
eye,"    &c.    The    passage    occurs    in    'First 
Alcibiades,'  which  Dr.  Theobald  asserts  was 
not  translated  when  Shakespeare  was  living. 
I  need  hardly  observe  that  it  is  possible  to 
get  ideas,  whether  in  the  original  Greek  or 
in  Latin,  without  going  to  the  originals  or 
to  translations  for  them.    Very  little  that 
is  good  in  Greek   and    Latin  authors    had 
been  allowed  to  sleep  in  its  old  garb  by  the 
many  thousands  of  English  scholars  who  had 
mastered  those  languages  ;  and  consequently 
our  old  literature  abounds  with  a  variety  of 
information,  more  or  less  complete,  drawn 
direct  from  original  sources.   Hence,  although 
there  may  not  nave  been  a  set  translation  of 
Plato's  work    ready  to  Shakespeare's  hand 
when  he  incorporated  that  author's  idea  in 
his  plays,  it  does  not  follow  that  the  idea 
could    not    have   been    extracted    from    an 
English    writer,    and    in    terms    precisely 
parallel  to  those  employed  in  the  original 
Greek.    Now  it  is  a  very  curious  fact,  and 
one  which  I  always  bear  in  mind  when  trying 
to  fix  the  date  of  any  of  his  compositions, 
that  the  books  or  other  matter  wnich  had 
most  recently  attracted  or  impressed  Shake- 
speare are  the  very  ones  from  which  he  will 
borrow  or  to  which  he  will  allude  ;  and  it 
sometimes  happens  that  such  works  will  not 
have  been  issued  from  the  press  many  months 
or  even  weeks  before    the   registration    or 
acting  of  some  of  his  poems  or  plays.    Close 
attention  to  this  rule  will,  in  many  instances, 
fix  the  date  or.Jbime  of  composition  of  some 
of  the  plays  and  •  poems.    Here  we  have  a 
case  in  point.     Let  us  look  at  some  dates. 
'  Troilus  and  Cressida '  was  composed  in  or 
about  1603,  'Julius  Caesar'  in  or  about  1600; 

both  plays  were  most  certainly  written  after 
April,  1599,  the  date  of  the  registration  of 
Sir  John  Davies's  '  Nosce  Teipsum.'  Now  it 
was  not  from  Plato  at  all  that  Shakespeare 
obtained  his  idea  and  the  phraseology  in 
which  he  clothed  it,  but  from  the  poem  of 
Sir  John  Davies,  who  expounds  it  at  great 
length.  The  passages  necessary  to  establish 
the  fact  that  Shakespeare  borrowed  from  Sir 
John  Davies  would  take  up  too  much  room, 
and  it  is  not  necessary  to  my  argument  to 
prove  the  borrowing  in  this  case.  The  sugges- 
tion is  that  the  Platonic  idea  must  have  oeen 
derived  from  the  original  Greek,  and  that 
Shakespeare's  ignorance  of  the  latter  pre- 
cluded him  from  consulting  Plato,  whose 
work  was  not  then  translated.  Consequently, 
say  the  Baconians,  Shakespeare  did  not  write 
'Troilus  and  Cressida'  and  'Julius  Caesar.' 
If  I  can  show  that  Plato's  idea  is  expressed 
in  parallel  language  in  'Nosce  Teipsura,'  I 
shall  have  proved  that  Shakespeare  had  no 
need  to  consult  original  sources,  and  that  the 
argument  of  the  Baconians  is  altogether  out 
of  court. 

Is  it  because  the  Mind  is  like  the  Eye, 
(Through  which  it  gathers  Knowledge  by  degrees) 
Whose  rays  reflect  not,  but  spread  outwardly ; 
Not  seeing  itself,  when  other  things  it  sees  ? 

Arber's  '  English  Garner,'  vol.  v.  p.  144. 

That  Power  (which  gave  me  eyes,  the  world  to 


To  view  myself,  infused  an  Inward  Light, 
Whereby  my  Soul,  as  by  a  Mirror  true, 
Of  her  own  form,  may  take  a  perfect  sight. 

But  as  the  sharpest  Eye  discerneth  nought, 
Except  the  sunbeams  in  the  air  do  shine  : 
So  the  best  Soul,  with  her  reflecting  thought, 
Sees  not  herself,  without  some  light  divine. 

Ibid.,  p.  147. 

Other  cases  of  supposed  borrowing  from 
Greek  and  Latin  sources,  which  Dr.  Theobald 
adduces,  could  be  disposed  of  more  effectually 
than  this  one,  and  I  need  not  travel  beyond 
Lyly's  '  Euphues '  for  material  to  prove  how 
utterly  unsafe  it  would  be  to  follow  the  lead 
of  Dr.  Theobald,  who,  apparently,  has  not 

xtended  his  studies  in  old  English  literature 
beyond  Shakespeare  and  Bacon. 


53,  Hampden  Road,  Hornsey,  N. 

(To  be  continued.) 

DUNWICH    OR  DUNMOW   A    BlSHOP's    SEE. — 

The  East  Anglian  bishops  are  understood  to 
lave  had  their  seat  at  Dunwich  until  the 
Bishopric  was  divided  between  Dunwich  and 
Imham.  I  have  reason  to  believe  that  rather 
Dunmow  was  the  first  seat.  Our  early  anti- 
quaries may  be  excusftd  for  having  adopted 
the  Suffolk  town,  seeing  that  they  lived  at 

9«>s.x.  JULY  19, 1902.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


a  period  when  there  was  a  quite  recent 
memory  of  size  and  wealth  and  respecta- 
bility about  Dunwich,  while  Dunmow  had 
become  insignificant  as  compared  with  its  pro- 
bable importance  as  a  Roman  station.  The 
point  of  size  and  wealth  may,  however,  be 
dismissed  in  considering  the  claim  of  either 
place,  seeing  that  before  the  days  of  Bishop 
Herfast  it  was  not  unusual  for  a  small 
town  to  be  distinguished  as  the  seat  of  a 

Dunwich  appears  in  Domesday  as  Dunewic, 
Duneuuic.  Ever  since  that  date  (as  appears 
by  Gardner's  '  History  of  Dunwich ')  the 
form  has  shown  very  slight  alteration  :  Dun- 
wyk,  Dunwico,  Denwyk,  Dunwic,  Donwico, 
Dunwico,  Donewico,  Dunwytche,  Dunwich. 
All  indubitable  references  to  Dunwich  since 
Saxon  times  keep  the  familiar  second  syllable, 
signifying  a  port  or  harbour.  The  old  eccle- 
siastical historians  mentioned  the  see  in- 
variably in  the  form  given  them  by  Bede 
and  by  the  Sax.  Chr.  (Domuc,  Domnoc),  as 
Dommuc,  Domucensis,  Dompne,  according 
to  Matt.  Westm. ;  Domuiucensem,  Dammu- 
censis,  according  to  W.  Malm.,  &c.  And 
there  is  a  form  in  John  Hardyng's  poem  : 
At  Domok  then  was  Felix  fyrst  byshop  of  Estangle, 
which  must  be  late  in  the  fifteenth  century. 
Before  this  we  do  not  find  an  ecclesiastical 
reference  having  the  termination  wic,  or 
semblance  of  it. 

Now  Dunmow  is  in  Domesday  Book  Doin- 
mawa,  Dommauua.  The  will  of  Bishop 
Theodred  has  Dunamowe.  A  charter  of  803 
has  "  Tilfred  Dammoce  episcopus."  Camden 
says  it  was  formerly  Duninawg  and  Dunmage, 
as  in  "  some  of  the  Registers  of  the  Bishops  of 
London."  All  the  earliest  forms  above  men- 
tioned are  clearly  allied  to  Dunmawg,  and 
it  is  noticeable  that  the  one  secular  reference 
to  Dunwich  made  by  Matt.  Westm.  is  thus, 
Wich,  when  he  mentions  the  ransoming  of 
Yarmouth,  Dunwich,  and  Ipswich  by  the 
barons ;  obviously  the  Dommoc  so  familiar 
to  him  was  far  away  from  his  mind.  These 
things  have  almost  brought  conviction  to 
myself,  but  it  is  worth  while  submitting  the 
case  to  '  N.  &  Q.'  EDWARD  SMITH. 


OF  ALLEY.  (See  9th  S.  ix.  463.)  —  When 
MR.  W.  E.  HARLAND-OXLEY  described,  as 
above,  the  benefactions  of  Emery  Hill 
in  Villiers  Street,  Duke  Street,  "Office 
Alley,"  Buckingham  Street,  and  the  Strand, 
I  think  he  might  have  said  that  "  Office 
Alley  "  is  not  the  right  and  original  name 
of  that  small  member  of  a  group  of 
thoroughfares  which  commemorate  a  very 

much  renowned  courtier.  The  proper  name 
to  which  I  refer  clung  -to  the  place  until  the 
whole  district  passed  into  the  "  control "  (as 
the  local  busybodies  delight  to  say)  of  a 
meddlesome  "  council "  or  "  board."  This 
name  should  still  be  "  Of  Alley,"  and  in  that 
manner  it  completed  the  sequence  of  names  of 
streets,  thus  :  George  Street,  Villiers  Street, 
Duke  Street,  Of  Alley,  and  Buckingham 
Street.  In  a  like  manner  the  neighbouring 
Robert,  James,  and  Adam  Streets,  Adelphi, 
commemorate  the  distinguished  brothers 
and  architects.  F.  G.  STEPHENS. 

"MOTHERLAND." — This  word,  lately  brought 
into  use  to  denote  the  friendship  existing 
between  the  United  Kingdom  and  the 
Britains  beyond  the  seas,  appears  to  have 
originated — not  very  long  ago — in  the  United 
States  of  America,  an  article  in  the  Century 
Magazine  mentioning  "  the  poets  of  our 
Motherland  across  .the  seas."  This  seems  to 
be  the  earliest  use  of  the  word,  according  to 
the  Westminster  Gazette. 


Kensington,  W. 

[Annandale's  four- volume  edition  of  Ogilvie  (1882) 
cites  Southey  for  this  word,  but  gives  no  refer- 

"  CURMUDGEON.  "-VIn  a  quarto  pamphlet  of 
1641, '  The  Brothers  of  the  Blade '— E.  238,  i(5) 
in  British  Museum  Catalogue — I  find,  at 
p.  7,  the  phrase  "a  rich  crummuchion  of  a 
vast  estate."  This  spelling  is  not  given  in  the 
1  Oxford  Dictionary.'  V.H. I.L.LC.I.V. 

"  COKE."— MR.  J.  DORMER  (9th  S.  ix.  482) 
quotes  the  Monthly  Magazine  of  1797  for  coke, 
meaning  chalk,  wherein  it  is  said  to  be  a 
Lincolnshire  form.  I  do  not  think  the  writer 
represented  the  sound  correctly  by  his  spell- 
ing. Cork  or,  more  exactly,  cauk  comes  much 
nearer  the  sound,  as  I  frequently  hear  it,  and 
I  cannot  well  be  mistaken,  for  a  relation  of 
mine,  a  boy  of  some  twelve  years  old,  having 
listened  attentively  to  some  men  who  were 
talking  of  guarding  a  dangerous  portion  of 
the  eastern  bank  of  the  river  Trent  with  a 
barrier,  of  chalk,  misunderstood  what  they 
meant,  and  told  me  that  the  bank  was  about 
to  be  protected  by  corks,  and  inquired  how 
this  was  to  be  done.  It  was  not  a  jest  on  his 
part.  I  am  sure  the  question  was  asked  in 
all  the  simplicity  of  good  faith. 


Kirton-in-  Lindsey. 

HIDDENITE.  —  So  many  allusions  having 
recently  been  made  in  the  public  press 
to  Crown  and  other  jewels,  the  following 



x.  JULY  w,  MOB. 

extract  from  Mr.  Edwin  W.  Streeter's  valu- 
able work  on  '  Gems '  will  doubtless  prove  of 
special  interest  to  students  of  mineralogy  : — 
"  The  Hiddenite  is  a  comparatively  little-known 
gem-stone,  having  been  discovered  only  a  few  years 
ago  in  North  Carolina,  by  Mr.  W.  E.  Hidden,  after 
whom  it  was  named.  In  appearance  it  is  some- 
thing like  the  emerald,  both  in  its  rough  and  cut 
states.  It  is  of  a  brilliant  green  hue,  verging 
towards  yellow,  and  possesses  a  beauty  of  its  own. 
It  is  a  variety  of  the  mineral  called  Spodumene. 
Composition  :  a  silicate  of  aluminium  and  lithium  ; 
specific  gravity,  3 ;  hardness,  7.  Crystalline  system, 
monoclinic.  Form,  prismatic  crystals." 

The  "  form  "  of  the  emerald  is  hexagonal  and 
di-hexagonal  prisms,  variously  modified. 

56,  Vale  Road,  Finsbury  Park,  N. 

NARCISSA. — Recently  I  spent  several  days  in 
the,  to  me,  enjoyable  perusal  of  '  N".  &  Q.,'  a 
full  set  of  which  up  to  date,  I  rejoice  to  say, 
I  possess.  In  the  First  Series,  vols.  iii.,  iv., 
and  v.,  there  are  four  communications  on 
Dr.  Young's  pathetic  recital  of  his  stealing  a 
grave  for  his  daughter-in-law,  Elizabeth  Lee 
(Narcissa),  in  the  Third  Night  of  his  cele- 
brated poem  'Night  Thoughts.'  All  the 
correspondents  seem  to  accept  the  poet's 
statement  as  undoubtedly  and  unquestion- 
ably true,  thus  inferentially  establishing 
the  heartless  bigotry  of  the  people  among 
whom  she  died.  Dr.  Young  lived  in  an  age 
when  any  statement  made  against  the 
"  Papists  "  was  readily  swallowed,  I  am  sorry 
to  say,  by  the  highest  and  lowest  classes  of 
the  English  people,  and  the  poet  was  un- 
scrupulous enough  to  weave  in  this  clever 
episode,  regardless  of  the  commandment, 
"Thou  shalt  not  bear  false  witness  against 
thy  neighbour."  He  was  the  pliant  tool  of 
Wharton  before  he  took  orders — Wharton, 
whom  Pope  describes  as  "the  scorn  and 
wonder  of  his  age."  Yet  we  find  the  doctor 
toadying  and  abasing  himself  before  this 
nobleman  for  the  sake  of  an  annuity.  Ac- 
cording to  Swift  he  was  a  pensioned  writer 
at  Court : — 

Where  Young  must  torture  his  invention 
To  flatter  knaves,  or  lose  his  pension. 

He  took  orders  in  1728,  and  was  appointed 
chaplain  to  George  II.,  and  Clerk  of  the 
Closet  to  her  Royal  Highness  the  Princess 
Dowager  of  Wales.  He  has  been  accused  of 
endeavouring  through  some  of  the  king's 
mistresses  to  obtain  higher  Church  prefer- 
ment. Most  of  his  biographers  touch  lightly 
on  his  unclerical  weakness  in  these  well- 
established  facts.  Now,  as  '  N.  &  Q.'  will  be 
a  mine  of  reference  for  ages  to  come,  and  as 
its  pages  have  given  space  and  publicity  to 

a  false  charge  against  a  community  and 
nation,  uncontradicted  during  all  the  years 
since  its  publication,  I  hope  you  will  put  it 
on  record  that  'Chambers's  Book  of  Days,' 
vol.  i.  pp.  502  and  503,  fully  establishes  the 
falsity  of  Dr.  Young's  "midnight  pious 
sacrilege."  EDWARD  MCGRATH. 

San  Francisco. 

COMIC    SCOTCH. — In  a  recent   number  of 
Punch  a  poetical  contributor  makes  a  "  careful 
Caledonian  "  lament  as  follows  on  the  pro- 
posal to  put  an  extra  penny  on  cheques  : — 
Ye  banks  and  brains  o'  monied  men, 

How  can  my  funds  the  Budget  bear  ? 
How  can  I  sign  my  little  cheques 

Wi'out  a  bosom  fu'  o'  care  ? 
Ye  '11  break  me  yet,  ye  little  cheques, 
That  aince  I  drew  wi'  sma'  concern. 
Twa  pence  !    I  couldna  gi'e  awa' 
Sae  fell  a  sum  wi'out  return. 

There  is  another  stanza,  but  this  will  serve 
the  immediate  purpose.  Manifestly  the 
parody  is  based  on  Burns's  'Bonnie  Doon,' 
and  it  would  surely  have  been  only  fair, 
therefore,  on  the  part  of  the  writer  to 
use  words  such  as  Burns  would  have  ap- 
proved. It  is  possible  that,  if  the  occasion 
had  arisen  for  it,  the  poet  might  have  written 
"  monied,"  for  he  has  "  gold  and  white  monie  " 
in  the  song  '  To  daunton  Me,'  but  he  does  not 
employ  the  forms  "aince"  and  "wi'out." 
As  has  recently  been  shown  in  these  columns1 
"ance,"  for  "anis,"  is  one  of  his  words  ;  but 
when  he  needs  "  without "  he  writes  it,  or 
he  uses  "  withouten,"  as  in  '  Tam  Samson's 
Elegy,'  at.  7  :— 

Ye  Maukins,  cock  your  fud  fu'  braw, 
Withouten  dread. 

Etymplogically,  as  might  easily  be  shown, 
this  is  a  perfectly  defensible  form,  but 
"  wi'out "  can  be  characterized  only  as  a 
verbal  prodigy.  Scotsmen  also  say  "  two- 
pence," like  other  civilized  beings,  although 
with  them,  as  with  others,  there  may  arise 
a  necessity  for  using  the  expression  "  twa 
pennies."  But  it  is  just  possible  that  the 
Punch  humourist  may  be  delineating  in  his 
''  Caledonian  "  a  Gael  wrestling  with  Lowland 
Scotch.  In  that  case  it  might  have  been 
well  for  him  to  define  his  rhapsodist  pre- 
cisely, and  to  keep  him  off  the  track  of  Burns. 


"  WEDGEWOOD." — The  meaning  and  history 
of  this  Lancashire  dialect  word  have  been 
treated  as  doubtful,  but  what  appears  to  be  the 
correct  account  has  been  given  to  me  by  an 
octogenarian  who  has  lived  all  her  days  in 
the  county  or  near  its  border.  She  said  that 
wedgewood  is  just  wedge-wood,  and  neither 
a  personal  name  nor  "  wet-shod,"  as  has  been 

s.x.  JULY  19, 1902.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


supposed ;  and  that  the  original  expression 
was  "  as  stupid  as  wedge- wood."  One  gathered 
that,  wedge-wood  having  become  a  type  of 
the  superlative  as  regards  stupidity,  in  that 
a  wedge  cannot  be  got  to  budge  beyond  a 
certain  point,  it  later  came  to  be  used  for 
any  superlatively  awkward  condition,  as  in 
the  phrase  "Aw've  bin  clemmed  [starved] 
wurr  nor  wedge-wood." 


WE  must  request  correspondents  desiring  infor- 
mation on  family  matters  of  only  private  interest 
to  affix  their  names  and  addresses  to  their  queries, 
in  order  that  the  answers  may  be  addressed  to  them 

She  of  the  open  soul  and  open  door, 
With  room  about  her  hearth  for  all  mankind. 

These  lines  are  attributed  in  Webster's  '  Diet.' 
(Supplement)  to  Lowell.  I  shall  be  glad  to 
know  where  they  occur.  Please  answer 
directly  to  Dr.  Murray,  Oxford. 

J.  A.  H.  M. 

muniments  of  Stanley  Abbey,  Wilts,  cata- 
logued in  the  thirteenth  century  (MS.  Harl. 
6716),  is  mentioned  a  charter  of  Juliana, 
daughter  of  Alfred  of  Gatemore,  concerning 
one  virgate  of  land,  and  a  house  with  two 
acres  and  three  crofts  called  "Inhokes"*- 
and  concerning  pasture  for  three  hundred 
sheep  and  ten  beasts  ( Wiltshire  Archceol.  and 
Nat.  Hist.  Mag.,  1875,  xv.  250).  Below  is  an 
entry  of  "  Confirmatio  Roberti  Malherbe 
militis  de  pastura.  iii.t  ovium  et.  x.  anima- 
lium."  Can  some  Wiltshire  antiquary  kindly 
say  whether  this  and  the  subsequent  charters 
of  pasture  for  three  hundred  sheep  in  Berke- 
ley are  mere  confirmations  of  Juliana's  grant? 
I  am  anxious  to  have  as  accurate  and  full 
particulars  as  possible  of  the  extent  and 
method  of  management  of  monastic  sheep- 
farms  at  the  end  of  the  thirteenth  century. 
Stanley  happens  to  be  one  of  the  first  chat  I 
am  investigating.  ROBT.  J.  WHITWELL. 

C.C.C.,  Oxford. 

LAMBROOK  STRADLING.— Can  any  of  your 
correspondents  give  me  information  respect- 
ing a  Lambrook  Stradling,  of  Cardiff  and 
Bristol,  about  1700?  To  whom  was  he  mar- 

*  Has  anything  been  done  to  ascertain  the  geo- 
graphical area  of  this  term  ?  Some  guidance  as  to 
its  origin  might  result  from  knowing  where  it  was 

f  An  obvious  misprint  for  iiicT 

ried  ?  I  seek  also  for  information  concerning 
Lambrook  Lewis,  about  1710  to  1730,  sup- 
posed to  be  some  relation  to  the  Stpadling 
and  Powlett  families.  T.  P.  LEWIS. 

67,  Paradise  Street,  Barrow. 

"  TRESSHER."— In  the  volume  for  the  years 
1560-84  of  presentments  made  to  the  Arch- 
deacon of  Canterbury  the  following  was 
made  from  Goodneston-next-Faversham  in 
1560  :— 

"Our  Parson  hath  appointed  his  tressher  to  be 
our  Reader. 

"  Our  Parson  is  not  resident. 

"Our  Reader  doth  not  say  his  service  in  due 

Was  the  "  tressher  "  the  man  who  threshed 

the  corn  for  the  rector  ?    In  Kent  a  "  trush  " 

is  a  hassock  for  kneeling  on  in  church,  so  a 

maker  of  these  might  be  a  tressher  or  trusher. 


Tankerton-on-Sea,  Kent. 

BYRON'S  BUST  BY-  BARTOLINI.  —  What  be- 
came of  the  bust  taken  by  Bartolini  from 
Lord  Byron  in  1822?  The  following  notes- 
(from  the  'Letters  and  Journals,'  vol.  vi., 
ed.  R.  E.  Prothero,  John  Murray,  1901)  refer 
to  this  bust,  whose  ultimate  destination  is 
unknown  : — 

Pisa,  April  9th,  1822. 
To  Joikn  Murray. 

Dear  Sir,— The  busts  wNl  be  sent  when  completed. 
They  are  already  paid  for,  &c.— Vol.  vi.  p.  47,  letter 

The  busts  which  you  enquire  after  have  been  long 
paid  for,  but  are  not  even  begun.  Bartolini  is 
famous  for  his  delays,  something  like  yourself.— 
P.  62,  letter  1001. 

Pisa,  Sept.  23rd,  1822. 

The  bust  does  not  turn  out  a  very  good  one, 
though  it  may  be  like  for  aught  I  know,  as  it  exactly 
resembles  a  superannuated  Jesuit.  I  shall  there- 
fore not  send  it  as  I  intended  :  but  I  will  send  you 
hers,  which  is  much  better ;  and  you  can  get  a  copy 
from  Thorwaldsen's.  I  assure  you  Bartolini's  is 
dreadful,  though  my  mind  misgives  me  that  it  is 
hideously  like.  If  it  is  I  cannot  be  long  for  this 
world,  for  it  overlooks  seventy. — P.  117,  letter  1027. 
Genoa,  Oct.  24th,  1822. 

You  shall  have  the  busts, — also  the  picture  of  the 
Countess  G.  I  hear  that  both  are  very  like  her  and 
much  admired ;  but  West's  picture  of  me  for  the 
New  York  Academy  is  preferred  to  Bartolini's  bust 
of  me  done  at  the  same  time  at  the  request  of  both 
artists,  for  I  had  resolved  to  sit  no  more  for  such 
vanities.— P.  131,  letter  1032. 

This  bust  of  Lord  Byron  was  (probably) 
sold,  according  to  his  instructions  to  Charles 
F.  Barry  (p.  375),  together  with  his  other 
effects  (1824).  Inquiries  as  to  the  bust  have 
been  made  of  Lady  Byron,  Lord  Lovelace, 
Lady  Dorchester,  Mr.  Murray,  the  Magazine 
of  Art,  the  Studio,  and  Mr.  Claude  Phillips, 
who  do  not  know  its  whereabouts, 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [9th  s.  x.  JULY  19, 1902. 

I  should  be  glad  to  know  if  any  gallery  or 
private  collection  claims  to  have  the  original 
bust  or  a  replica  of  it ;  and  whether  it  was 
the  custom  of  Bartolini  to  execute  replicas  of 
his  work.  EMILY  JOURDAIN. 

63,  Chesterton  Road,  Cambridge. 

O  AND  ITS  PRONUNCIATION.— Will  some  one 
learned  in  the  changes  undergone  by  English 
speech  inform  me  when  it  first  oecame  fashion- 
able to  pronounce  "  God  "  as  Gaud,  "  coffee  "  as 
cauffee,  and  "  broth  "  as  braiith  ?  When,  too, 
did  such  words  as  "go,"  "note,"  and  "oh  !" 
take  their  present  accepted  sound,  in  which 
the  vowel  is  no  longer  pure,  as  French 
novelists  have  noticed,  since  they  write  the 
English  "  oh  !"  as  aoh  !  to  represent  the  insu- 
lar pronunciation  ?  Has  any  one  ever  shown 
in  which  of  our  counties  the  various  vowel- 
sounds  now  considered  correct  are  naturally 
current?  In  which  shires,  for  instance,  has 
the  a  in  "glass,"  "grass,"  or  "  path  "  the  value 
of  a  in  "  father,"  and  in  which  does  the  sound 
more  nearly  resemble  the  a  in  "  cat "  ? 

G.  W. 

there  an  English  guide  or  dictionary  to  Greek 
mythology,  containing  brief  accounts  of  the 
less-known  myths,  outside  the  popular  cycles? 

L.  K. 

[We  are  aware  of  no  work  of  the  kind  other  than 
the  well-known  dictionaries  of  Lempriere  and  Smith.] 

DOUGLAS. — James  and  John  Douglas  were 
admitted  to  Westminster  School  in  1768, 
William  Douglas  in  1771,  and  another  Wil- 
liam Douglas  in  1785.  Can  any  correspondent 
of  '  N.  &  Q.'  help  me  to  identify  these  names  ? 

G.  F.  B.  B. 

•THE  GHOST  AT  THE  FUNERAL.' —  Who  is 
the  author  of  the  poem  entitled  '  The  Ghost 
at  the  Funeral '  ?  The  first  two  verses  are,  1 
think,  in  these  words  : — 

The  funeral  pageant  fills  the  aisles : 
Slowly  they  come,  all  robed  in  black. 

The  poem  was  published  anonymously  about 
twenty -five  years  ago,  and  I  understand 
was,  at  that  time,  supposed  to  be  written  by 
Longfellow.  WM.  A.  PLUNKETT. 

San  Francisco. 

(See  every  General  Index.)  —  Among  the 
'Ordinaunces  of  the  Towne  of  Nethe  made 
by  the  Constable,  Porterive,  and  the  Burgesses 
of  the  saide  Towne,'  in  1542,  is  the  following  : 

"item,  if  any  woman  doe  scoulde  or  Rage  any 
Burgesse  or  his  wyfe  or  any  other  person  and  his 
wife,  if  shee  be  found  faultye  in  the  same  by  sjxe 
men,  then  shee  to  bee  broughte,  at  the  first  defaulte 
to  the  Cooking  stoole,  and  there  to  sitt  one  houre, 

at  the  second  defaulte,  twoe  houres,  and  at  the 
third  defaulte,  to  lette  slipp  the,  pynn  or  els  pay  a 
good  fyne  to  the  Kinge."— P.  4  of  the  copy  in  G.  G. 
Francis's  '  Original  Charters  and  Materials  for  a 
History  of  Neath  and  its  Abbey,'  Swansea,  1835. 

What  is  the  exact  meaning  of  the  words 
italicized?  O.  O.  H. 

[Is  not  the  meaning  that  the  woman  was  at  the 
third  offence  let  into  the  water  by  the  withdrawing 
of  the  pin  ?] 

SIXTEENTH -CENTURY  DUEL.— I  find  in  a 
not  very  legible  MS.  an  account  of  a  duel  or 
combat,  temp.  Queen  Elizabeth,  in  which  one 
combatant  seems  to  have  been  armed  with 
"  baculus  cum  forcipe  et  pugione,"  and  the 
other  with  rapier  and  (apparently)  sica— 
the  last  word  not  very  legible.  What  was  the 
distinction  between  pugio  and  sica  ?  How 
would  such  a  combat  oe  fought  ?  LOBUC. 

"CARE,  VALE."  — Who  was  the  author  of 
"  Care,  vale,  sed  non  seternum,  care,  valeto  "  ? 


COAT."— What  were  the  peculiarities  of  these 
articles  of  attire?  They  occur  in  a  pro- 
gramme of  Coronation  sports  held  nere 
28  June,  1838.  The  items  in  which  they 
occur  are  :  "  The  celebrated  Grecian  Game 
called  Penny-Loavesand  Treacle,  for  a  splendid 
Harry  Dick  Hat."  "  Eating  Hot  Hasty  Pud- 
ding, for  a  dashing  Adelaide  Waistcoat." 



"ARMADA"  CHESTS. — How  many  of  these 
made  of  the  oak  of  the  famous  fleet  still 
survive  ?  They  would  at  first  be  numerous  ; 
the  wood  was  seasoned,  partly  worked,  was  to 
be  had  in  every  seaport,  and  had  that  subtle 
flavour  of  honour  and  glory  which  suggested 
the  tradition  (if  fact  it  be  not)  that  our 
famous  Middle  Temple  Hall  screen  was  made 
of  it.  Yet  the  name  died  out,  and  it  was  only 
after  I  had  bought  my  specimen  at  a  country 
farm  sale  that  an  old  man  told  me,  "  Us  calls 
them  Armada  chests."  And  its  appearance 
corroborated  it,  its  original  white  having 
toned  down  into  paly  gold,  and  its  hinges 
being  hooks.  Experts  date  it  about  1590. 
A  very  similar  one,  attributed  to  Anne  Hatha- 
way, occurred  in  Christie's  sale  of  the 
Hornsby  Shakespeariana,  4  June,  1896, 
lot  101,' bought  by  Mr.  Sotheran  for  81.  5s. 
These  Hornsbys  were  Stratford  folk,  probably 
traceable  now,  claimed  descentfrom  Joan  Hart, 
once  tenanted  Shakespeare's  house,  and  when 
evicted  therefrom  opened  a  museum  across 
the  road  where  this  chest  figured.  The  sale 
was  made  by  their  people.  My  chest  is 
54  in.  by  21  in.  wide,  is  carved  with  scroll- 

x.  JULY  19, 1902.         NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


work  ornament,  has  four  sunk  panels  divided 
by  conventional  "trees,"  and  borders  carved 
with  arches,  interlaced  ribbon,  and  diamond 
ornament.  The  ends  bear  St.  Andrew  crosses 
bordered.  One  would  like  to  know  how  many 
of  these  old-time  memorials  exist,  or  any 
record  of  them.  May  I  inquire  through 
'N.  &Q.'?  W.  G.  THORPE,  F.S.A. 

32,  Nightingale  Lane,  S.W. 

[Several  so-called  Armada  chests  are  mentioned 
at  8th  S.  x.  395,  441 ;  but  at  the  latter  reference 
PROF.  LAUGHTON  ridicules  the  idea  that  they  came 
from  wrecked  ships  belonging  to  the  Armada.] 

STAFFORD  FAMILY.  —  On  pp.  75,  76  of 
Dwnn's  '  Heraldic  Visitations  of  Wales ' 
(Welsh  MSS.  Soc.,  Llandovery,  1846),  vol.  ii., 
there  appears  a  pedigree  of  the  Stafford 
family  under  the  heading  'The  Kealm  of 
Ireland  the  County  of  Wesfort  the  Fsh 
of  Oil  Rann.'  Why  is  this  pedigree  inserted 
among  the  families  of  the  three  north-eastern 
counties  of  Wales  ?  Did  any  of  the  Staffords 
live  in  those  parts?  What  connexion  was 
there  between  them  and  Robert  Stafford,  of 
Fishguard,  Pembrokeshire?  He  died  in  1733, 
and  I  have  a  rough  copy  of  his  will.  He 
apparently  was  unmarried,  and  leaves  his 

Eroperty  to  his  four  sisters.  Tradition  states 
e  nad  a  brother  who  also  died  unmarried, 
and  that  they  came  from  Wexford  during 
religious  disturbances  at  the  close  of  the 
seventeenth  century.  Many  Irish  seem  to 
have  settled  on  the  Welsh  coast  at  this  time. 
I  copied  the  following  note  from  the  registers 
of  Cardigan  parish  church :  "  Collected  at 
the  Parish  church  of  Cardigan  the  sum  of 
2l.  2s.  6c£.  towards  the  relief  of  the  distressed 
Protestants  from  Ireland  in  the  first  year  of 
the  Reign  of  King  William  and  Queen  Mary." 
In  the  above  will,  a  copy  of  which  I  shall  be 
pleased  to  send  any  one  interested,  Robert 
Stafford  mentions  "my  dear  friend  Mrs. 
Diana  Fenton."  She  was  of  the  family  of 
Richard  Fenton,  who  wrote  the  '  Historical 
Tour  through  Pembrokeshire.' 

St.  Matthew's  Church,  Oakley  Square,  N.W. 

PROJECTION  ON  A  SAW.-^Can  any  reader 
throw  some  light  on  the  origin,  name,  and 
use  of  the  small  projection,  less  than  one- 
eighth  of  an  inch  in  diameter,  on  the  back  of 
a  carpenter's  saw  near  the  tip?  This  pro- 
jection does  not  appear,  so  far  as  my  experi- 
ence goes,  on  modern  saws  of  American  make. 

A.  R.  BARROW. 

Princeton,  British  Columbia. 

WELLINGTON  PAMPHLET.— I  have  a  pam 
phlet  which  bears  the  following  title : 
'  Wellington :  Place  and  Date  of  his  Birth 

ascertained  and  demonstrated  by  John 
Murray,  A.M.,  LL.D.,  <fec.  ^Etas  incuriosa. 
Printed  at  the  University  Press,  Dublin,  by 
H.  Gill."  There  is  a  letter  "  To  the  Reader," 
which  begins  :  "  A  former  publication  edited 
in  April,  1850,"  &c.  This  letter  is  dated, 
"Trinity  College,  Dublin,  December,  1852." 
My  copy  is  incomplete — p.  22  is  the  ^last  — 
but  probably  only  another  leaf  is  missing,  as 
the  paragraph  at  foot  of  p.  22  begins,  "To 
conclude."  There  are  many  interesting  facts 
recorded  in  this  pamphlet,  and  among  others 
the  election  of  two  members  of  the  Irish 
Parliament  in  1790  for  the  borough  of  Trim, 
the  candidates  being  the  Right  Hon.  John 
Pomeroy,  the  Hon.  Arthur  Wesley,  Skeffing- 
ton  Thompson  and  William  Thomas  Smyth, 
Esqs. ;  and  a  petition  to  the  Irish  House  of 
Commons  is  mentioned  as  presented  by 
Thompson  and  Smyth.  Can  any  one  say 
where  a  complete  copy  of  this  pamphlet  may 
be  had  ?  F.  D.  THOMPSON. 

22,  Blenheim  Terrace,  Leeds. 

CHI-RHO  MONOGRAM.— Is  there  any  known 
instance  of  this  monogram  having  reached 
either  Ireland  or  the  Isle  of  Man  ?  Like  the 
Romans  it  is  supposed  not  to  have  wandered 
so  far  afield  as  the  ultima  Thule  of  Europe, 
but  is  it  certain  that  it  never  found  a  home 
in  Mona?  Celtic  crosses  (of  which  the  mono- 
gram was  the  undoubted  parent,  ate  also  of 
the  Maltese  cross)  abound  in  those  islands,  as 
we  know,  but  it.  is  strange  that  no  traces  of 
this  symbol  of  Christ's  name  can  be  found 
in  either.  Information  on  the  matter  will  be 
welcomed.  J.  B.  McGovERN. 

St.  Stephen's  Rectory,  C.-on-M.,  Manchester. 

BOTANICAL.— Can  any  one  supply  a  copy 
of  a  'List  of  Plants  of  Barmouth,  &c.,'  by 
the  late  Rev.  T.  Salwey,  B.D.,  F.L.S.,  formerly 
vicar  of  Oswestry,  published  about  1863  (?), 
separately,  and  also  bound  up  with  a  'Guide 
to  Barmouth,'  by  David  Jones  ? 



garian Academy  of  Sciences  has  founded  a 
museum  of  Szechenyi  relics,  MSS.,  books 
written  by  or  relating  to  him,  &c.,  and  I 
have  been  requested  by  the  secretary  to 
assist  him  in  collecting  further  materials. 
The  Count,  who  according  to  Miss  Pardoe 
had  won  a  European  reputation,  which  had 
made  "  his  name  a  watchword  with  the  high- 
minded  "  ('  City  of  the  Magyar,'  i.  263),  spent 
some  years  in  England  in  the  first  half 
of  last  century,  and  was  in  correspondence 
with  the  leading  men  of  the  day.  I  am 
especially  anxious  to  discover  letters  written 



.  x.  JULY  w, 

by  him  to  English  friends  and  to  obtain 
copies  of  them,  if  the  owners  should  not  feel 
inclined  to  present  the  originals  to  the 
museum.  With  regard  to  articles  published 
about  him,  Poole's  '  Index '  has  yielded  a 
single  reference.  L.  L.  K. 

24,  Henderson  Road,  Wandsworth  Common. 

(9th  S.  ix.  381,  509.) 

THE  editor  of  the  Mirror  presented  to  his 
readers  a  biographical  sketch  of  Sir  John 
Hawk  wood  in  the  issue  of  11  July,  1835.  '  It 
was  accompanied  by  a  copy  of  the  "  engraved 
portrait  of  him  presented  to  the  Society  of 
Antiquaries  in  1775  by  Lord  Hailes."  I 
extract  the  following  particulars  concerning 
his  death,  burial,  and  memorials : — 

"Hawkwood died  6  March,  1393,  advanced  in 

years,  at  his  house  in  the  street  called  Pulverosa, 
near  Florence.  His  death  was  received  with  the 
general  lamentation  of  the  whole  city,  and  his 
funeral  was  celebrated  with  much  magnificence. 
His  bier,  adorned  with  gold  and  jewels,  was  sup- 
ported by  the  first  officers  of  the  republic,  followed 
by  horses  splendidly  caparisoned,  banners,  and 
other  military  insignia,  and  the  whole  body  of  the 
citizens.  His  remains  were  deposited  in  the  church 
of  Sta.  Reparata,  where  a  monument  of  him  on 
horseback  was  set  up  by  a  public  decree.  On  the 
dome  of  the  same  church  is  likewise  a  representa- 
tion of  Hawkwood  mounted  on  a  pacing  gelding, 
whose  bridle,  with  the  square  ornament  embossed 
on  it,  is  covered  with  crimson  velvet  or  cloth,  the 
saddle  being  also  red,  stuffed  or  quilted.  He  is 
dressed  in  armour,  with  a  surcoat  flowing  on  from 
his  shoulders,  but  girt  about  his  body  ;  his  greaves 
are  covered  with  silk  or  cloth,  but  the  knee-pieces 
may  be  distinguished  under  them  ;  his  shoes,  which 
are  probably  part  of  his  greaves,  are  pointed, 
according  to  the  fashion  of  the  times.  His  hands 
are  bare :  in  his  right  hand  he  holds  a  yellow  baton 
of  office,  which  rests  on  his  thigh ;  in  his  left,  the 
bridle.  His  head,  which  has  very  short  hair,  is 
covered  with  a  cap  not  unlike  our  earl's  coronet, 
with  a  border  of  wrought  work. 

"Sir  John  had  a  cenotaph  in  the  church  of  his 
native  town,  Hedingham,  erected  by  his  executors ; 
and  it  remains  in  tolerable  preservation  near  the 
upper  end  of  the  fourth  aisle.  The  arch  of  this 
very  interesting  tomb  is  enriched  with  tracery  and 
adorned  with  hawks  and  their  bells  and  emblems 
of  hunting,  as  a  hare,  a  boar,  a  boar  sounding  a 
conch  shell,  &c.  Under  this  arch  is  a  low  altar 
tomb  with  five  [sic]  shields  in  quatre-foils  formerly 
painted.  In  the  south  window  of  the  chantry  chapel 
are  painted  hawks,  hawks'  bells,  and  escallops, 
which  last  are  part  of  the  Hawkwood  arms,  as  the 
first  were, probably  a  crest,  as  well  as  a  rebus  of  the 
name ;  ana  we  find  a  hawk  volant  on  Sir  John's 
^^  ~  In  the  north  and  west  side  of  the  tower  are 
wite,  i  wks  on  perches  in  neat  relief,  in  rondeaux 
men,  tbwtb-the  wall ;  which  probably  denote  that 
built  the  tower.  Mr.  Morant 

supposes  that  some  of  them  rebuilt  this  church 
about  the  reign  of  Edward  III. ;  but  none  appeared 
to  have  been  in  circumstances  equal  to  such  muni- 
ficence before  our  hero ;  and  perhaps  his  heirs  were 
the  rebuilders." 

The  engraving  at  the  head  of  the  article, 
which  merely  shows  the  upper  part  of  Sir 
John  Hawkwood's  figure,  exactly  tallies 
with  the  description  of  the  monument  at 
Sta.  Reparata. 

In  the  Mirror  of  14  November,  1835,  ap- 

§  eared  a  small  engraving  of  the  cenotaph  to 
ir  John  Hawkwood  at  Sible  Hedingnam. 
It  was  from  a  sketch  sent  by  C.  A.,  who  also 
supplied  the  following  notes  : — 

"Anxious  to  contribute  in  illustrating  the  events 
of  bygone  days,  I  inclose  a  sketch  of  the  tomb  of 
Sir  John  Hawkwood  in  the  south  aisle  of  the  church 
at  Sible  Hedingham,  Essex.  It  is  a  long,  low  altar 
tomb,  having  in  front  six  quatre-foil  divisions,  each 
charged  with  a  shield ;  over  this  is  a  beautiful  ogee 
arch,  ornamented  with  tracery  and  supported  by 
corbels ;  that  on  the  dexter  side  representing  a 
cockatrice,  and  that  on  the  sinister  side  a  lion 
rampant ;  above  this  are  twelve  long  narrow  arches 
with  trefoil  heads ;  the  whole  being  mounted 
with  an  embattled  cornice.  The  tomb  is  supported 
on  each  side  with  a  slender  buttress,  finished  with 
a  crocketed  pinnacle.  The  whole  is  a  very  good 
specimen  of  the  sepulchral  architecture  of  the  four- 
teenth century." 


West  Haddon,  Northamptonshire. 

According  to  Mr.  Augustus  J.  C.  Hare 
('Florence,'  p.  105),  Sir  John  Hawkwood's 
body  was  exhumed  by  request  of  King 
Richard  II.  and  sent  to  England,  the  munici- 
pal authorities  of  Florence  declaring  : — 

"  Although  we  should  consider  it  glorious  for  us 
and  our  people  to  possess  the  dust  and  ashes  of  the 
late  valiant  knight,  nay,  most  renowned  captain, 
Sir  John  Hawkwood,  who  fought  most  gloriously 
for  us  as  the  commander  of  our  armies,  and  whom 
at  the  public  expense  we  caused  to  be  interred  in 
the  cathedral  church  of  our  city  ;  yet.  notwith- 
standing, according  to  the  form  of  the  demand,  that 
his  remains  may  be  taken  back  to  his  own  country, 
we  freely  concede  the  permission,  lest  it  be  said 
that  your  sublimity  asked  anything  in  vain,  or  fruit- 
lessly, of  our  reverential  humility. 
Mr.  Hare  says  that  the  frescoed  memorial  to 
Hawkwood  is  on  the  right  of  the  west  door 
as  one  enters  the  Duomo  at  Florence. 


Prof.  Edward  Dowden,  in  an  appendix  to 
his  well-known  life  of  Shelley,  says,  "  It  is 
not  quite  certain,  I  believe,  whether  Beatrice 
Shelley  was  daughter  or  granddaughter  of 
Sir  John  Hawkwood,"  and  the  '  D.N.B.'  im- 
plies that  she  was  the  great  captain's  daughter, 
possibly  by  his  first  wife,  and  born  before  her 
father's  marriage  with  Donnina  Visconti. 

In  1395  the  Republic  of  Florence,  at  the 
special  request  of  Richard  II.,  granted 

9«.s.x.juLYi9,i902.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


Donnina  the  right  of  transferring  her  hus- 
band's body  to  England  ;  and  as  her  son 
John,  coming  to  England,  was  naturalized  in 
1407,  and  settled  on  the  ancestral  estate  of 
Sible  Hedingham,  it  seems  most  likely  that 
his  father's  bones  were  finally  laid  to  rest  in 
the  church  of  that  place. 

The  great  Hawkwood  himself  was  the 
second  son  of  Gilbert  de  Hawkwood,  a  tan- 
ner of  gentle  blood  ;  and  the  tradition  that 
he  began  life  as  a  tailor  in  London  probably 
originated  in  Italy,  and  from  a  corruption 
of  his  name,  which  Matteo  Villani  spells 
Gianni  della  Guglia  (John  of  the  Needle). 
The  Italian  chronicles  usually  call  him  Acuto 
or  Aquto ;  in  Froissart  he  appears  as  Hac- 
coude;  while  he  himself  spei't  his  name  in- 
differently Haucud,  Haucwod,  Haukcwod, 
and  Haukutd.  A.  K.  BAYLEY. 

The  following,  from  the  sale  (16  July)  cata- 
logue of  Messrs.  Puttick  &  Simpson,  is  of  con- 
siderable interest  in  this  connexion  : — 

"Lot  309.  Shelley  Family  MSS.  Collection  of 
Memoranda,  comprising  a  settlement  of  the  estate 
of  P.  B.  Shelley,  a  Pedigree  of  the  Shelley  Family, 
and  other  matters  connected  with  the  Poet,  1791- 
1816,  compiled  by  T.  H.  Hope,  solicitor  to  the 
Shelley  Family,  2  vols.  hf.  bd.  (binding  slightly  de- 
fective) Seec.  XIX." 


46,  Marlborough  Avenue,  Hull. 

GUEST  FAMILY  (9th  S.  ix.  508).— The  name 
suggests  from  its  spelling  a  Celtic  rather 
than  a  Teutonic  origin.  The  words  gwesti 
and  gest  are  used  respectively  in  old  Welsh 
and  Anglo-Saxon  with  the  same  meaning, 
namely  "stranger."  As  a  personal  name 
Gest  is  found  in  both  Celtic  and  Teutonic 
sources.  Presumably,  therefore,  its  origin  is 
anterior  to  either.  The  name  occurs  in  the 
'Laxdaela  Saga'  (vide  Mrs.  Press's  transla- 
tion, chap.  Ixvi.).  It  appears  also  in  the  lists 
of  kings  contained  in  the  '  Pictish  Chronicle ' 
and  the  Irish  Nennius  (vide  Skene's  'Celtic 
Scotland'  and  'Four  Ancient  Books  of 
Wales')-  In  these  lists  it  is  found  in  com- 
position in  the  names  Gest,  Gwrtich,  and 
Wurgest,  which  Mr.  Skene  says  are  Cornish 
forms.  He  points  out  that  Cymric  gest  takes 
the  Irish  form  gusa,  Cymric  Ungust  and 
Urgest  having  their  Irish  and  Scottish 
equivalents  in  Aengus  and  Feargus,  according 
to  the  phonetic  rule  by  which  Cymric  gw 
becomes  before  a  consonant  u  in  Pictish,  and 
before  a  vowel/,  both  in  Pictish  and  Gaelic. 
Thus  Cymric  Gwrgust= Pictish  Urgest= 
Gaelic  Feargus.  In  Anglo-Saxon  and  English 
Cymric  gw  becomes  w,  losing  the  guttural, 
and  corresponding  to  the  Latin  v(e. 

georn,  Weortgeorn,  Vortigern),  and  on  this 
analogy,  taking  Guest  as  a  Welsh  name,  it 
would  suggest  the  form  West  as  a  commoner 
English  one.  On  the  other  hand,  assuming 
a  Teutonic  original  for  the  surname,  it  is 
difficult  to  account  by  any  phonetic  law  for 
the  spelling— that  is,  for  the  insertion  of  the  u. 

It  is  significant  also  that  the  Irish  edition 
of  the  '  Pictish  Chronicle '  says,  in  regard  to 
the  names  of  the  thirty  Brudes,  or  kings  of 
the  Picts,  that  these  were  not  only  the  names 
of  men,  but  also  divisions  of  land,  so  that  the 
name  may  date  back  to  tribal  times,  of  which 
vestiges  are  possibly  to  be  found  surviving 
in  geographical  names  such  as  Bar-gest  and 
Moel-y-gest,  near  Portmadoc,  and  Hergest 
Hall  in  Herefordshire,  once  the  home  of  a 
famous  book  of  Welsh  MSS. 

On  the  whole,  then,  the  evidence  favours 
a  Celtic  origin  for  the  name,  and  that  an 
ancient  one,  probably  as  old  as  the  tribal 
stage  of  Celtic  society,  and  possibly  dating 
from  a  period  before  trie  Celtic  and  Teutonic 
speeches  had  separated.  A  CLANSMAN.  . 

Guest  is,  I  think,  an  English,  not  a  Welsh 
family  name.  As  a  place-name  it  occurs  in 
Guestling  (Sussex)  and  Guestwick  (Durham). 
John  Guest,  ancestor  of  Lord  Wimborne  and 
founder  of  the  Dowlais  ironworks,  migrated 
there  from  Shropshire,  circa  1747  (see  Burke's 
'Peerage,'  s.v.  Wimborne).  In  Hutchins's 
'  Dorset,'  vol.  iii.,  third  edition  (s.v.  Canford), 
the  pedigree  of  John  Guest,  who  was  born  in 
1722,  is  traced  back  to  John  Guest,  of  Lind- 
ley,  co.  Salop,  who  was  born  in  1522.  During 
the  interval  between  the  birth  of  the  two 
John  Guests  the  family  remained  in  Shrop- 
shire, where  the  surname  Guest  is  not  un- 
common. There  are  several  Guests  in  Kelly's 
'  Shropshire  Directory.1  J.  A.  J.  HOUSDEN. 

Canonbury,  N. 

STRAWBERRY  LEAVES  (9th  S.  viii.  463,  513; 
ix.  153). — May  I  refer  your  correspondents 
upon  the  significance  of  the  use  of  strawberry 
leaves  in  thexjoronets  of  peers  to  the  glossary 
of  terms  in  Woodward's  work  on  'Heraldry' 
(ed.  1896),  vol.  ii.  p.  444  ?  He  there  states  : 
"  Strawberry  leaves  (F.  feuilles  de  ache),  the 
conventional  term  for  the  foliation  of  coronets 
and  crowns."  This  would  seem  to  confirm 
the  reference  on  p.  513  (supra)  that  no  par- 
ticular significance  attaches  to  their  being 
called  strawberry  leaves. 

J.  S.  UDAL,  F.S  A. 

Antigua,  W.I. 

TRINITY  MONDAY  (6th  S.  xii.  167,  234,  523  ; 
7th  S.  i.  38).— It  may  be  of  interest  to  add  a 
few  more  instances  of  the  use  of  this  title  for 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        [9th  s.  x.  JULY  19, 1902. 

the  day  after  Trinity  Sunday.  It  is  found 
with  increasing  frequency  in  both  books 
and  newspapers.  I  have  noticed  lately 
the  following  among  other  instances  :  Vaux's 
'Church  Folk-lore,'  p.  19;  Baring  -  Gould's 
'  Urith,'  chap,  xxxix.  ;  Stubbs's  '  History 
of  the  University  of  Dublin,'  p.  157,  et  passim  ; 
Journal  of  Education  for  July,  1890,  p.  377. 

1  have  before  me  also  a  printed  notice  of  a 
meeting  to  beheld  at  Trinity  House,  London, 
which  begins  thus  :  "  Monday,  the  llth  prox., 
being  Trinity  Monday,"  &c.    I  am  under  the 
impression  that  the  term  is  also    used    in 
Malory's  'Morte    d'Arthur';    but  I  cannot 
put  my  finger  upon  the  passage  just  now. 

Trinity  College,  Melbourne  University. 

BYRON'S  GRANDFATHER  (9th  S.  ix.  509).— On 
p.  3  of  the  first  volume  of  Byron's  '  Letters 
and  Journals '  (1898,  ed.  Rowland  E.  Prothero) 
it  is  stated  that  in  1785  Miss  Catherine 
Gordon  married  Capt.  John  Byron  at  Bath, 
"  where,  it  may  be  mentioned,  her  father  had, 
some  years  before,  committed  suicide."  In 
the  'D.N.B.,'  moreover,  Mr.  Leslie  Stephen, 
in  his  account  of  the  poet,  says  that  the  saia 
Capt.  John  Byron  diea  at  Valenciennes, 

2  Aug.,  1791,  possibly  by  his  own  hand  "  (Jeaf- 
freson,  i.  48 ;  Harness,  p.  33 ;  Letter  No.  460 
in  Moore's  '  Life  of  Byron '  implicitly  denies 
suicide).  A.  R.  BAYLEY. 

HONORIFICABILITUDINITAS    (9th    S.    ix.    243, 

371,  494). — MR.  GEORGE  STRONACH'S  note  on 
this  word  and  the  quotation  he  gives  from  the 
4  Complaynt  of  Scotland '  much  interested  me, 
as  it  bears  out  exactly  what  I  wrote  in  a 
paper  some  time  back  on  Shakspere's  classical 
Knowledge.  Perhaps  I  may  be  allowed  to 
quote  from  my  paper,  which  has  not  been 
printed  : — 

"  The  splendid  procession- word  honorificabilitudi- 
nitatibn*  ( '  L.  L.  L. ,'  V.  i. )  has  been  pressed  into  the  ser- 
vice of  the  Baconian  theory  as  containing  the  cipher 
initio  hi  ludi  Fr.  Bacono,  or  some  other  silly  trash. 
The  word  was  no  doubt  a  stock  example  of  the 
longest  Latin  word,  as  the  Aristophanic  compound 
6p9o$oiroovKo<f>avToSiicoTa\aiir(i>poi  is  of  the  longest 
Greek  word,  and  was  very  probably  a  reminiscence 
of  Shakspere's  school  days,  as  the  distich 

Conturbabantur  Constantinopolitani 
Innumerabilibus  sollicitudinibus 
is  of  our  own." 

I  am  pleased  indeed  to  find  that  my  suppo- 
sition has  hit  the  bull's-eye.  Your  corre- 
spondent Q.  V.'s  warning  (under  the  same 
heading)  against  accepting  the  statements  of 
the  "  Shaconians  "  without  proof  is  a  timely 
one.  Mrs.  Pott  appears  to  be  a  particularly 
unveracious  supporter  of  the  Baconian  theory, 

as  has  already  been  shown  in  your  columns 
with  regard  to  the  expressions  "Good  mor- 
row," &c.,  and  as  I  have  myself  found  in 
regard  to  her  statement  that,  apart  from 
technical  expressions,  97  per  cent,  of  the 
vocabulary  of  Shakspere  and  Bacon  is  identi- 
cal. Excluding  words  common  to  all  writers 
of  that  period,  I  should  think  Shakspere  and 
Bacon  have  not  2  per  cent,  of  their  vocabulary 
in  common.  However,  I  shall  soon  be  in  a 
position  to  state  the  proportion  exactly,  as  I 
nave  made  a  list  of  all  the  words  in  Bacon 
that  strike  a  reader  familiar  with  Shakspere. 


COCKADE  OF  GEORGE  I.  (9th  S.  ix.  428).— 
This  question  has  been  discussed  several 
times  in  the  columns  of  '  N.  &  Q.,'  but,  I 
think,  without  satisfactory  results.  Among 
other  authorities  I  may  refer  to  Sir  J.  Ber- 
nard Burke,  Ulster  King-of-Arms,  who  gave 
it  as  his  opinion  (only)  that  commissioned 
officers  of  volunteer  corps  are  entitled  to  the 
privilege  of  having  cockades  in  their  servants' 
hats.  The  black  cockade  was  said  to  have 
been  introduced  by  George  I.  See  '  N.  &  Q.,' 
1st  S.  iii.,  xi. ;  2nd  S.  vii.,  viii.,  ix.  ;  3rd  S.  vii. 

71,  Brecknock  Road. 

OLD  WOODEN  CHEST  (9th  S.  v.  88, 195,  275, 
465  ;  vi.  392  ;  ix.  517).— At  Halesowen  in 
Shropshire  there  is  a  chest  hollowed  out  of 
the  trunk  of  a  tree.  It  is  shaped  like  a 
trough  and  bound  with  iron.  Another  chest 
hewn  out  of  a  single  block  of  wood  exists,  or 
recently  did  exist,  in  the  church  at  Llanabar. 
These  old  chests  appear  to  have  been  used 
originally  as  offertory  boxes.  In  2  Kings  xii. 
9  we  read  : — 

"  Jehoiada  the  priest  took  a  chest,  and  bored  a 
hole  in  the  lid  of  it,  and  set  it  beside  the  altar,  on 
the  right  side  as  one  cometh  into  the  house  of  the 
Lord :  and  the  priests  that  kept  the  door  put 
therein  all  the  money  that  was  brought  into  the 
house  of  the  Lord." 

In  this  verse  we  have  possibly  the  origin  of 
these  offertory  chests.        CHARLES  HIATT. 

To  the  examples  your  correspondents  have 
cited  of  church,  chests  hewn  out  of  solid 
blocks  of  oak  may  be  added  the  chest,  at 
Llanfeuno  in  North  Wales,  and  Penallt,  near 
Monmouth,  in  South  Wales.  The  Welsh 
tongue  has  a  special  name  for  such  chests—- 
viz., "  prenvol,"  "tree-bowl,"  from  pren  +  bol, 
sometimes  contracted  to  "prennol."  The 
example  at  Llanfeuno  is  popularly  called 
"Cyff  Beuno"  (St.  Beuno's  coffer),  "cyff" 
meaning  a  trunk,  particularly  the  trunk  of 
a  tree.  This  one  was  a  money-chest,  designed 

9t»s.x.  JULY  19, 1902.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


to  hold  coins  offered  in  honour  of  St.  Beuno 
for  the  benefit  of  cattle  and  sheep. 

Town  Hall,  Cardiff. 

WESTMINSTER  CITY  MOTTO  (9th  S.  ix.  485  ; 
x.  11). — I  wish  just  to  put  .on  record  the 
following  statement.  Some  little  time  ago 
I  was  consulted  as  to  a  suitable  motto  for 
the  new  city  of  Westminster,  and  was  told 
that  it  had  been  decided  that  it  must  be  an 
Anglo-Saxon  one.  It  seemed  to  me  that  an 
appropriate  one  exists  in  1.  658  of  the  national 
epic  '  Beowulf '  (merely  omitting  nu).  It  runs 
thus  :  "  Hafa  ond  geheald  husa  selest,"  i.  e., 
"  Have  (or  possess)  and  hold  (or  maintain) 
the  best  of  (all)  houses  "  ;  with  reference  to 
the  Houses  of  Parliament.  I  believe  now  that 
I  have  been  hoaxed.  Indeed,  I  ought  to 
have  known  that  the  last  thing  an  English 
city  would  care  to  adopt  would  be  a  motto 
in  that  language  which  the  majority  of 
Englishmen  so  heartily  contemn.  Perhaps 
in  the  next  century  it  may  command  the 
respect  it  deserves.  WALTER  W.  SKEAT. 

"  MERESTEADS"  OR  "  MESESTEADS  "  (9th  S.  ix. 
248,  437  ;  x.  9). — The  evidence  certainly  seems 
to  show  that  the  original  term  was  meestead 
or  meastead,  a  compound  of  mease  and  stead. 
The  shortening  to  misted  is  normal ;  after 
which  the  changes  to  meadstead  and  mearstead 
are  due  to  the  erroneous  workings  of  popular 
etymology.  The  form  mease  or  mese  (see 
4  Cent.  Dict.,'s.v.  'Mease') is  allied  to mess-iiage, 
no  doubt,  but  is  more  familiar  to  us  in  the 
form  manse.  All  these  \vords  are  from  the 
late  Latin  mansa,  as  the  '  Century  Dictionary  ' 
and  Webster  say,  and  are  due  to  the  Latin 
manere.  The  sense  of  mesestead  is  therefore 
"manse-place,  or  holding  on  which  a  dwell- 
ing-place exists."  The  Old  French  forms  are 
numerous,  and  are  thus  given  in  Godefroy  : 
"  Mes,  mez,  meis,  mex,  meix,  maix,  miex,  mietz, 
mas,  s.  m.  et  f.,  maison  de  campagne,  ferme, 
propriete  rurale,  jardin ;  habitation,  de- 
meure,"  &c.  Here  follow  thirty  examples  of 
its  use,  and  some  ten  examples  in  place- 
names.  In  fact,  it  is  extremely  common, 
being  merely  the  familiar  mais-on  without 
the  suffix  ;  and  maison  represents  the  Latin 
mansionem.  CELER. 

Q.  V.  asks  from  what  part  of  England 
Governor  Bradford  came.  The  answer  is, 
from  Austerfield,  near  Bawtry,  and  not  far 
from  here.  The  Church  Covenant  of  the 
Baptist  congregation  meeting  at  Epworth  is 
dated  4  January,  1599,  and  bears  the  signa- 
tures of  John  Morton,  William  Brewster,  and 
William  Bradford.  Of  these  men  Bradford 

was  afterwards  Governor  of  the  colony  at 
New  Plymouth,  and  .Brewster  ruling  elder. 
Misted  is  not  the  only  word  that  connects 
that  colony  with  these  parts.  I  never  read  a 
New  England  novel  without  coming  across 
a  score  of  "  Americanisms  "  that  are  still  in 
common  use  here.  C.  C.  B. 


LOVEL  :  DE  HAUTVILLE  (9th  S.  x.  9).— Over 
the  door  of  Staunton  Court,  South  Worcester- 
shire, is  a  shield,  Lion  rampant  between  cross- 
lets  fitche,  attributed  to  De  Hautville.  The 
same  appears  in  Staunton  Church  quartered 
with  the  arms  of  St.  Loe — Horton — Whit- 
tington— De  Staunton.  At  Meysey  Hampton, 
Gloucestershire,  the  arms  are  quartered  with 
those  of  Jenner  Vaux — Horton — Whittington 
— St.  Loe.  Somewhat  the  same  is  found  at 
Chew  Magna  Church  in  Somerset,  where  is  a 
wooden  monument  to  Sir  John  de  Hautevelle, 
who  lived  in  the  time  of  Henry  III ,  and  the 
crosslets  were  given  him  for  going  to  the 
Holy  Land.  He  is  supposed  to  have  been  a 
giant,  and  to  have  thrown  a  great  stone  from 
the  hill  of  Stan  ton  Drew.  I  have  some- 
where notes  re  Hautville  and  Lovel,  and 
should  like  to  meet  or  hear  from  T.  W.  C. 
Was  the  lion  argent  or  sable? — ditto  the 
crosslets  fitche  1  J.  G.  HAWKINS. 

Staunton  Court,  near  Gloucester. 

TEDULA,  A  BIRD  (9th  S.  ix.  389,  433,  516).— 
MR.  C.  S.  WARD  will  find  in  Lindsay's  '  Latin 
Language,'  p.  353,  an  account  of  the  d  suffix 
in  Latin,  or  which  the  form  ednla  seems  to 
have  been  used  to  express  the  names  of 
certain  birds  and  animals ;  -edo  was  used  to 
express  certain  ailments,  \ikefrigedo,  riibedo, 
&c.  It  seems  not  unlikely  that  a  form  like 
monedula  (conceived  to  come  from  monere) 
controlled  the  form  of  the  words  in  edula. 
Acredula  can  hardly  be  thrush,  for  in  the 
'Philomela'  we  find  it  distinguished  from 
drosca.  H.  A.  STRONG. 

University  College,  Liverpool. 

ALMANAC  MEDALS  (9th  S.  viii.  344,  467).— 
1  clip  the  following  from  the  Daily  Mail  of 
4  July  : — 

"  While  excavating  at  some  old  cottages  at  High 
Wycombe,  Bucks,  yesterday,  a  workman  discovered 
a  calendar  coin  dated  1797.  It  is  of  copper,  and 
about  the  size  of  a  four-shilling  piece.  On  one  side 
are  clearly  engraved  the  dates  of  the  Sundays  of 
the  whole  year,  with  special  reference  to  Septua- 
gesima,  Advent,  Lent,  Easter,  Holy  Thursday, 
Whit  Sunday,  and  Trinity  Sunday.  On  the  other 
side  there  is  the  every-day  calendar  for  the  year." 

In  a  letter  to  the  same  newspaper  three 
days  later  the  llev.  James  Sprunt  describes 
one  of  these  "copper  calendars,"  dated  1766, 
which  is  in  his  possession.  A  few  years  ago 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        [9«>  s.  x.  JULY  19, 1902. 

(1895  I  believe)  bronze  medals  embossed  with 
a  calendar  for  the  year  and  an  advertisement 
of  a  type-writing  machine  (if  I  remember 
rightly)  were  sold  in  the  streets  of  London  at 
a  penny  each.  I  bought  one  of  these,  but  lost 
it  by  tendering  it  in  mistake  for  a  penny 
piece.  F.  ADAMS. 

TENNIS  :  OKIGIN  OF  THE  NAME  (9th  S.  ix.  27, 
75,  153,  238,  272,  418,  454  ;  x.  11).— I  quite 
see  the  difficulty,  and  fear  it  is  impossible 
to  find  evidence  as  to  all  the  conditions  of 
the  game  in  the  fourteenth  century  in  Eng- 
land. Perhaps  we  might,  however,  recover 
some  of  the  uses  of  the  verb  tenir,  and  I 
write  this  merely  to  record  that  there  is  an 
interesting  example  in  1.  387  of  the  celebrated 
'  Chanson  du  Roland,'  where  Ganelon  says  of 
Roland  :  "  En  sa  main  tint  une  vermeille 
pume  .  Tenez,  bels  sire,  dist  Rollanz  a  sun 
uncle,"  i.e.,  "He  held  in  his  hand  a  red  apple  ; 
'Receive  it,  fair  sir,' said  Roland  to  his  uncle." 

JEWS'  WAY  :  JEWS'  GATE  :  JEWS'  LANE,  *fec. 
(9th  S.  ix.  508). — Jewbury  still  figures  as  a 
local  name  just  outside  the  walls  of  York. 
There  was  the  Jewish  cemetery  in  the  Middle 
Ages : — 

"By  the  Inquisition  taken  upon  the  expulsion  of 
the  Jews  from  England  by  King  Edward  I.  in  the 
eighteenth  year  of  his  reign,  it  is  found  that  the 
place  called  '  Le  Jewbiry,'  which  consisted  of  eight 
seliona  or  one  acre  of  land,  on  part  of  which  a 
house  was  built,  was  held  by  the  community  of  the 
Jews  of  York  and  Lincoln,  '  ubi  sepultura  eorum 
erat.'  The  words  of  the  record  do  not  enable  us 
to  determine  positively  whether  the  community  of 
Jews  to  which  it  refers  was  confined  to  the  cities 
or  extended  to  the  counties  of  York  and  Lincoln  ; 
but  the  quantity  of  the  ground  would  appear  to  be 
disproportionately  large  for  the  purpose  intended, 
when  compared  with  the  amount  of  Hebrew  popu- 
lation in  the  cities,  so  far  as  that  can  be  inferred 
from  our  knowledge  of  the  number  of  Jews  in  York 
at  the  period  of  their  expulsion,  and  therefore  the 

Erobability  is  that  Jewbury  was  the  common 
urying-place  for  the  Jews  in  the  counties  of  York 
and  Lincoln,  or  at  least  was  held  by  the  whole 
community  of  Yorkshire  and  Lincolnshire  Jews  for 
that  purpose.  If  any  proof  were  wanting  of  the 
identity  of  the  place  we  now  call  Jewbury  with 
that  mentioned  in  the  Inquisition  of  the  18th  Ed- 
ward L,  it  is  afforded  by  an  entry  on  the  Patent 
Rolls  in  the  first  year  of  Henry  IV.  of  a  grant  by 
the  King  to  Robert  de  Gare  of  two  messuages,  two 
cottages,  and  one  croft  called  Jewbury  in  Monkgate, 
within  the  suburbs  of  the  city  of  York." — '  Walks 
through  the  City  of  York,'  by  Robert  Davies, 
F.S.A.,  pp.  40,  41.  Street,  which  runs  from  Coney  Street, 
hea(j£tension  of  the  ancient  Conyng  Street, 
the  "dtefflL81*^,  formerly  Jubber- 
one.  Mrs.  Pott  ^Vo  ^  ^ritl,n*s  ,as, 
unveracious  supporter  of  kanon  Rame  <  Yor)j> 

p.  59)  asserted  that  there  was  the  Jewish 
quarter  or  Jewry,  and  he  thus  endorsed  the 
opinion  of  Drake,  which  Mr.  Davies  seemed 
inclined  to  discredit,  that  the  name  "carries 
some  memorial  of  the  Jews  residing  formerly 
in  this  street."  Drake  adds,  "  Tradition  tells 
us  that  their  synagogue  was  here  "  ('  History 
of  York,'  p.  322).  I  may  fitly  mention  in 
connexion  with  this  subject  that  of  late 
years  Jews  have  again  found  their  way  to 
York.  In  1892  Dr.  Adler  presented  their 
community  with  a  scroll  of  the  law,  &c.,  and, 
says  the  Yorkshire  Herald  (8  Oct.,  1892), 
"Divine  service  was,  therefore,  held  at  the 
beginning  of  their  New  Year  (3  Oct.)  in  York, 
for  the  first  time,  in  all  probability,  since  the 
expulsion  in  1290." 

At  Lincoln  there  is  a  narrow  entry  called 
St.  Dunstan's  Lock.  "This,"  says  Sir 
C.  H.  J.  Anderson,  in  his  'Lincoln  Pocket 
Guide,'  p.  69, 

"is  near  the  Jew's  House  and  the  locality  occupied 
by  the  Jews  in  the  Middle  Ages,  and  no  doubt  is  a 
corruption  of  '  Dernestall,'  the  place  where  little 

St.  Hugh  was  born The  Lock  possibly  refers  to 

a  barrier  placed  across  the  entrance  of  the  Strait, 
and  secured  at  night.  It  might  be  to  shut  in  the 

Jews We  find  no  St.  Dunstan's  in  Lincoln,  so 

that  the  St.  must  have  been  a  modern  addition." 


"HEROINA"  (9th  S.  ix.  509).-Coles's  Latin- 
English  dictionary  (1677)  enters  this  word  as 
follows  :  "  Herolna,  se,  /.  and  herois,  fdis,  a 
Noble  Woman,  Lady,  Princess";  while  Du 
Cange  quotes  "  Herois,  La  baronissa,"  from  a 
MS.  Latin-Italian  glossary.  'Hpuun?  occurs 
in  a  Greek  inscription  (No.  2259),  with  the 
meaning,  according  to  Liddell  and  Scott,  of 
"  a  deceased  female,"  but  of  what  rank  is  not 
stated.  If  your  correspondent  has  access  to 
the  '  Corpus  Inscriptionum,'  he  may  ascer- 
tain this  for  himself.  F.  ADAMS. 

THE  METRICAL  PSALTER  (9th  S.  ix.  509).— 
In  reply  to  MR.  H.  DAVEY,  the  Chapel  Royal 
at  Whitehall  was  the  last  place  where  the 
new  version  (Tate  and  Brady's)  pure  and 
simple  was  sung  in  my  recollection  ;  after- 
wards superseded  by  the  S.P.C.K.  book,  until 
that  building  was  secularized  by  becoming 
the  United  Service  Museum,  on  which  occa- 
sion his  present  Majesty,  I  believe,  presided. 


"YCLEPING"      THE      CHUR6H     (9th      S.    Vlii. 

420,  486  ;  ix.  55,  216,  394).^—  Reading  pro- 
miscuously in  Gerald  Massey's  '  Book  of  the 
Beginnings,'  I  have  happened  on  a  reference 
to  the  subject  which  may  be  interesting.  He 
is  dealing  with  the  influences  of  Egyptian 
mythology  received  by  us  through  the  Druid,  s, 

9«.s.x.  JULY  19, 1902.]         NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


and  is  "forced  to  confess  that  every  great 
day  of  festival  and  fast  and  every  popular 
ceremony  and  rite  pressed  into  the  Christian 
theology  were  pre-identified  in  these  islands," 
and  goes  on  to  refer  to  the  Egyptian  gene- 
trix,  the  "goddess  of  the  hinder  quarter,"  as 
follows : — 

"In  the  'Witches'  Sabbath'  the  eye-witnesses 
tell  us  how  they  joined  hands  and  formed  a  circle, 
standing  face  outwards,  and  how,  at  certain  parts 
of  the  dance,  the  buttocks  were  clashed  together  in 
concert,  in  the  worship  of  the  goddess  ;  and  at  one 
time  a  ceremony  was  observed  at  Birmingham  on 
Easter  Monday,  called  '  clipping  the  church,'  when 
the  first  comers  placed  themselves  hand  in  hand 
with  their  backs  to  the  church  and  thus  gradually 
formed  a  chain  of  sufficient  length  to  embrace  the 
building.  In  our  Easter  and  Pa^sch  we  have  the 
same  season  doubly  derived  from  Hest  and  Pasht, 
two  Egyptian  goddesses.  The  term  Easter  denotes 
the  division  of  Hest,  the  British  Eseye  and  Egyptian 
Isis,  who  was  the  earlier  Taurt,  whence  Hes-ta-urt, 
Astarte,  Ishtar,  and  Eostre.  She  was  the  Sabean- 
lunar  genitrix.  Pasht  is  the  later  solar  goddess, 
whose  name  denotes  the  division  of  Easter.  Both 
Hest  and  Pasht  were  typified  by  the  seat,  the  hind 
quarter,  which  became  the  seat  of  worship,  as  the 
church,  just  as  Stonehenge  had  been  the  seat  of 

Eseye About  the  end  of  the  sixth  century  it  was 

discovered  that  the  difference  in  point  of  time 
between  the  British  Pasag,  as  celebrated  by  the 
natives  (as  Christians  or  pre-Christians),  and  the 
Easter  ceremonies  as  observed  in  Rome  was  an 
entire  month.  This  means  that  the  festival  had 
been  kept  in  the  British  Isles  for  2,155  years  pre- 
vious to  the  sixth  Century,  and  the  people  were 
behind  solar  time  to  that  extent,  on  account  of 
their  not  having  readjusted  the  time  of  the  feasts, 
fairs,  and  fasts  by  which  the  reckoning  was  kept." 

From  his  reference  to  Birmingham  "at  one 
time"  the  researchful  author  was  evidently 
not  aware  that  the  ancient  pagan  rite  is,  as 
related  by  your  correspondents,  still  observed 
in  certain  country  districts.  I  may  add,  for 
the  information  of  those  interested  in  British 
symbolical  customs,  that  they  will  find  much 
concerning  them  in  the  first  volume  of  Mr. 
Massey's  work  (Williams  &  Norgate,  1881). 

Savile  Club. 

"AUTOCRAT"  IN  RUSSIAN  (9th  S.  x.  6).— The 
Rev.  Jonas  Dennis,  in  '  A  Key  to  the  Regalia ' 
(London,  1820),  p.  54,  says  : — 

"  The  Emperors  of  Russia,  on  the  contrary,  while 
they  demand  the  spiritual  benediction  of  the 
Church  at  their  Coronation,  refuse  to  let  the  Crown 
be  placed  upon  their  heads  by  the  hands  of  eccle- 
siastics, ana  actually  have  the  presumption  to 
crown  themselves.  The  rejection  of  the  ministra- 
tion of  ecclesiastics  is  evidently  the  result  not  of 
accident,  but  of  design,  and  appears  intended  to 
support  the  assumption  of  the  arrogant  title  of 
Autocrat,  or  self-created  potentate." 

It  would  be  interesting  to  know  which,  if 
any,  of  the  statements  made  in  this  extract 

are  true.  For  a  long  time  it  was  an  article 
of  faith  at  Moscow  that  the  first  Emperor 
of  Russia  was  crowned  by  a  bishop  deputed 
for  that  purpose  by  one  of  the  Byzantine 
emperors,  and  that  part  of  the  Russian 
regalia  could  be  traced  back  to  that  inter- 
esting ceremony.  This,  however,  was  a 
pious  fiction.  W.  R.  BARKER. 

MERRY  ENGLAND  AND  THE  MASS  (9th  S.  ix. 
508).— A  passage  in  Becon— I  have  not  the 
reference — seems  to  indicate  a  prevailing 
idea  in  England  that  the  sight  of  the  Host  at 
the  elevation  brought  joy  to  the  heart.  Becon 
describes  how  at  this  moment  in  the  service 
a  man  would  jostle  his  neighbour  in  his 
eagerness  to  look  on  the  Holy  Sacrament, 
exclaiming  that  he  "could  not  be  blithe 
until  he  had  seen  his  Lord  God  that  day,"  or 
words  to  that  effect.  This  possibly  accounts 
for  the  sixteenth -century  saying  quoted  by 

ARTHUR'S  CROWN  (9th  S.  ix.  388,  491).— I 
am  obliged  to  MR.  KREBS  for  his  reply  at  the* 
last  reference.  May  I  now  supplement  ray 
first  query  by  asking  whether  there  is  any 
evidence  extant  connecting  this  crown  with 
Arthur  ?  When  is  it  first  mentioned  as  a 
heirloom  of  the  house  of  Gwynedd  or  other 
Welsh  kings?  ,  C.  C.  B. 

"SIXES  AND  SEVENS"  (9th  S.  ix.  427).— In 
the  process  of  teaching  the  elements  of  arith- 
metic, either  by  means  of  the  abacus  or  by 
counting  the  digits  of  each  hand  in  reckon- 
ing a  decade,  it  would  be  comparatively  easy 
to  count  as  far  as  "  five,"  while  confusion 
would  probably  arise  in  the  infant  mind  at 
the  second  stage  of  the  enumeration,  begin- 
ning with  "  six  and  seven,"  and  it  is  worthy 
of  note  that  both  Chaucer  and  Shakespeare 
use  the  phrase,  not  in  the  plural,  as  the 
modern  form  has  it,  but  in  the  singular,  "  at 
six  and  seven."  In  Chaucer's  '  Troilus,' 
iv.  622,  the  sense  is  evidently  that  of  "to 
confound  "  : — , 

Let  not  this  wreched  wo  thyne  herte  gnawe, 
But,  manly,  set  the  worlde  on  six  and  sevene, 
And  if  thou  deye  a  martyr,  go  to  hevene. 

In  the  sense  of  confusion  Shakespeare 
('Richard  II.,'  II.  ii.  122)  has  :— 

All  is  uneven, 
And  everything  is  left  at  six  and  seven. 

I  think,  therefore,  that  very  probably  this  is 
the  origin  of  the  saying.  The  horn-book, 
which  sometimes  bore  the  numerals  as  well 
as  the  alphabet,  has  given  rise  to  several 
sayings  of  a  proverbial  character,  as  "to 
know  one's  book,"  "  as  plain  as  A  B  C,"  "  to 
know  B  from  a  bull's  foot"  or  "  from  a  battle- 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        [9<»  s.  x.  JULY  19, 1902 

dore."  So  that  it  cannot  be  considered  too 
fanciful  to  suppose  that  to  the  teaching  of 
the  elements  of  the  science  of  numbers — a  far 
more  difficult  operation  to  the  youthful  mind 
than  mastering  the  "absey-book"  —  may  be 
traced  the  origin  of  being  "at  sixes  and 
sevens."  J.  HOLDEN  MACMICHAEL. 

WILCOCKS  OF  KNOSSINGTON  (9th  S.  vi.  330). 
— I  find  I  erred  in  giving  the  date  of  the 
marriage  of  William  Wilcocks  to  Margaret 
de  Nowers,  heiress  of ,  Knossington  in  co. 
Leicester,  so  early  as  1317  ;  the  true  time 
was  about  the  year  1378.  See  the  Latin  note 
to  the  pedigree  of  Wilcocks  on  p.  135,  as 
given  in  Fetherston's  edition  (published 
London,  1870)  of  Camden's  '  Visitation '  of  the 
said  county,  made  in  1619.  I  must  add  that 
I  still  hope  that  some  one  will  give  me  the 
true  origin  of  the  Knossington  Wilcocks  (or 
Willcox)  family.  As  for  myself,  I  yet  think 
that  it  may  be  the  princely  house  of  Powys- 
Wenwynwyn ;  for,  after  all,  Wilcocks  ap 
Griffith  left  two  sons,  and  although  the  one 
who  was  his  heir  (in  chief)  left  no  male  issue, 
the  other  may  have  done  so,  for  I  can  find 
nothing  positive  to  the  contrary.  C. 

"  BABIES  IN  THE  EYES  "  (9th  S.  ix.  405,  516), 
—I  quite  fail  to  understand  by  what  process 
of  reasoning  MR.  MACMICHAEL  has  arrived 
at  his  interpretation  of  my  suggestion  as  to 
the  meaning  of  this  phrase.  I  feel  sure  thai 
if  he  had  read  my  longer  essay  on  it  in 
'  N.  &  Q.,'  whether  he  agreed  with  it  or  not 
he  would  not  have  written  what  he  has 
done  ;  nor  would  he  even,  I  think,  have  gone 
so  far  as  to  speak  of  any  solution  of  this 
puzzling  expression— upon  which  the  mos 
competent  critics  have  never  ventured  to 
come  to  any  certain  conclusion — as  obvious. 

LONDRES  (9th  S.  ix.  35,  151,  295,  515).— 
Permit  me  to  say  I  have  not  questioned,  anc 
do  not  question  the  presence  of  FitzHamor 
and  certain  of  his  "pares"  at  the  so-callet 
conquest  of  Glamorgan,  and  that  MR.  ALFRED 
CHAS.  JONAS'S  somewhat  acrimonious  replj 
is  uncalled  for.  I  have  shown  that  the 
hitherto  received  history  of  this  conquest  i 
faulty  in  a  material  particular,  and,  if  neces 
sary,  I  could  expose  other  grave  errors,  i 
further  proof  were  wanting.  May  I  add  als< 
there  are  so  many  inherent  improbabilitie 
in  this  history,  which  a  small  effort  of  critica 
knowledge  will  disclose,  that  I  am  surprisec 
a  gentleman  of  such  discernment  as  MR 
JONAS  has  not  seen  them  long  since  ?  Can 
any  one  in  his  senses  believe  FitzHamon 
would  take  his  heavily  armed  and  motle, 

orces,  ill  mounted,  worse  provisioned,  and 
unpaid,  up  the  densely  wooded  defiles  of  the 
and  Rhondda,  with  an  intensely  hostile 
)opulation  all  round,  to  fight  a  doubtful 
)attle  on  the  northern  confines  of  the  county, 
whence  even  if  victorious  he  must  needs 
retreat  or  starve ;  to  receive  his  wages  at  a 
place  called  the  "  miltur  aur,"  or  the  "  golden 
mile,"  many  miles  from  the  field  of  battle, 
and  quite  out  of  the  route  to  his  base  of 
iupplies?  May  I  suggest,  inter  alia,  that 
'milia  aurea"  is  probably  the  thousandth 
mile  from  Rome,  and  gave  the  origin  of  the 
above  words,  for  it  is  part  of  the  Via  Julia  ? 

Whatever  form  the  payments  of  these  wages 
book,  it  certainly  was  not  in  gold  coin,  for 
there  was  none.  Whoever  was  the  author 
of  this  very  doubtful  history  is  not  material. 
The  Stradling  family  and  their  connexions 
have  been  interpolated  improperly,  and  many 
other  important  families,  unconnected  with 
them,  left  out  of  it.  The  reason  appears 
obvious.  It  must  have  been  compiled  circa 
1395,  and  probably  formed  part  of  the  library 
in  Ewenny,  where  Leland  could  see  and  copy 
it.  It  is  unfortunate  that  Leland  was 
credulous  or  careless  enough  to  accept  almost 
any  tale  which  was  told  him,  without  critical 
examination.  Subsequent  authors  have  re- 
peated and  added  to  his  mistakes  until 
Welsh  history  as  it  is  now  known  is,  much 
of  it,  literary  rubbish. 

Will  MR.  JONAS  be  good  enough  to  give 
the  reference  to  those  "reliable  records" 
which  chronicle  earlier  foundations  than 
Ewenny  or  any  other  church  prior  to  1138, 
which  was,  I  think,  the  year  William  de 
Londre  died1?  It  would  be  interesting  to 
know  how  long  it  took  for  the  anathema  of 
Pope  Honorius  to  operate  upon  so  stubborn 
and  ruthless  a  man.  I  have  hitherto  been 
under  the  impression  that  he,  like  other  men, 
eased  his  conscience  at  the  expense  of  his 

Unquestionably  Stephen  confirmed  in  1138 
certain  donations  of  Robert  FitzHamon,  and 
the  fact  is  clear  evidence  that  these  Marcher 
lordships  were  dependent  upon  the  Crown, 
more  or  less,  and  their  knights  must  have 
rendered  knight  service  to  the  king  on 
demand,  and  service  of  castle  guard  to  their 
immediate  over-lord,  as  the  tenure  upon 
which  their  lands  were  held^  G.  E.  R. 

.  AINSWORTH  THE  NOVELIST  (9th  S.  ix.  409  ; 
x>  10).— I  recently  had  occasion  to  purchase 
one  of  John  Dicks's  editions  of  Harrison 
Ainsworth's  works,  and  from  a  catalogue 
enclosed  I  gather  that  the  following  are  his 
sole  property,  being  unexpired  copyrights, 

9th  S.  X.  JULY  19,  1902.] 



and  cannot  be  obtained  elsewhere :  '  Talbot 
Harland,'  'Tower  Hill,'  'The  South  Sea 
Bubble,'  'The  Goldsmith's  Wife,'  <  Chetwynd 
Calverley,'  'The  Fall  of  Somerset,'  and 
'  Beatrice  Tyldesley.'  Others,  such  as  '  Merry 
England,'  'The  Miser's  Daughter,'  'Rook- 
wood,'  &c  ,  are  also  advertised  by  the  same 
firm.  May  I  ask  if  Ainsworth  intended  his 
historical  novels  to  follow  on  in-  exact 
sequence  ?  I  have  noticed  that  several  of 
them  seem  to  dovetail  remarkably  well,  and 
this,  I  imagine,  can  hardly  be  the  result  of 
mere  caprice.  JOHN  T.  PAGE. 

West  Haddon,  Northamptonshire. 

(9th  S.  ix.  509).— Although  jt  by  no  means 
fully  answers  his  question,  peihaps  the  follow- 
ing reference  may  be  of  use  to  B.  R.  J. : — 

"Their  [the  Thrales']  house,.  Streatham  Place, 
stood  in  Streatham  Park,  on  the  south  side  of  the 
Lower  Common  at  Streatham,  Surrey,  six  miles 
from  Westminster  Bridge.  It  was  taken  down  in 
1863,*  and  no  trace  of  it  remains."— Button's  '  Lite- 
rary Landmarks  of  London,'  p.  163. 


West  Haddon,  Northamptonshire. 

This  house  was  pulled  down  and  the 
materials  sold  by  auction  in  May,  1863 
(Hone's  'Handbook  to  the  Environs  of  Lon- 
don,' 1876,  pt.  ii.  p.  590).  G.  F.  R.  B. 

"FLOWERING  SUNDAY"  (9th  S.  ix.  508).— 
With  reference  to  a  query  under  this  head- 
ing, and  in  connexion  with  the  use  of  flowers, 
&c.,  for  decorating  graves  and  memorial 
stones  of  relatives,  perhaps  the  following 
may  be  of  some  little  interest  to  your  con- 
tributor and  readers, or  be  the  means  of  throw- 
ing some  further  light  on  the  subject. 

I  first  noticed  the  custom  in  Herefordshire 
on  Palm  Sunday,  1879,  and  on  inquiry  found 
that  it  prevailed  in  Monmouthshire  and  other 
parts  of  Wales,  and  also  in  Gloucestershire, 
and  it  was  then  on  the  increase.  Five  or  six 
years  afterwards  I  lit  upon  the  subject 
treated  at  some  length  and  in  a  most  in- 
structive and  able  manner  by  Mr.  George 
Tudor  Williams,  of  Monmouthshire,  in  'An 
Historical  and  Descriptive  Sketch,'  which  1 
perused  with  interest  in  1886,  and  made  some 
notes  and  extracts  therefrom,  which  I  now 
epitomize  in  the  following. 

The  custom  is  of  remote  antiquity,  dating 
back  long  anterior  to  the  Christian  era.  In 
Wales  Palm  Sunday  is  called  "  Sul  y  Blodou  " 
(Flowery  Sunday),  owing  to  the  custom  which 
is  of  Celtic  origin,  but  which  was  also  prac- 

*  In  'Old  and  New  London'  (vi.  319)  the  date  is 
given  as  1868. 

tised  by  the  ancient  Greeks,  who  used  herbs 
to  deck  their  tombs  as  well  as, flowers. 
Parsley  was  a  favourite  herb  for  the  purpose, 
and  so  referred  to  by  Plutarch  as  far  back  as 
350  B.C.  Aramanthus  and  other  flowers  were 
mentioned  in  connexion  with  the  adorning 
of  Achilles'  grave  by  the  Thessalians.  The 
custom  was  general  in  Virgil's  time,  and 
Anacreon,  who  wrote  590  years  B.C.,  men- 
tioned the  rose  as  "the  amulet  whereby 
no  ills  their  tombs  molest."  Euripides,  who 
wrote  400  years  B.C.,  introduces  Electra  com- 
plaining that  a  tomb  had  not  been  decorated. 
Sophocles,  about  380  B.C.,  makes  the  daughter 
of  Agamemnon,  on  coming  to  her  father's 
tomb,  say,  "And  flowers  of  every  sort  were 
strewed."  The  tributes  were  intended  to 
express  the  love  and  respect  borne  for  the 
departed.  The  Greeks  used  ribbons  as  well 
as  flowers,  and  had  special  days  on  which 
they  thus  respected  the  memories  of  the 
departed.  The  cus.tom  was  also  practised  in 
many  Oriental  countries.  Mallet  said  that 
in  Egypt  a  plant  called  in  Arabic  ribau — our 
sweet  basil — was  strewn  on  the  graves  with 
palm  leaves,  and  that  myrtle  was  also  used. 
Chander,  in  his  travels  in  Asia  Minor,  de- 
scribed graves  with  branches  of  myrtle  at 
each  end.  Dallaway,  in  'The  Ancient  and 
Modern  History  of  Constantinople,'  speaks 
of  cypress  at  the  endS  of  tombs.  The  custom 
was  also  followed  by  the  Tartars.  Shak- 
speare,  alluding  to  the  custom  of  decking 
graves  "  with  fairest  flowers,"  expressly  men- 
tioned "  the  pale  primrose,"  "  the  azure  hare- 
bell," and  "  the  leaf  of  eglantine." 

In  practising  this  ancient  custom  on  Palm 
Sunday  =  Flowering  Sunday,  or  other  special 
days  on  which  we  choose  thus  to  remember 
and  respect  the  memory  of  our  dear  departed 
relatives,  it  would  seem  to  call  into  play  the 
best  feelings  of  the  human  heart,  and,  whilst 
tending  to  beautify  temporarily  God's  acre 
conduce  to  religious  thought  and  pious 
reflective  meditations,  and  it  should  on  these 
grounds  be  kept  up  and  conserved. 


Moorland  Grange,  Bournemouth. 

The  custom  of  adorning  with  flowers  the 
graves  of  deceased  friends  on  Palm  Sunday, 
in  South  Wales  and  Monmouthshire,  did  not 
originate  in  caprice.  Many  far-fetched  ex- 
planations of  this  observance  have  been 
offered  j  but  the  facts  are  simple.  In  Catholic 
times  it  was  the  custom,  on  the  occasion  of 
the  Palm  Sunday  procession,  to  affix  branches 
of  box  or  catskin  (the  local  substitutes  for 
palm)  to  the  churchyard  cross,  where  the 
procession  halted  while  the  ceremonial  open- 
ing of  the  south  door  was  being  performed. 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        9th  s.  x.  JULY  19, 1902. 

The  churchyard  cross  being  the  place  where 
prayer  for  the  dead  was  at  all  times  wont  to 
be  offered,  the  affixing  of  the  "palm"  to  its 
shaft  was  naturally  regarded  as  associating 
the  souls  of  the  faithful  departed  with  the 
solemn  rites  of  Palm  Sunday,  and  easily  led 
to  the  custom  of  similarly  honouring  their 
graves.  The  addition,  and  finally  the  sub- 
stitution, of  flowers,  perhaps  grew  out  of  the 
custom  of  tying  up  a  bunch  of  flowers  with 
the  box  which  ornamented  the  churchyard 
cross.  The  flowers  must  have  come  in  at  a 
very  early  period,  as  the  Welsh  name  "Sul  y 
Blodau "  '(Sunday  of  the  Flowers)  for  Palm 
Sunday  is  the  earliest  and  only  native  term 
for  that  festival ;  but  in  any  case  there  can 
be  no  doubt  that  the  present  elaborate  floral 
decorations  have  been  evolved  out  of  the 
ritual  of  the  Palm  Sunday  procession. 

Town  Hall,  Cardiff. 

YARROW  UNVISITED  (9th  S.  ix.  386,  477  :  x. 
18). — The  records  of  the  Presbytery  of  Edin- 
burgh help  very  little  in  the  clearing  up  of 
the  actual  cause  of  Logan's  resignation.  A 
plea  of  ill  health  is  often  tendered  when 
other  causes  are  also  at  work,  rendering  de- 
mission necessary.  It  may  be  well,  however, 
to  give  here  the  substance  of  what  these 
records  contain  on  this  case. 

Mr.  Logan's  letter,  giving  ill  health  as  the 
reason  of  his  absence  from  his  parish,  was 
dated  London,  13  October,  1786.  It  was  laid 
before  the  Presbytery  on  25  October.  The 
Presbytery  ordered  him  to  appear  before 
them  on  29  November.  On  29  November  the 
matter  was  delayed  till  next  meeting.  On 
27  December  Mr.  Logan  sent  a  letter  resign- 
ing absolutely.  "Whereupon  the  Presbytery, 
being  well  informed  of  the  circumstances 
as  they  regard  Mr.  Logan  in  the  parish  of 
South  Leitn,  were  unanimously  of  opinion 
that  Mr.  Logan's  demission  be  accepted." 
And  it  was  accepted  at  that  meeting.  Mr. 
Logan  had  been  absent  from  his  parish  for 
about  a  year.  Nothing  but  the  mere  fact  of 
absence  is  mentioned.  A.  M.  MCDONALD. 

I  can  remember  seeing  in  Edinburgh,  as  far 
back  as  1859,  several  beautiful  pictures  by  Sir 
J.  Noel  Pa  ton,  depicting  scenes  in  the  ballad 
'  The  Dowie  Dens  of  Yarrow.'  Tradition  says 
that  the  combat  took  place  in  a  field,  still 
pointed  out  near  the  Kirk  of  Yarrow,  on  the 
road  from  Selkirk  to  St.  Mary's  Loch.  The 
original  pictures  are  now,  I  suppose,  in  pri- 
vate collections,  but  they  have  been  beauti- 
fully engraved  for  the  Royal  Association 
for  the  Promotion  of  the  Fine  Arts  in  Scot- 
land, 1860.  The  events  depicted  are  said  to 

have  occurred  in  the  early  part  of  the  seven- 
teenth century.  JOHN  PICKFORD,  M.A. 
Newbourne  Rectory,  Woodbridge. 

SAMUEL  FOLLETT  (9th  S.  x.  7).— I  have 
looked  through  Roberta's  'History  of  Lyrne 
Regis,'  1834,  but  find  no  mention  of  this 
name.  I  am  going  to  Lyme  Regis  for  a 
month  or  so,  and  shall  be  pleased  to  make 
search.  If  you  like  to  put  me  in  commu- 
nication witn  G.  F.  R.  B.  I  may  be  of  use  to 
him — free  of  charge,  of  course.  I  am  inter- 
ested in  a  similar  inquiry,  which  I  hope  will 
shortly  appear.  S.  S.  HASLUCK. 

The  Cottage,  Lyme  Regis. 

KING'S  CHAMPION  (9th  S.  ix.  507).— It  is 
tolerably  certain  that  the  so-called  Champions 
were  nothing  more  than  faineants.  The  late 
Canon  Lodge  (Reetor  of  Scrivelsby)  writes  in 
his  '  Scrivelsby,  the  Home  of  the  Champions,' 
the  most  authentic  and  exhaustive  book  on 
the  matter,  second  edition,  1894,  p.  110  : — 

"With  regard  to  the  execution  of  the  office  of 
Champion  on  a  Coronation  day,  it  will  be  remem- 
bered that  the  right  moment  for  his  appearance,  in 
full  armour  and  mounted  on  his  charger,  was  in 
the  middle  of  the  Coronation  banquet,  the  right 
place  being  Westminster  Hall.  The  challenge  to 
all  gainsayers  was  in  the  orthodox  fashion,  by  fling- 
ing down  the  knight's  gauntlet,  in  the  tolerable 
certainty  that  no  one  would  venture  to  take  it  up 
in  token  of  acceptance.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  the 
challenge  never  has  been  accepted,  although  there 
have  been  occasions  when  the  sovereign's  title 

might  have  been  fairly  questioned Happily  for 

our  Champions,  this  task  has  always  been  a  blood- 
less one." 

Some  of  the  suits  of  burnished  armour,  and 
one  discoloured  pair  of  gauntlets,  I  have 
recently  seen  preserved  in  a  small  enclosure 
to  the  right  of  the  chief  entrance  of  Scri- 
velsby Court,  called  the  armoury.  Scott's 
story  in  '  Red  gauntlet '  of  the  maiden  bear- 
ing the  glove  away  at  the  coronation  of 
George  III.  is,  of  course,  purely  imaginary. 
Lodge  states  that  the  Dymokes  have  acted 
as  Champions  on  twenty-one  occasions,  and 
gives  a  list  of  seven  of  that  family  who, 
though  Champions,  never  officiated  as  such 
at  a  coronation.  That  of  George  IV.,  on 
19  July,  1821  (not  1820,  as  stated  in  MR. 
PICKFORD'S  excellent  article  on  '  The  Office  of 
Champion '),  saw  the  last  exercise  of  the 
office.*  Lodge  adds  :— 

"Though  its  duties  are  no  longer  exacted,  the 
Championship  still  remains  as  an  appanage  of  the 

*  In  Cassell's  '  History  of  England,'  vol.  iii.  p.  42, 
1863,  appears  a  full-page  wood  engraving  (not  at  all 
a  bad  one)  of  Sir  Henry  Dympke's  appearance  in 
Westminster  Hall  in  his  official  capacity  on  that 

9«>s.x.  JULY  19, 1902.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 

old  baronial  estate  of  Scrivelsby,  the  owner  of 
which  is  by  courtesy  entitled,  in  his  official  capa- 
city, to  be  addressed  A.  B.,  Esq.,  The  Honourable 
the  Queen's  [or  King's]  Champion." 

I  was  informed  when  at  the  Court  that  the 
present  holder  of  the  title  had  been  appointed 
standard-bearer  (in  lieu  of  a  defunct  occupa- 
tion) at  the  now  postponed  Coronation  of 
Edward  VII.  These  details  will,  I  think, 
satisfy  the  inquiries  of  your  correspondent 
at  above  reference,  and  chiefly  that  which 
rightly  surmises  that  the  office  of  Champion 
was  "  always  pageantry  and  nothing  more." 
J.  B.  McGovERN. 

[MR.  PICKFORD  gave  1821  as  the  date  of  George 
IV. 's  coronation.] 

x.  8). — As  the  query  extends  to  Mr.  Glad- 
stone's alleged  speeches  in  modern  Greek, 
the  following  extract  may  be  of  interest : — 

"  I  do  not  know  how  sure  the  testimony  may  be, 
but  a  seller  of  curiosities,  who  has  his  stall  beside 
this  locality,  affirms  that  Mr.  Gladstone  stood  also 
on  this  platform  and  delivered  a  speech  in  classical 
Greek  which  nobody  understood.  '  Mr.  Paul,'  says 
the  guide,  '  he  stand  here,  be  [sic]  preach.  Mr. 
Gladstone  he  stand  here  too,  he  speakplenty  much. 
Greek  no  understand.' " — "  In  Classic  Country;  or,  a 
Summer  Cruise  in  the  Mediterranean  Squadron.  By 
the  Rev.  Barton  S.  Tucker,  B.A.,  Chaplain,  Royal 
Navy.  London :  Henningham  &  Hollis ;  Ports- 
mouth :  Griffin  &  Co. ;  Malta :  A.  Bartolo.  Printed 
and  published  by  A.  Bartolo,  181,  183,  Strada 
Horm,  Valletta,"  p.  40. 

The  little  book  is  not  dated.  I  bought  my 
copy  in  Valletta  some  ten  or  twelve  years 
ago.  The  date  of  the  cruise  is  1888.  The 
"locality  "  is  the  Areopagus  in  Athens. 


308,  414,  472).— At  the  last  reference  mention 
was  made  of  the  municipal  arms  of  the  cities 
of  England,  and  so  possibly  it  may  not  be 
altogether  out  of  order  to  give  the  name  of 
the  following  book  :  "  The  Arms  of  the  Royal 
and  Parliamentary  Burghs  of  Scotland.  By 
the  Marquis  of  Bute,  J.  R.  N.  Macphail,  and 
H.  W.  Lonsdale.  1897.  Drawings  of  the 
Correct  Arms,  with  Heraldic  Descriptions, 
4to,  white  buckram."  Only  200  copies  were 
printed  for  sale,  and  the  price  of  a  single 
copy  was  quoted  last  year  as  2£.  2s. 


487), — The  lordship  of  Trentham  came  into 
the  possession  of  the  Gower  family  by  the 
marriage  of  Sir  Thomas  Gower  with  the 
sister  and  coheir  of  Sir  Richard  Leveson,  who 
died  without  issue.  Sir  John  Gower,  the 
fifth  baronet,  was  created  Viscount  Trentham 
and  Earl  Gower,  8  July,  1746,  and  Marquis 

of  Stafford,  1786  (vide  Nightingale's  '  Stafford 
shire').  Of  the  Trentham  family  Erdawicke, 
in  his  '  Survey  of  Staffordshire,'  says  : — 

"  The  Trenthams  derive  themselves  from  a 
House  of  the  Trenthams  in  Shropshire,  which  in 
Henry  VI.'s  time  were  of  good  account,  but  now 

Siite  decayed  or  gone,   for  I  know  none  of  the 
ouse  remaining,  this  of  Rowcester  (the  seat  of  an 
ancient  Priory  at  the  confluence  of  the  Churnet  and 
Dove)  excepted,  which  it  pleaseth  God  to  advance 
in  good  sort." 

This  prosperity  was  of  short  duration.  Sir 
Simon  Degge,  in  his  4  Observations '  added  to 
Erdeswicke,  cites  this  family  and  numerous 
others  to  show  that  ruin  pursues  the  possessor 
of  "Monastery-Lands."  "Rocester,"  he  states, 
"  was  granted  to  Thomas  Trentham,  whose  son, 
Francis,  soon  after,  so  settled  it  that  he  nor  any  of 
his  sons  could  alienate  it,  which  if  any  of  them  had 
had  power  to  have  done,  it  had  been  gone,  and  now 
'tis  got  into  a  strange  Family,  where  it  is  believed 
it  will  not  stay  half  another  Age." 

B.  D.   MOSELEY. 


The  Registers  of  the  Parish  Church  of  Wigan,  in  the. 
County  of  Lancaster ;  1580-1625.  Edited  by  Jonah 
Arrowsmith ;  the  Index  by  Fanny  Wrigley. 
(Wigan,  Strowger  &  Son.) 

THE  parish  of  Wiganif^the  old  days  included  twelve 
townships,  and  extended  over  upwards  6f  twenty- 
nine  thousand  acres.  The  earliest  register,  it  would 
seem,  is  lost,  as  the  present  one  here  printed  begins 
only  in  1580.  It  will  be  exceptionally  interesting 
to  all  those  engaged  in  investigations  relating  to  the 
family  history  of  the  shire.  There  is  hardly  a  name 
of  the  great  historic  families  that  is  not  to  be  found 
therein ;  it  will  also  be  of  great  service  to  those  who 
are  desirous  of  tracing  the  pedigrees  of  yeoman 
families,  and  those  of  a  still  lower  grade,  many  of 
whose  scions  are  now  holding  honourable  positions 
in  America  and  our  colonies.  The  work  has  been 
most  carefully  edited,  and  the  indexes  are  all  that 
we  could  wish ;  we  do  not,  indeed,  remember  ever 
to  have  seen  a  labour  of  that  kind  performed  with 
more  painstaking  accuracy.  Names,  places,  and 
trades  are  all  arranged  in  alphabetical  order,  so  that 
it  will  be  almost  impossible  for  the  student  to  miss 
any  fact  which  the  record  contains.  We  have,  how- 
ever, we  think,  come  upon  one  error — it  is  the  only 
one  which  a  rigorous  search  has  revealed  to  us. 
Whether  it  be  a  misprint,  an  error  of  the  transcriber, 
or  a  blunder  of  the  person  who  wrote  the  original 
document  we  have  no  means  of  knowing.  In  the 
year  1580  we  find  that  "  Grace  ye  wife  of  Lyonesse 
Gerrard  Esquire"  was  buried.  Lyonesse  seems  to 
be  an  almost  impossible  name  for  a  man,  and  we 
do  not  remember  ever  meeting  with  it  borne  by  a 
woman ;  surely  Lyonel  must  have  been  the  form 
intended.  There  are  very  few  surnames  which  strike 
us  as  peculiar  to  the  district,  but  there  are  two 
which  we  never  saw  before.  Lightowler  occurs  in 
1596  and  Gaylady  in  1613 ;  we  should  be  sorry  were 
we  called  upon  to  make  a  guess  as  to  their  origin  or 
meaning.  Some  of  the  entries  are  very  curious. 
In  1596  we  find  a  record  of  the  burial  of  "Litle 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [9th  s.  x.  JULY  19, 1902. 

Agnes  of  ye  Tunstid  head."  Were  the  names  of 
father  and  mother  both  unknown?  Was  she  a 
child,  or  does  the  register  call  her  little  because 
small  of  stature  ?  The  Christian  name  Ferdinando 
does  not,  so  far  as  we  know,  occur  in  England  during 
the  Middle  Ages ;  in  fact,  it  seems  to  have  been  well- 
nigh  unknown  until  it  was  borne  by  Ferdinando 
Fairfax,  the  second  lord,  who  was  born  in  1584.  A 
year  earlier  than  this  we  find  that  a  Ferdinando 
Lang'trie,  otherwise  Wandie,  was  buried  at  Wigan. 

A  Descriptive  Catalogue  of  Ancient  Deeds  in  the 
Public  Record  Office.  Vol.  III.  (Stationery  Office.) 
THIS  catalogue  must  be  very  useful  not  only  to 
the  topographer  and  genealogist,  but  also  to  the 
students  —  an  increasing  body,  we  are  happy  to 
say— of  the  names  of  persons  and  places.  It  does 
not,  however,  throw  very  much  light  on  the  history 
of  our  country  in  that  narrow  sense  in  which  it  was 
in  former  days  almost  exclusively  regarded.  As  to 
the  Christian  names  and  surnames  contained  in  this 
volume,  were  we  to  comment  on  them  as  they 
deserve  we  should  require  to  put  forth  a  portly 
volume.  We  cannot,  however,  pass  over  the  fact 
that  there  are  two  Odins  therein.  By  an  undated 
charter  Gerard  Odeyn,  of  Coventry,  grants  to 
Robert  de  Ichenton,  clerk,  land  near  the  church  of 
St.  Nicholas  in  that  city;  and  in  47  Edward  III.  we 
find  Roger  de  Astwyk  speaking  of  a  certain  Stephen, 
son  of  Odin,  as  his  ancestor.  How  far  back  Odin's 
position  in  the  pedigree  may  be  we  have  no  means 
of  knowing,  but  there  is  no  reason  to  think  that  it 
was  a  very  remote  one.  The  names  of  towns  and 
villages  have  been  carefully  indexed.  We  have 
not,  indeed,  found  a  single  error,  and  only  in  one 
instance  do  we  entertain  a  doubt  as  to  the  old 
spelling  being  rightly  put  under  its  modern  head- 
ing. Field-names  and  the  less  prominent  physical 
features  of  the  country,  though  given  in  the  body 
of  the  book,  are  not  catalogued.  As  they  occur  on 
almost  every  page,  and  many  of  them  are  of  great 
interest,  we  trust  that  some  day  or  other  a  laborious 
person  will  be  found  who  will  give  us  an  alpha- 
betical catalogue.  Helwod  and  Bloodyshot  were 
in  Tunbridge  in  1528 ;  Shenkwynnes  and  Make- 
maydes  were  in  Norfolk,  probably  in  the  parish  of 
Brunham,  in  1466;  Ruwesand  was  in  the -reign  of 
Edward  III.  an  island  somewhere  in  Suffolk  ;  Lut- 
lumerssh  was  in  Berkshire  at  about  the  same  time ; 
and  we  find  a  Sortecrofte  in  an  undated  document 
relating  to  Wiltshire.  As  to  the  origin  of  the  first 
two  names  here  given  it  might  be  possible  to  make 
guesses  not  manifestly  absurd,  but  the  rest  are 
quite  beyond  us.  Grants  of  bondmen  do  not  occur 
frequently.  There  is  a  Hertfordshire  example  of 
the  time  of  Henry  III.,  but  the  man  was  by  no 
means  a  slave  in  any  of  the  modern  senses,  as  he 
held  of  his  lord  lands  by  villeinage  tenure.  There 
is  another  grant  of  the  time  of  Edward  III.,  but  in 
his  time  manumissions  were  becoming  frequent. 
We  have  one  here  by  a  Nottinghamshire  knight, 
Sir  John  de  Loutham,  in  44  Edward  HI.  Sales  of 
marriage  of  heirs  rarely  occur,  but  we  have  en- 
countered more  than  one.  "  Sale  "  is  the  word  used 
in  the  abstracts,  and  is  no  doubt  a  correct  rendering 
of  the  originals,  but  it  does  not  convey  to  modern 
ears  an  absolutely  correct  idea,  for  if  an  heir  were 
obstinate,  the  purchaser  could  not  enforce  the  con- 
tract, for  the  Church  held  then,  as  now,  that  a 
marriage  to  be  valid  must  have  the  free  consent 
of  both  the  parties  concerned.  In  the  reign  of 
Richard  III.  the  abbot  and  convent  of  Syon  demised 

the  manor  of  Charlton  by  Stenyng  to  William 
Pellet,  of  that  place,  yeoman,  for  the  term  of  seven 
years,  along  with  certain  customs  of  silver  appur- 
tenant thereto,  which  were  called  "  revesilver, 
watelsilver,  and  werkesilver,"  and  paid  by  the 
manorial  tenants.  The  meaning  of  the  first  is  well 
known,  but  of  the  others  doubtful.  There  is  an 
indenture  of  the  time  of  Edward  III.,  written  in 
Anglo-French,  which  it  would  seem  is  well  worth 
printing  in  full,  as  it  contains  a  list  of  "books, 
vestments,  vessels,  relics,  &c.,  specified  in  detail," 
which  were  surrendered  to  a  certain  Geoffrey  de 
Luy.  It  is  not  said  that  he  was  a  priest.  In  a  grant 
of  a  park  at  Liskeard  of  the  time  of  Richard  II.  it 
is  said  to  be  within  the  sanctuary  of  that  place.  A 
park  within  the  limits  of  a  sanctuary  is  an  arrange- 
ment we  have  not  previously  heard  of. 

THE  leading  paper  in  Folk-lore  for  June  deals 
with  '  The  Letter  of  Toledo '  and  its  analogues. 
This  particular  letter,  purporting  to  be  sent  by  the 
sages  and  astrologers  of  Toledo  to  Pope  Clement  111. 
and  other  men  of  importance,  startled  mankind  by 
announcing  that  the  destruction  of  the  world  was  to 
take  place  in  1186.  Such  declarations  were  readily 
believed  in  during  the  ages  of  faith,  since  they 
chimed  in  with  a  large  mass  of  tradition  that  had 
filtered  down  from  remote  times  in  connexion  with 
Christian  and  heathen  myths  springing  from  the 
Antichrist  legend,  which  had  deep  influence  on  the 
religious  and  political  development  of  Europe.  The 
second  article  of  importance  gives  an  account  of 
the  spiritualism  of  the  Malays,  whose  conceptions 
appear  to  be  worthy  of  so  picturesque  a  people. 
The  '  Collectanea '  and  '  Correspondence,'  as  usual, 
add  to  the  hoard  of  information  which  is  gradually 
being  collected  on  the  subject  of  popular  beliefs 
and  customs  among  the  barbaric  and  the  super- 
ficially civilized. 


We  must  call  special  attention  to  the  following 
notices : — 

ON  all  communications  must  be  written  the  name 
and  address  of  the  sender,  not  necessarily  for  pub- 
lication, but  as  a  guarantee  of  good  faith. 

WE  cannot  undertake  to  answer  queries  privately. 

To  secure  insertion  of  communications  corre- 
spondents must  observe  the  following  rules.  Let 
each  note,  query,  or  reply  be  written  on  a  separate 
slip  of  paper,  with  the  signature  of  the  writer  and 
such  address  as  he  wishes  to  appear.  When  answer- 
ing queries,  or  making  notes  with  regard  to  previous 
entries  in  the  paper,  contributors  are  requested  to 
put  in  parentheses,  immediately  after  the  exact 
heading,  the  series,  volume,  and  page  or  pages  to 
which  they  refer.  Correspondents  who  repeat 
queries  are  requested  to  head  the  second  com- 
munication "  Duplicate." 

P.  SIDNEY  ("  Tumble-Down  Dick").— See  1st  S. 
vi.  391,  469,  590 ;  6th  S.  vi.  168,  316 ;  vii.  58. 

Editorial  communications  should  be  addressed 
to  "  The  Editor  of  'Notes  and  Queries'" — Adver- 
tisements and  Business  Letters  to  "  The  Pub- 
lisher"—at  the  Office,  Bream's  Buildings,  Chancery 
Lane,  E.C. 

We  beg  leave  to  state  that  we  decline  to  return 
communications  which,  for  any  reason,  we  do  not 
print ;  and  to  this  rule  we  can  make  no  exception. 

9<»s.x.  JULY  26, 1902.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


LONDON,  SATURDAY,  JULY  26,  1902. 

CONTENTS. -No.  239. 

NOTES  :—" Corn- bote"  in  Harbour's  'Bruce,'  61— Landor 
on  Singing  Birds,  62  —  Thackeray  and  Homoeopathy  — 
"Hoping  against  hope"  —  Shakespeare  Allusions,  63— 
Boudicca  :  its  Pronunciation— Writing  Lessons  on  Sand- 
Sale  of  the  Old  Prince  of  Wales's  Theatre  — "  From  the 
lone  shieling,"  64  —  Scott's  '  Woodstock '  — Schoolboys' 
Rights  at  Weddings,  65— Pam=Knave  of  Clubs— Born  on 
the  Field  of  Waterloo,  66. 

QUERIES  :— References  Wanted — Hodgskin— "  I  shall  pass 
through  this  world"— Beasley,  Beesley,  &c.— Capt.  Morris's 
Wife  —  Spearing  —  Governors  of  Public  Schools,  67  — 
"Charley"  in  Popular  Rimes  —  'North- West  Fox  from 
the  North- West  Passage,'  1635— Gounod— Duke  of  Brabant 
— Legend  of  Lady  Alice  Lea— Butler's  '  Erewhon  '— King's- 
taper — "First  love  is  a  rank  exotic  "—Almond  Tree  and 
Old  Age,  68— Black  Hole  of  Calcutta:  Last  Survivor— 
Rockall— Austria  and  the  Isle  of  Man — Lady  Elizabeth 
Percy.  69. 

REPLIES  :— Bruce  and  Burns,  69— Snodprass,  71— Cipher- 
Story  Bibliography — Napoleon's  First  laarriage — Mourn- 
ing Sunday,  72 — '  Dirty  Old  Man  ' — Likenesses  of  Jesus — 
Iron  Duke  — "In  an  interesting  condition"  —  German 
Letters,  73 — 'Comic  Annual ' — Crossing  Knives  and  Forks 
—Silhouettes  of  Children,  74  —  Greek  Pronunciation  — 
Gender  in  German  and  Russian— "  Ote-toi  de  la,"  &c.— 
Cliff ord-Braose— Autograph  Cottage  —  Lady  Morley,  75— 
"  Barracked  "—Quant,  76— Lime-tree  —  Baronets  of  Nova 
Scotia— Papal  Provisions  —  May  Cats — Hour  of  Sunday 
Morning  Service — Dutch  Refugees  in  London — "  Ye  gods 
and  little  fishes !  "  77— Hebrew  Incantations,  78—"  Return- 
Ing  thanks,"  79. 

NOTES  ON  BOOKS:— 'New  English  Dictionary '—' The 
Encyclopaedia  Britannica,'  Vol.  III. 

ACCORDING  to  'The  Bruce'  (ed.  Skeat,  Scot. 
Text  Soc.,  ii.  433)  King  Robert  the  Bruce  at 
the  battle  of  Methven  in  1306,  finding  the 
fortunes    of    the  day    hopelessly    adverse, 
directed  his  followers  to  retreat : — 
Gud  is  we  pass  off  thar  daunger 
Till  God  us  send  eftsonys  grace 
And  jeyt  may  fall  giff  thai  will  chace 
Ouvt  thaim  torn  but  sum-dele  we  sail. 

II.  435-8. 

So  the  text  reads  in  Prof.  Skeat's  canonical 
edition  based  upon  two  MSS.,  one  at  Cam- 
bridge and  the  other  at  Edinburgh.  A  foot- 
note marks  the  fact  that  in  Andro  Hart's 
print  of  '  The  Bruce '  in  1616  the  word  combate 
takes  the  place  of  "  torn  but "  in  the  above 
passage.  Prof.  Skeat  in  his  notes  interprets 
the  last  two  lines  thus  :  "  And  it  may  yet 
happen  if  they  wish  to  pursue  us  we  shall, 
however,  to  some  extent  requite  them  a  turn." 
In  his  glossary  he  writes,  "Torn,  s.,  a  turn  ; 
quyt  thaim  torn,  requite  them  a  turn,  repay 
them."  Jamieson  in  his  edition  of  'The 
Bruce'  also  reads  "torn  but,"  and  in  his 
glossary  writes  :  "  Torn  but,  retaliation." 

Decisive  light  and  correction  come  from 
the  alliterative  '  MoHe  Arthure. '  Beryll  has 
been  killed  by  the  King  of  Lebe,  and  Cador 
declares  he  will  have  revenge : — 

"  jone  kynge,"  said  Cador,  "karpes  full  large 
Because  he  kyllyd  this  kene;  Cnste  hafe  thi  saule  ! 
He  sail  hafe  corne  bote,  so  me  Criste  helpe  \" 
Or  I  kaire  of  this  coste  we  sail  encontre  ones." 

LI.  1784-7. 

In  due  course  "Sir  Cador  the  keen"  rides 
at  the  king,  and,  striking  him  on  the  head- 
piece, leaves  him  dead  on  the  field. 

Than  Sir  Cador  the  kene  crye3  full  lowde, 

"  Thow  has  corn  botte,  sir  kynge,  thare  God  gyfe 

the  sorowe  ! 

Thow  killyde  my  cosyn,  my  kare  es  the  lesse, 
Kele    the  nowe  in   the  claye   and  comforthe  thi 

selfen  ! "  LI.  1836-9. 

The  context  shows  that  corn-bate,  not "  torn- 
bote,"  is  the  true  form,  for  the  alliterations 
throughout  are  on  the  letters  c  and  k.  On 
the  signification  of  the  word  I  have  little 
remark  to  offer,  except  that  the  explanation 
given  by  Mrs.  Banks  in  the  glossary  of  her 
pretty  and  admirably  equipped  edition  of 
'  Morte  Arthure '  appears  substantially  to 
meet  the  case : — 

"  Bot,  Botte,  s.,  amends,  compensation,  1786, 1837 
qualified  by  '  corne,'  perhaps  as  a  compound  '  corne 
bote.'  alluding  to  some  legal  and  technical  definition 
of  'bote.'" 

That  corn-bote  means  some  sort  of  quid  pro 
quo  in  kind,  some  species  of  manifestation  of 
the  lex  talionis,  comes  out  very  clearly  from 
the  three  passages  alfove  quoted,  in  -  which 
alone  it  has  attracted  attention.  Nothing 
corresponding  to  the  word  occurs  in  the 
original  reference  to  the  death  of  "  Borellus  " 
in  Geoffrey  of  Monmouth,  amplified  and 
varied  by  the  alliterative  genius. 

One  further  point  is  to  be  made  here.  The 
fact  that  "torn  but"  is  found  in  the  two 
MSS.  of  The  Bruce,'  while  "combate" 
appears  in  Hart's  print,  goes,  with  numerous 
other  elements,  towards  proof  of  two  things  : 
(1)  that  the  scribe  or  scribes  of  the  Cambridge 
and  Edinburgh  MSS.  did  not  understand  the 
term  he  or  they  had  to  copy,  and  (2)  that 
Hart's  print  (differing  from  the  Cambridge 
and  Edinburgh  MSS.  in  the  c,  which  is  correct 
where  these  MSS.  are  wrong,  and  making  one 
word  where  they  make  two)  displays  here, 
as  so  often  elsewhere,  the  soundness  of  Prof. 
Skeat's  method  of  regarding  Hart's  version 
as  a  clue  to  "excellent  MSS.  now  lost."  For 
almost  every  editorial  purpose  Hart's  version 
has  been  accorded  the  rank  of  a  MS.,  as  it 
contains  so  many  invaluable  and  independent 
readings  without  which  the  text  drawn  from 
the  MSS.  would  not  infrequently  be  un- 

Perhaps  some  of  the  learned  word-hunters 
of  'N.  &  Q.'  from  whose  laborious  pastime  we 
all  have  derived  such  continuous  entertain- 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [9*  s.  x.  JULY  26, 1902. 

ment  and  profit  may  be  able  to  enlighten 
us  a  little  further  about  corn-bote,  a  term 
behind  which  there  lurks  a  considerable 
archaic  and  legal  reminiscence.  Its  use  by 
two  contemporary  Scottish  poets,  one  in 
alliteration,  the  other  in  riming  verse,  may 
argue  for  a  Northern  origin,  but,  broadly 
speaking,  there  was  no  Tweed  or  Solway 
between  vocabularies  in  the  fourteenth  cen- 
tury. GEO.  NEILSON. 

[Sir  Cador's  use  of  corn-bote  was  the  subject  of  a 
query  in  9th  S.  viii.  44.]     , 

No.  xix.  of  '  Dry  Sticks '  is  entitled  '  Sing- 
ing Birds,'  and  opens  thus  : — 

Merle  !  cushat !  mavis  !  when  but  young 
More  vulgar  names  from  mother  tongue 
Often  and  often,  much  I  fear, 
Have  wounded  your  too  patient  ear. 

The  poet  then  proceeds  to  explain  that  the 
birds  thus  designated  are  respectively  the 
blackbird,  the  wood-pigeon,  and  the  speckled 
thrush,  and  concludes  : — 

I  doubt  if  now  ye  sing  so  well 

In  your  fine  names ;  but  who  can  tell  ? 

The  fine  names  had,  no  doubt,  struck 
Landor  in  his  perusal  of  Scott,  whom  he 
greatly  admired,  and  to  whom  he  pays  this 
stirring  tribute  in  the  '  English  Hexameters ' 
of  the  '  Last  Fruit '  :— 

Reckless  of  Roman  and  Greek,  he  chaunted  the 

'  Lay  of  the  Minstrel ' 
Better  than  ever  before  any  minstrel  in  chamber 

had  chauated. 
Marmion  mounted  his  horse  with  a  shout  such  as 

rose  under  Ilion : 
Venus,  who  sprang  from  the  sea,  had  envied  the 

Lake  and  its  Lady. 
Never  on  mountain  or  wild  hath  echo  so  cheerily 

Never  did  monarch  bestow  such  glorious  meed  upon 

Never  had  monarch  the  power,  liberality,  justice, 


It  will  be  remembered  that  the  ballad  of 
'Alice  Brand'  in  'The  Lady  of  the  Lake' 
opens  with  the  fresh  and  captivating  lines  :— 
Merry  it  is  in  the  good  greenwood 
When  the  mavis  and  merle  are  singing, 

thus  conjoining  prominent  songsters  of 
spring  and  early  summer.  In  placing  these 
birds  together  Scott  follows  early  precedent. 
Robert  Henryson,  Scottish  "  makkar "  of 
the  fifteenth  century,  couples  them  near  the 
opening  of  his  fable  'The  Lyon  and  the 
Mous,'  where  flowers  charm  the  eye,  and 
the  songs  of  birds  give  a  hint  of  Paradise, 

Sic  mirth  the  Mavis  and  the  Merle  couth  mae. 
Gavin  Douglas,  describing  May  in  the  Pro- 
logue to  'JEneid,   xii.,  groups  in  one  line 

"  the  merll,  the  mavys,  and  the  nychtingale, 
thinking  more  probably  of  descriptive  effect 
than  accuracy  of  statement ;  and  the  author 
of  the  quaint  and  fascinating  4  Complaynt  of 
Scotland  '  (1549)  pits  the  birds  against  each 
other  as  rivals  in  song,  asserting  that  "the 
mavis  maid  myrth  for  to  mok  the  merle." 
The  mavis  appears  in  English  poems  of  a 
date  earlier  than  any  of  the  works  men- 
tioned. In  the  'Romaunt  of  the  Rose,' 
11.  619-20,  it  figures  along  with  "  the  nyght- 
yngale  and  other  joly  briddis  smale";  and 
towards  the  close  of  the  '  Court  of  Love '  we 
learn  that  the  turtle-dove  took  up  the  parable 
of  May,  "and  therat  lough  the  mavis  in  a 
scorn."  The  ' '  mavys "  also  appears  in  the 
'Romaunt  of  the  Rose,'  1.  665,  along  with 
"thrustles  and  terins,"  whatever  the  latter 
may  be. 

The  cushat  (A.-S.  cusceote)  has  been  a 
favourite  with  Scottish  poets  from  Gavin 
Douglas,  and  perhaps  earlier,  to  Principal 
Shairp.  Douglas,  in  the  Prologue  just  cited, 
says  :— 

The  cowschet  crowdis  and  perkis  on  the  rys, 
that  is,  it  cooes  and  perches  on  the  copse. 
Montgomerie,  in  '  The  Cherrie  and  the  Slae,' 
st.  4,  writes,  "  The  Cukkow  and  the  Cuschet 
cryde,"  and  it  is  noteworthy  that  in  the  first 
stanza  of  the  poem  he  has  "  the  Merle  and 
Maueis  micht  be  sene."  It  is  suggestive  to 
contrast  with  these  early  references  to  the 
cushat  the  descriptive  line  in  Thomson's 
'Summer': — 

The  stockdove  only  through  the  forest  cooes. 
This  again  leads  to  Burns's  'Afton  Water,' 
in  which  we  hear  of  the  "stockdove  whose 
echo  resounds  through  the  glen."  Burns, 
however,  is  loyal  to  the  cushat,  which  appears 
five  different  times  in  his  lyrics.  Twice  he 
uses  the  term  employed  by  Gavin  Douglas  to 
describe  its  song.  "A  cushat  crooded  o'er 
me,"  he  writes  in  the  fragment  'As  I  did 
wander';  and  in  the  'Epistle  to  William 
Simpson '  he  listens 

While  thro'  the  braes  the  cushat  croods 

With  wailfu'  cry ! 

Principal  Shairp,  in  his  fascinating  '  Bush 
aboon  Traquair,'  uses  the  popular  form 
"  cushie,"  and  happily  selects  i  the  resonant 
and  haunting  "  croon  "  to  give  something  of 
onomatopoeic  character  to  the  impression  he 
desires  to  convey.  The  charming  result  is 
presented  as  follows  : — 

And  what  saw  ye  there 
At  the  bush  aboon  Traquair  ? 
Or  what  did  ye  hear  that  was  worth  your  heed  ? 
I  heard  the  cushies  croon 
Through  the  gpwden  afternoon, 
And  the  Quair  burn  singing  doun  to  the  Vale  of 

8*  8.X.  JULY  26, 1902.]          NOTES   AND    QUERIES. 


To  revert  for  a  moment  to  the  merle  :  it  is 
curious  to  find  in  the  fourth  stanza  of  '  Will 
he  no  come  back  again?'  (Hogg's  'Jacobite 
Kelics,'  ii.  195)  that  this  appears  to  be  con- 
sidered as  belonging  to  a  species  distinct 
from  the  blackbird.  This  is  the  reading  : — 
Whene'er  I  hear  the  blackbird  sing, 

Unto  the  e'ening  sinking  down, 
Or  merl  that  makes  the  woods  to  ring, 
To  me  they  ha'e  nae  ither  soun', ~ 
Than,  Will  he  no  come  back  again,  &c. 

One  fancies  that  Hogg  cannot  have  detected 
this  strange  lapse,  for  otherwise  he  would 
almost  certainly  have  laid  editorial  hands 
upon  the  stanza.  THOMAS  BAYNE. 

—In  '  The  Onlooker's  Note-Book,'  an  anony- 
mous work  with  an  identifying  motto,*  the 
only  instance  of  the  kind  with  which  I  am 
acquainted,  occurs  the  following  (chap.  xxii. 
p.  170):- 

"  When  Thackeray  described  the  follies  of  Society 
as  he  knew  it,  he  used  to  assign  a  prominent  place 
to  homoeopathy.  Lady  Blanche  litzague,  if  I  re- 
member aright,  wore  a  picture  of  Hahnemann  in 
her  bracelet  and  a  lock  of  Priessnitz's  hair  in  a 

Now  I  am  a  contemner  of  homoeopathy,  but 
a  lover  of  accuracy,  and  I  believe  from  in- 
ternal evidence  that  Thackeray  was  a  con- 
vinced homoeopath  is  t,  and  that  the  "Dr. 
John  Elliotson"  to  whom  Thackeray  dedi- 
cated '  Pendennis '  in  the  following  flattering 
words  was  a  homoeopathic  practitioner : — 

"  My  dear  Doctor,  Thirteen  months  ago,  when  it 
seemed  likely  that  this  story  had  come,  to  a  close,  a 
kind  friend  brought  you  to  my  bedside,  whence  in 
all  probability  I  never  should  have  risen  but  for 
your  constant  watchfulness  and  skill.  I  like  to 

recall  your  great  goodness  and  kindness at  that 

time  when  kindness  and  friendship  were  most 
needed  and  welcome.  And  as  you  would  take  no 
other  fee  but  thanks,  let  me  record  them  here  in 
behalf  of  me  and  mine,  and  subscribe  myself, 
Yours  most  sincerely  and  gratefully,  W.  M. 

I  believe  from  the  same  evidence  that 
Thackeray,  up  to  the  time  Dr.  Elliotson  was 
introduced  by  the  "kind  friend"  (how  well 
we  know  that  friend  !),  was  being  attended 
by  a  regular  practitioner,  who  was  displaced 
in  favour  of  the  disciple  of  the  homoeopathic 

*  The  full  title  is  :— "  An  Onlooker's  Note-Book 
|  By  the  Author  of  |  Collections  and  Recollections  | 
'  Another  peculiarity  of  the  Russells  is,  that  they 
never  |  alter  their  opinions:  they  are  an  excellent 
race  but  they  |  must  be  trepanned  before  they  can 
be  convinced.'  |  Sydney  Smith  :  Second  Letter  to 
Archdeacon  Singleton.  |  London  |  Smith  Elder  and 
Co.  Waterloo  Place  |  1902."  As  is  well  known,  the 
author  is  Mr.  G.  W.  E.  Russell 

I  deduce  this  opinion  from  a  passage  in 
the  preface  to  the  "Biographical"  Edition  of 
'  Pendennis,'  p.  xxxix : — 

"  In  one  of  the  Brookfield  letters  my  father  writes 
of  my  little  sister:  ' M.  says,  "Oh,  papa,  do  make 
her  [i.e.,  Helen  Pendennis]  well  again  ;  she  can  have 
a  regular  doctor,  and  be  almost  dead,  and  then  will 
cornea  homoeopathic  doctor  who  will  make  her  well, 
you  know.' " 

I  do  not  identify  for  the  moment  the  Lady 
Blanche  Fitzague,  cited  by  "  Onlooker  "  as 
wearing  Hahnemann's  picture  and  Priess- 
nitz's hair.  She  was  possibly  described 
before  the  illness  of  1849.  Some  of  your 
readers  can  doubtless  localize  her  at  once, 
and  also  supply  her  date. 

W.  SYKES,  M.D.,  F.S.A. 
47,  Southernhay  W.,  Exeter. 

P.S. — In  a  subsequent  communication  I 
want  to  identify,  with  the  help  of  your  corre- 
spondents, the  Thackerayan  topography  of 
Exeter  —  the  hotel  Foker  and  Major 
Pendennis  put  up,  the  shop  overlooking  the 
dean's  garden  where  the  Fotheringay  lodged, 
the  site  of  the  Exeter  Theatre,  and  any  other 
accurate  identification  which  can  be  estab- 

"HOPING  AGAINST  HOPE."  --  C.  C.  B.  re 
marks  (ante,  p.  10)  that  "  hope  against  hope  " 
is  "a  curious  phrased  It  is  curious  that 
C.  C.  M.  very  nearly  a  quarter  of  a  century 
ago  (5th  S.  ix.  68)  called  it  a  "nonsensical 
expression."  From  that  particular  contribu- 
tion others  flowed  (ibid.,  94,  258,  275,  319, 378) 
which  proved  its  antiquity  and  value,  and 
which  are  well  worth  referring  to  now. 


SHAKESPEARE  ALLUSIONS.— At  the  close  of 
'Pygmalion  and  Galatea'  (1598)  Marston 
proceeds  to  praise  his  poem  in  lines  which 
contain  this  couplet : — 

So  Labeo  did  complain  his  love  was  stone, 
Obdurate,  flinty,  so  relentless  none ; 

seemingly  an  allusion  to  '  Venus  and  Adonis ' 

(200-201) :—      , 

Art  thou  obdurate,  flinty,  hard  as  steel- 
Nay,  more  than  flint,  for  stone  at  rain  relenteth  ? 

Although  numerous  paraphrases  of  the  same 
idea,  are  to  be  met  with  in  Elizabethan  poetry, 
in  no  other  lines  is  there  so  pronounced  a 
similarity  of  language.  The  chief  interest  of 
the  passage,  however,  is  in  the  fact  that  if 
he  is  girding  at  Shakespeare,  Marston  has 
sketched  for  us  one  of  the  dramatist's  features. 
According  to  Smith's  'Latin-English  Dic- 
tionary,' Labeo  ="  the  one  who  has  large 

Shakespeare  must  have  taken  offence  at 
this  allusion,  or  a  quarrel  may  have  arisen 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        [9<h  s.  x.  JULY  26, 1902. 

from  some  other  cause,  not  now  to  be  dis- 
covered. In  the  '  Scourge  of  Villany '  Marston 
replies  to  some  attack  of  Shakespeare's  in 
these  bitter  words  : — 

Nay,  shall  a  trencher-slave  extenuate 
Some  Lucrece  rape,  and  straight  magnificate 
Lewd  Jovian  lust,  whilst  my  satiric  vein 
Shall  muzzled  be,  not  daring  out  to  'strain 
His  tearing  paw  ?    No,  gloomy  Juvenal, 
Though  to  thy  fortunes  I  disastrous  fall. 

If,  as  generally  believed,  Marston  com- 
posed '  Pygmalion  and  Galatea,'  using  '  Venus 
and  Adonis  '  for  his  model,  and  protesting  in 
the  '  Scourge  of  Villany '  in  no  uncertain 
words  against  the  obscenity  of  contemporary 
poetry,  it  is  not  so  difficult  to  surmise  the 
probable  cause  of  the  quarrel  between  the 
satirist  and  him  of  the  "  tearing  paw."  The 
"  trencher-slave"  expression  is  confirmation, 
also,  of  the  traditional  story  of  Shakespeare's 
humble  beginnings  after  his  arrival  in  London. 
Further,  if  the  "  tiger's  heart "  of  the  Greene- 
Chettle  episode  referred  to  Shakespeare 
(which  I  have  always  doubted),  the  pass- 
ing years  seemingly  had  not  altered  his 
"gentle"  (sic)  disposition,  if  Marston  could, 
in  1598,  refer  to  him  in  such  terms. 

Hall,  in  his  satires,  devotes  some  little  space 
to  one  Labeo.  Before  identifying  the  above 
allusion,  I  had  long  believed  that  Shake- 
speare was  the  person  alluded  to.  A  note 
about  this  is  reserved  for  the  future. 


New  York. 

the  inscription  "Boadicea  (Boudicca),  Queen 
of  the  Iceni,"  which  the  London  County 
Council  have  decided  upon  for  the  statuary 
group  on  the  Victoria  Embankment,  there  is 
an  amusing  poem  iu  Punch  (2  July)  which  asks 
how  this  new  orthography  of  an  old  friend  is 
to  be  pronounced.  "  Is  it  .Soodicca,  or  instead 
jSow^Adicca  ? "  demands  the  puzzled  bard. 
The  reply  to  this  question  is,  in  my  opinion, 
that  it  is  neither.  It  is  Zfodicca.  The  syllable 
Bou  is  to  be  pronounced  exactly  like  the  Bo 
in  the  name  of  another  familiar  heroine, 
Bopeep.  In  other  words,  the  diphthong  here 
is  not  the  French  ou,  but  rather  the  Penin- 
sular ou,  as  in  the  Spanish  place-name  Port 
Bou,  locally  pronounced  Port  Bo,  or  as  iri  the 
Portuguese  names  Douro  and  Souza,  which 
Englishmen  too  often  miscall  Dooro  and  Sooza, 
but  which  are  never  so  sounded  in  their 
native  land.  JAS.  PLATT,  Jun. 

WRITING  LESSONS  ON  SAND.— In  the  earlier 
days  of  village  education  it  was  quite  usual 
to  instruct  children  in  the  art  of  writing  by 
using  sand  for  the  formation  of  the  letters. 

So  recently  as  1806,  Mr.  Tory,  a  bombardier, 
opened  a  free  school  in  the  Wesleyan  Chapel 
at  Southwold,  "  in  which  the  children  were 
taught  to  read  and  spell,  and  to  write  on 
sand."  But  in  1803  the  master  of  the  Wis- 
bech  Charity  School  gave  up  his  appointment, 
chiefly  because  he  was  required  to  teach 
writing  on  sand.  At  the  Sunday  School  of 
Roydon,  near  Diss,  in  Norfolk  (the  home  of 
the  Freres),  writing  was  taught  by  trays 
of  sand,  and  the  children  wrote  either  with 
sticks  or  their  fingers,  making  letters  of  any 
size,  but  generally  about  three  inches  high. 



[See  7th  S.  ii.  369,  474  ;  iii.  36,  231,  358 ;  vi.  236 ; 
8th  S.  iii.  188,233.] 

THEATRE.  —  The  recent  sale  of  this  old 
theatre  is,  I  think,  worth  a  passing  mention. 
Its  frontage  as  it  now  exists  dates  from  1780, 
at  which  time  Tottenham  Street,  Tottenham 
Court  Road,  it  need  hardly  be  said,  was  a 
very  different  thoroughfare  from  what  it  has 
since  become.  Originally  Paschali's  Concert 
Room,  the  building  was  celebrated  for  concerts 
in  the  reign  of  George  III.,  who  frequently 
visited  it,  and  for  whom  a  sumptuous  box 
and  anterooms  were  built,  the  name  being 
changed  in  his  honour  to  the  "  King's  Con- 
cert Rooms."  After  this  it  became  Hyde's 
Concert  Room  for  several  years,  till  in  1802 
it  was  opened  as  an  entertainment  theatre 
and  club  under  the  name  of  the  Pickwick 
Society.  It  was  next  known  as  the  "  Theatre 
of  Variety,"  and  was  noted  for  French  plays 
and  French  actors.  In  1850  it  is  advertised 
as  the  "  Fitzroy  or  Queen's  Theatre,  formerly 
called  the  Regency  Theatre." 

Under  the  Bancrofts  it  became  once  more 
fashionable,  and  the  early  triumphs  of  those 
delightful  actors  were  achieved  on  the  boards 
of  this  old  theatre. 


"  FROM  THE  LONE  SHIELING."  (See  9th  S.  ix. 
483.)  —  As  considerable  interest  has  been 
manifested  in  the  recent  attribution  of  the 
'  Canadian  Boat-Song '  to  John  Gait,  and  in 
view  of  the  numerous  versions  of  the  "/song," 
it  may  be  desirable  to  let  readers  of  '  N.  &  Q.' 
who  are  interested  in  the  lines  as  well  as  in 
the  question  of  authorship  have  the  piece 
as  it  appeared  in  Blackwood's  Magazine  for 
September,  1829.  Robert  Louis  Stevenson, 
by  the  way,  frequently  quoted  the  second 
stanza,  beginning  "From  the  lone  shieling," 
though  he  never  did  so  correctly  ;  and  Mr. 
Chamberlain,  in  more  than  one  speech  he 
delivered  in  Scotland  some  years  ago,  also 

X.  JULY  26, 1902.]  NOTES   AND    QUERIES. 


misquoted  the  verse.  With  the  exception  of 
the  repeated  chorus  after  each  stanza,  the  fol- 
lowing is  an  exact  transcript  from  Black- 
wood's  : — 

CANADIAN  BOAT-SONG  (from  the  Gaelic). 
Listen  to  me,  as  when  ye  heard  our  father 

Sing  long  ago  the  song  of  other  shores — 
Listen  to  me,  and  then  in  chorus  gather 

All  your  deep  voices,  as  ye  pull  your  oars  : 

Fair  these  broad  meads — these  hoary  woods  are 

grand ; 
But  we  are  exiles  from  our  fathers'  land. 

From  the  lone  shieling  of  the  misty  island 
Mountains  divide  us,  and  the  waste  of  seas — 

Yet  still  the  blood  is  strong,  the  heart  is  Highland, 
And  we  in  dreams  behold  the  Hebrides. 

We  ne'er  shall  tread  the  fancy-hauiited  valley, 
Where  'tween  the  dark   hills    creeps  the  small 
clear  stream, 

In  arms  around  the  patriarch  banner  rally, 
Nor  see  the  moon  on  royal  tombstones  gleam. 

When  the  bold  kindred,  in  the  time  long-vanish'd, 
Conquer'd  the  soil  and  fortified  the  keep,— 

No  seer  foretold  the  children  would  be  banish'd 
That  a  degenerate  Lord  might  boast  his  sheep. 

Come  foreign  rage— let  Discord  burst  in  slaughter  ! 

O  then  for  clansman  true,  and  stern  claymore — 
The  hearts  that  would  have  given  their  blood  like 

Beat  heavily  beyond  the  Atlantic  roar. 

Prof.  Mackinnon,  the  occupant  of  the 
Celtic  Chair  in  Edinburgh  University,  is  of 
opinion  that  the  Gaelic  version,  known  in 
the  Highlands  to  this  day,  "  is  founded  upon 
the  Earl  of  Eglinton's  lines,  and  is  not,  as 
might  be  supposed,  an  earlier  form  of  the 
poem."  JOHN  GEIGOR. 

105,  Choumert  Road,  Peckham. 

shall  be  glad  if  I  may  call  attention  to  an 
extraordinary  mistake  made  by  the  author 
in  his  description  of  Sir  Henry  Lee,  who  is 
represented  throughout  the  novel  as  an  old 
man.  In  chap.  i.  we  are  told  that  the  scene 
is  laid  in  1652,  and  in  the  next  chapter,  in 
reply  to  his  daughter's  question,  "You  have 
seen  Shakspeare  yourself,  sir?"  the  knight 
replies,  "  He  died  when  I  was  a  mere  child." 
Shakspeare  died  in  1616,  and  if  Sir  Henry 
was  then  (say)  six  years  old,  he  would  have 
been  born  in  1610,  and  therefore  be  forty-two 
years  old  at  the  opening  of  the  story.  How 
can  Sir  Walter's  description  of  ''  a  venerable 
gentleman  with  a  long  white  beard "  be 
reconciled  with  these  figures  ?  In  the  con- 
cluding chapter  of  the  work,  in  which  King 
Charles's  progress  from  Rochester  to  London 
in  the  year  1660  is  described,  we  find  our- 
selves in  the  presence  of  extreme  old  age, 
where  "  the  light  that  burned  so  low  in  the 

socket  had  leaped  up  and  expired  in  one 
exhilarating  flash."  Sir  Henry  Lee  would 
then  have  been  fifty,  according  to  my  pre- 
vious computation. 

There  is  also  another  point  on  which 
readers  of  the  novel  are  left  in  doubt,  viz., 
whether  Markham  Everard  really  knew  of 
the  verbal  condition  expressed  to  Wild  rake 
by  Cromwell  at  their  interview  at  Windsor 
as  described  in  chap.  viii.  In  chap.  xiv. 
there  is  a  conversation  between  Everard  and 
Wildrake,  in  which  the  latter  explains  to  his 
friend  that  Cromwell  "  would  have  Woodstock 
a  trap  :  your  uncle  and  his  pretty  daughter 
a  bait  of  toasted  cheese  ;  you  the  spring-fall, 
which  shall  bar  their  escape,"  to  which 
Everard  replies,  "This  tallies  with  what 
Alice  hinted."  She  had  asked  him  a  few 
pages  before  whether  it  was  false  that  he 
was  engaged  to  betray  the  young  king  of 
Scotland.  En  the  scene,  however,  where 
Wildrake  attempts  to  assassinate  Cromwell, 
the  former  says  that  "  Everard  knew  not  a 
word  of  the  rascally  conditions  you  talk 
of."  Wildrake  was  not  a  man  to  tell  a- 
deliberate  untruth,  and  the  only  solution 
which  occurs  to  a  perplexed  reader  is  that 
Sir  Walter  Scott  had  forgotten  the  conversa- 
tion in  which  the  condition  on  which  Crom- 
well had  acceded  to  Everard's  request  for 
permission  to  Sir  H6*ry  Lee  to  return  to  the 
lodge  could  not  possibly  be  misunderstood  by 
a  man  of  ordinary  intelligence.  The  views 
of  some  of  your  correspondents  familiar  with 
'  Woodstock '  will  be  welcomed  by 



vol.  ii.  (lettered  11)  of  the  new  series  of  the 
Transactions  of  the  Cumberland  and  West- 
morland Antiquarian  and  Archaeological 
Society  (Kendal,  1902)  is  an  excellent  paper 
by  Mr.  Harper  Gaythorpe  on  some  of  the 
'Church  Bells  in  the  Archdeaconry  of 
Furness.'  The  present  instalment  (pp.  282- 
306)  deals  only  with  the  parishes  of  Col  ton, 
Kirkby  Ireleth,  Broughton,  Woodland,  and 
Seathwaite  ;  but  the  work  is  most  thoroughly 
done.  In  each  case  Mr.  Gaythorpe  has  made 
inquiry  into  the  ringing  customs  and  related 
usages,  and  carefully  recorded  the  facts.  At 
Kirkby  Ireleth,  for  example, 
"the  bells  are  rung  only  for  special  weddings. 
Until  1840  it  was  the  custom  at  weddings  for  the 
school  children  to  repeat  a  homily  or  '  homminy '  as 
they  stood  hand  in  hand  in  a  semicircle  round  the 
porch  outside  the  church  door.  The  smaller  children 
were  arranged  near  the  wall,  and  the  larger  boys  in 
the  middle.  After  repeating  the  '  homminy '  of 
good  wishes,  if  no  coins  were  scattered  the  children 
ran  before  the  newly  married  couple  to  the  church 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        [9*  s.  x.  JULY  20, 1902. 

gate,  and  if  none  were  scattered  there  another 
homminy'  was  repeated  and  the  wish  expressed 
that    they   might    have    no    good    luck    and    no 

I  do  not  remember  seeing  an  account 
elsewhere  of  the  formal  revocation  of  the 
good  wishes  where  largesse  was  not  given. 
Two  or  more  articles  referring  to  this  subject 
have  recently  appeared  in  your  columns,  but 
they  are  hidden  under  titles  that  do  not 
disclose  their  nature  to  the  student  of  social 
customs.  I  venture,  with  diffidence,  to 
suggest  that  the  heading  of  this  note  is  that 
under  which  such  a  student  would  expect  to 
find  the  information,  and  to  beg  that  a 
complete  set  of  references  to  this  odd  insti- 
tution may  be  collected  under  it  by  the 
kindness  of  those  who  are  acquainted  with 
the  riches  of  the  stores  of  '  N.  &  Q.' 

O.  O.  H. 

[The  articles  to  which  O.  O.  H.  refers  will  be 
found  at  9th  S.  vii.  273;  ix.  386.] 

PAM  =  KNAVE  OF  CLUBS.— This  subject  was 
discussed  in  a  previous  series  of 'N.  &  Q.,' 
where  two  derivations  of  Pam  are  mentioned 
— the  older  one  from  palm,  and  a  newer  one 
from  pamphile,  both  of  which  are  contained, 
as  alternatives,  in  the  'Encyclopaedic  Dic- 
tionary, (1881-1889).  I  have  had  occasion  to 
go  into  the  matter,  to  come  to  a  conclusion 
for  my  own  purposes  as  to  which  derivation 
was  right ;  and  below  I  give  the  result  in  its 
draft  form.  It  is  desirable  that  the  '  New 
English  Dictionary,'  which  is  approaching 
the  word,  should  make  a  definite  and  correct 
choice  between  the  two  derivations — one,  at 
least,  of  which  must  be  wrong.  I  would  have 
sent  the  editors  these  particulars  direct,  as  a 
possible  help,  only  that  some  of  your  corre- 
spondents might  be  able  to  say  something 
more  in  the  way  of  addition  or  correction. 

Pam  is  the  knave  of  clubs  in  the  game  of 
five-card  loo,  or  pam  loo,  as  it  is  sometimes 
called.  Dr.  Johnson,  in  his  '  Dictionary ' 
(1755),  derived  the  term  as  coming  "  probably 
from  palm,  victory  ;  as  trump  from  triumph  ; 
in  which  he  is  supported  by  Ash  in  his  dic- 
tionary, twenty  years  later.  PROF.  SKEAT 
writes  in  '  N.  &  Q.'  (7th  S.  i.  358)  :— 

"It  is  surprising  that  Johnson's  'Dictionary' 
should  be  seriously  consulted  for  etymologies.  His 
derivation  of  Pam  from  palm,  because  Pam 
triumphs  over  other  cards,  is  extremely  comic. 
Of  course,  Pam  is  short  for  Pamphile,  the  French 
name  for  the  knave  of  clubs  ;  for  which  see  Littre's 
4  French  Dictionary.' " 

Littre,  however,  only  says  that  the  card  is 
so  called  in  the  game  of  pamphile,  where  it 
(Pamphile,  like  Pam  in  loo)  is  the  principal 
trump.  Considering  that  loo  is  a  much  older 

game  than  pamphile  (which  is  first  described 
in  the  continental  Academic  of  1756,  while 
loo,  under  its  old  title  of  lanterloo,  appears 
in  the  'Compleat  Gamester'  of  1674),  and 
that  not  only  does  Pope  more  than  forty 
years  previously  refer  to  Pam  in  connexion 
with  loo  in  his  well-known  'Kape  of  the 
Lock '(1712)— 

Ev'n   mighty    Pam,  that  Kings  and  Queens  o'er- 

And  mow'd  down  armies  in  the  fights  of  Lu, 

but  also  that  the  term  is  defined  as  the  knave 
of  clubs  still  earlier  in  the  'Dictionary  of  the 
Canting  Crew '  (1690),  while  some  old  writers 
actually  spell  it  Palm* — the  professor  must 
be  regarded  as  putting  the  cart  before  the 
horse,  and  the  doctor's  derivation  accepted 
as  the  correct  one— at  least,  until  a  better  is 
found.  The  game  of  pamphile  is  a  variation 
of  the  French  game  of  mouche,  and  both  are 
undoubtedly  taken  from  loo.  In  fact,  the 
original  name  of  loo  is  found  in  the  descrip- 
tion of  pamphile.  Even  if  it  were  conceivable 
that  pamphile  was  contemporaneous  with,  or 
previous  to  loo,  it  would  be  highly  improbable 
that  the  then  undescribed  foreign  game 
would  be  so  familiarly  known  in  England  as 
to  originate  a  nickname  in  another  game. 
From  the  foregoing  facts  it  is  fifty  times 
more  probable  that  "pamphile"  was  derived 
from  Pam  than  " Pam "  frompamphile. 

J.  S.  McTEAR. 
[See  7th  S.  i.  228,  317,  358.] 

time  when  we  are  so  far,  far  away  from  the 
period  of  "Boney"  and  "Old  Nosey,"  it 
may,  perhaps,  be  of  some  slight  interest 
to  allude  to  a  small  incident,  as  reported 
in  the  columns  of  the  Weekly  Irish  Times, 
28  June,  and  doubtless  in  many  another 
paper : — 

"  It  was  claimed  the  other  day  for  Mrs.  Moon,  of 
Rolvenden,  Kent  (whose  portrait  the  King  recently 
accepted),  that  she  was  the  last  survivor  of 
Waterloo,  but  it  appears  she  must  now  share  this 
honour  with  at  least  one  other  subject  of  His 
Majesty— a  respectable  old  man  named  William 
Battersby,  living  near  High  Wycombe,  in  Bucking- 
hamshire, who  actually  first  saw  light  on  the  field 
of  Waterloo  two  days  before  the  memorable  battle! 
Mr.  Battersby,  who  last  week  celebrated  his  eighty- 
seventh  birthday,  was  the  son  of  a  sergeant  in  the 
32nd  Foot  (Duke  of  Cornwall's  Light  Infantry), 
attached  to  Picton's  Brigade.  During  the  sergeant  s 
absence  his  wife,  who  had  gone  over  as  a  military 
nurse,  gave  birth  to  a  boy,  who  in  time  grew  as  tall 
as  his  father— six  feet.  The  son  never  joined  the 
army,  but  followed  the  trade  of  a  shoemaker." 


*  For  instance,  the  writer  of  the  essays  in  the 
1  Annals  of  Gaming.' 

9'"  S.X.  JULY  26,  1902.]  NOTES    AND    QUERIES. 



WE  must  request  correspondents  desiring  infor- 
mation on  family  matters  of  only  private  interest 
to  affix  their  names  and  addresses  to  their  queries, 
in  order  that  the  answers  maybe  addressed  to  them 

REFERENCES  WANTED.—!.  A  wily  abbot. — 
"He  was  not  like  that  insolent  Abbot  that  did 
cast  off  his  humility  with  his  cowle,  and  being 
asked  by  his  brethren  why  he  was  then  so  proud 
that  was  formerly  such  an  humble  monk,  made 
answer,  that  in  his  monachisme,  when  he  went  so 
low  and  stooping,  he  was  searching  for  the  keyes 
of  the  Abbey ;  but  now  having  found  them,  he  did 
hold  up  his  head  to  ease  himself." 
Who  was  the  wily  abbot  ?  > 

2.  The  torpedo,  or  cramp  fish. — 
Arcanas  hyemes  et  caeca  papavera  ponti, 
Abdo  sinu  et  celerem  frigida  vincla  necem. 

3.  General  ruin  and  decay. — 

Jam  ruet  etbustum,  titulisque  in  marmore  sectus, 
—  tumulis  autem  morientibus  ipse, 
Occumbes  etiani :  sic  mors  tibi  tertia  restat. 

4.  A  saw,  the  original  of  Bunyan's  "He 
that  is  down  need  fear  no  fall." — 

Qui  jacet  in  terra  non  habet  unde  cadat. 
[Alain  de  Lille,  lib.  Parab.  c.  2.] 

5.  A  seventeenth- century  hymn   on    hell : 
"Ex  quo  poli "  is  probably  not  the  real  begin- 
ning of  it : — 

Ex  quo  poli  sunt  perfecti 

Audet  numero  complecti 

Stellas  cceli,  stillas  roris, 

Undas  aquei  fluoris, 

Guttas  imbris  pluvialis, 

Floccos  velleris  nivalis, 

Quot  sunt  vere  novo  flores, 

Quot  odores,  quot  colores, 

Quot  vinacios  autumnus, 

Poma  legit  et  vertumnus, 

Quot  jam  grana  tulit  a?stas, 

Frondes  hyemis  tempestas, 

Totus  orbis  an  i  mantes, 

Aer  atomos  volantes, 

Pilos  ferae,  pecus  villos. 

Vertex  hominum  capillos ; 

Adde  Httoris  arenas, 

Adde  graminis  verbenas, 

Tot  myriades  annorum, 

Quot  momenta  sseculorum ; 

Heus,  adhuc  seternitatis 

Portus  fugit  a  damnatis. 

Sternum,  aaternum  !  Quanta  hsec  duratio,  quanta ! 
Quam  speranda  bonis,  quamque  tremenda  malis  ! 

I  know  several  parallels  and  close  resem- 
blances to  2,  3,  and  5  ;  but  I  am  in  search 
of  exact  verifications.  Smallest  favours  in 
that  department  would  be  most  thankfully 
received.  (Miss)  L.  I.  GUINEY. 

12,  Walton  Street,  Oxford. 

THOMAS  HODGSKIN.  —  I  should  be  very 
pleased  to  receive  information  about  the  life 

of  Thomas  Hodgskin  (1791  ?-l 860  ?),  author 
of  an  'Essay  on  Naval  Discipline'  j(1813), 
'  Labour  defended  against  the  Claims  of 
Capital '  (1824), '  Popular  Political  Economy ' 
(1828),  and  '  Natural  and  Artificial  Right  of 
Property  Contrasted  '(1832),  and  successively 
a  leader-writer  in  the  Morning  Chronicle  and 
Economist.  Are  any  friends  and  relations, 
close  or  distant,  of  his  still  living  ? 

ELIE  HALEVY,  Docteur-es-Lettres. 


Can  any  one  tell  me  the  author  of  the  follow- 
ing sentiment? — 

"  I  shall  pass  through  this  world  but  once,  there- 
fore any  good  deed  I  can  do,  any  kindness  I  can 
show  to  any  human  being,  let  me  not  defer,  nor 
neglect  it,  for  I  shall  not  pass  this  way  again." 

J.  M.  WAITE. 


[At  8th  S.  xi.  118  C.  stated  that  Mr.  Moody  had 
informed  him  that  he  obtained  this  motto  from  a 
member  of  the  Massachusetts  Legislature  who  was 
then  (1897)  dead.] 

Perhaps  some  one  of  your  readers  who  bears 
this  surname  may  be  able  to  give  me  some 
information  as  to  its  derivation  and  the 
locality  in  which  it  originated.  If  not,  I 
should  be  grateful  frr  any  guidance  as  to 
how  I  may  furnish  myself  with  such  infor- 

Bulbourne,  Tring. 

CAPT.  MORRIS'S  WIFE. — I  should  much  like 
to  get  the  poet  Capt.  Morris's  marriage  cer- 
tificate and  the  lineage  of  his  wife,  but  have 
no  idea  where  to  look,  as  his  marriage  was 
prior  to  the  records  of  Somerset  House. 
Capt.  Morris  was  my  husband's  great-grand- 
father, and  married  the  widow  of  Sir  William 
Stanhope.  Had  she  any  previous  family  1 

J.  L.  BOLTON. 

5,  Warwick  Mansions,  Kensington. 

[MR.  J.  RADCLIFFE  stated  at  9th  S.  viii.  533  that 
the  lady's  maiden  name  was  Anne  Hussey  Delaval, 
daughter  of  Francis  Blake  Delaval,  of  Seaton 
Delaval.  1 

SPEARING. — I  should  be  grateful  for  any 
information  concerning  Capt.  Spearing,  who 
was  present  at  the  capture  of  the  Manillas, 
and  died  in  India,  on  board  the  Bristol,  in 
1783.  He  married  Ann  Ashdown.  Can  any 
of  the  family  give  me  the  name  of  his  father  1 

F.  V. 

ENGLISH  PUBLIC  SCHOOLS.— I  should  be  much 
obliged  for  information  as  to  the  prevailing 
practice  in  English  public  schools  with  re- 
gard to  the  conduct  of  meetings  of  the 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        o»»  s.  x.  JULY  25, 1902. 

governing  body.  Does  the  head  master 
usually  preside?  Further,  is  the  head  master 
ordinarily  a  member  of  the  governing  body 
of  the  school  ?  PERTINAX. 

Charley  Wag,  Charley  Wag, 
Ate  the  pudding  and  swallowed  the  bag, 
And  left  the  strings  for  his  mammy  to  gnag, 

has  already  been   commented  upon.    There 
are,  however,  several  other  well-known  rimes 
on  this  unfortunate  name.    Here  are  two  : — 
Charley,  barley,  butter  and  eggs, 
Lamb-toes  and  barley-pegs. 
Charley,  Charley,  chuck,  chuck,  chuck, 
Went  to  bed  with  two  young  ducks  ; 
One  died,  and  the  other  cried, 
Charley,  Charley,  chuck,  chuck,  chuck  ! 

Why  should  this  name  be  so  distinguished 
above  all  others  ?  C.  C.  B. 

[The  lines,  as  we  heard  them  in  youth,  ran  :— 
Charley  Chuck  married  a  duck, 
The  duck  died,  and  Charley  cried. 
Good  bye  [.night]  to  Charley  Chuck. 
We  fancy  that  other  of  the  commonest  English 
names,  such  as  William  and  Tom,  are  equally  dis- 
tinguished in  popular  folk-lore.] 

NORTH- WEST  PASSAGE,'  1635.— I  shall  be  glad 
to  hear  of  the  whereabouts  of  copies  of  this 
book,  of  their  condition,  of  their  history,  and 
whether  they  contain  the  original  map  and 
the  globe.  RONALD  DIXON. 

46,  Marlborough  Avenue,  Hull. 

GOUNOD. — Was  this  famous  French  com- 
poser a  Protestant  ?  Date  and  place  of  his 
death  wanted.  J.  T.  T. 


[Gounod  was  a  Roman  Catholic.  He  died  at 
St.  Cloud  18  October,  1893.] 

DUKE  OF  BRABANT. — May  I  hope  to  have 
through  the  medium  of  your  interesting 
columns  information  as  to  the  ancestry  and 
connexions  of  Godfrey,  (styled)  first  Duke  of 
Brabant,  whose  daughter  Adeliza  was  second 
wife  to  Henry  I.  ?  H.  L. 

LEGEND  OF  LADY  ALICE  LEA.  —  Some  few 
years  back  (I  forget  the  date)  I  clipped  the 
following  from  the  Western  Morning  fleivs : — 

"  One  of  the  most  singular  legends  of  North  Corn- 
wall is  that  connected  with  the  name  of  Lady  Alice 
Lea,  whose  family  resided  in  the  parish  of  Morwen- 
stow  in  the  sixteenth  century.  Her  lovely  eyes  and 
gorgeous  dress  made  the  country  folks  aver  that 
she  had  the  eyes  of  a  seraph  and  the  robes  of  a 
queen.  Her  heart  was  set  on  winning  the  love  of 
Sir  Bevil  Grenvile,  of  Stow.  In  vain  did  her  mother 
entreat  her  to  commend  her  desires  to  Heaven,  and 
not  to  trust  to  beauty  or  apparel.  To  all  such 
advice  she  gave  scornful  reply.  At  length  Lady 

Alice  could  nowhere  be  found,  while  on  her  favourite 
lawn  appeared  a  little  molehill,  and  a  priest  in 
passing  by  took  from  its  top  her  ring,  on  which 
were  graven  these  words  : — 

The  earth  must  hide 

Both  eyes  and  pride. 

This  story  of  the  proud  and  vain  lady  who  was 
turned  into  a  mole  is  one  of  the  strangest  to  be  met 
with  in  Cornwall." 

Where  can  I  find  this  legend  1  There  is  no 
mention  of  it  amongst  the  numerous  legends 
collected  by  Mrs.  H.  P.  Whitcombe  in  '  By- 

§one  Days  in  Devon  and  Cornwall.'    Also, 
id  such  a  personage  as  Lady  Alice  Lea  ever 
exist :  and,  if  so,  what  was  her  parentage  ? 

D.  K.  T. 

BUTLER'S  'EREWHON.' — Chap.  xix.  is  headed 
'World  of  the  Unborn.'  Is  it  possible  that 
the  author  obtained  his  ideas  for  this  chapter 
from  'Lucina  sine  Concubitu,'  first  pub- 
lished in  1750,  and  reprinted  1761  by  Dodsley, 
with  a  number  of  other  short  articles,  in 
'Fugitive  Pieces  on  Various  Subjects  '  ?  See 
vol.  i.  pp.  151,  152.  HERBERT  SOUTHAM. 


KING'S-TAPER.— Is  there,  perhaps,  somewhere 
in  any  district  of  the  United  Kingdom  or  of 
the  British  Empire  such  a  local  name  as  the 
king's-taper  given  to  the  mullein,  or  high- 
taper,  or  Jupiter's-staff  ( Verbascum  thapsus)  1 
It  is  a  well-known  and  little-cultivated  field- 
plant,  provided  with  large  woolly  leaves  and 
yellow  flowers,  which  shoots  up  its  high  stalk 
not  seldom  to  a  height  of  six  feet,  whence  it 
bears,  among  various  others,  its  significant 
names  high-taper  and  Jupiter's-staff.  Con- 
sidering that  this  field  and  garden  plant 
appears  to  be  especially  conspicuous  during 
this  summer  in  England,  growing  and  blos- 
soming, so  to  speak,  in  praise  and  honour  of 
her  people's  popular  king,  may  one  suggest 
to  add  the  above-stated  name,  the  king's- 
taper,  to  its  many  other  less  appropriate 
names,  if  it  does  not  already  occur?  I  have 
searched  after  it  in  vain  in  Prof.  Wright's 
'  English  Dialect  Dictionary '  and  in  the '  New 
English  Dictionary'  among  the  compounds 
of  "  king."  H.  K. 

"FIRST  LOVE  is  A  RANK  EXOTIC."  —  Where 
does  Ruskin  say,  "  First  love  is  a  rank  exotic 
that  must  be  pruned  to  make  room  for  the 
fair  delight  of  flowers"?  I  am  anxious  to 
discover  the  exact  place  of  the  quotation,  if 
by  chance  it  should  occur  in  any  of  his  greater 
works.  M.  R. 

—In  the  last  chapter  of  the  book  of  Eccle- 
siastes,  in  the  beautiful  description  of  the 

9*s.x.JuLY26,i902.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


physical  failure  of  old  age, occurs  the  sentence, 
"  The  almond  tree  shall  flourish "  (Revised 
Version  "shall  blossom").  I  should  like  to 
ask  -why  the  almond  tree  is  chosen  in  this 
connexion,  and  if  it  be  quite  certain  that  the 
original  word  used  indicates  the  almond. 
The  peculiarity  of  the  almond  tree  is  that  it 
flowers  before  the  leaves  appear — rather  an 
emblem,  apparently,  of  precocious  youth  than 
of  the  failure  of  age.  There  appears,  however, 
to  be  an  Eastern  tree  which  more  fitly  meets 
the  requirements  of  the  comparison.  In 
Rudyard  Kipling's  story  '  In  Flood  Time  ' 
('  Soldiers  Three,  and  other  Stories ')  occurs 
the  following  sentence,  which  struck  me  in 
this  connexion  :  "  The  mind  of  an  old  man  is 
like  the  numah-tree.  Fruit,  bud,  blossom, 
and  the  dead  leaves  of  all  the  years  of  the 
past  flourish  together.  Old  and  new  and 
that  which  is  gone  out  of  remembrance,  all 
three  are  there  ! "  The  aptness  of  the  com- 
parison here  is  much  more  evident  than  in 
the  Biblical  illustration,  and  I  cannot  help 
wondering  if  there  may  not  be  a  mistake  in 
the  translation  of  the  latter. 

W.  SYKES,  M.D.,  F.S.A. 

SURVIVOE. — In  the  list  of  "  Those  who  sy.r- 
vived  the  Black  Hole  Prison,"  printed  in 
J.  Z.  Holwell's  "Genuine  Narrative  of  the 
Deplorable  Deaths  of  the  English  Gentle- 
men, and  others,  who  were  suffocated  in  the 
Black  Hole  in  Fort  William,  at  Calcutta,  in 
the  Kingdom  of  Bengal,  in  the  Night  suc- 
ceeding the  20th  Day  of  June,  1756.  London  : 
Printed  for  A.  Millar  in  the  Strand. 
MDCCLVIII,"  now  before  me,  p.  40,  the  only 
lady  named  is  Mrs.  Carey.  In  the  Asiatic 
Journal,  vol.  ii.  p.  99,  of  July,  1816,  the 
obituary  contains  the  following  :  — 

"Nov.  20  [?  1815J  Mrs.  Knox,  aged  74  years— she 
is  the  last  of  those  who  survived  the  horrid  scene 
of  the  Black  Hole  in  1756.  She  was  at  that  time 
24  years  of  age,  the  wife  of  a  Ur.  Knox." 

I  do  not  find  the  name  "  Knox  "  in  Holwell's 
list;  but  he  mentions  "John  Meadows,  and 
twelve  military  and  militia  blacks  and 
whites,  some  of  whom  recovered  when  the 
door  was  open." 

The  case  of  Mrs.  Carey  is  discussed  by  Dr. 
Busteed,  '  Echoes  of  Old  Calcutta,'  second 
edition,  p.  30.  She  was  58  years  of  age  in 
1799.  She  would  therefore  be  about  15  years 
old  at  the  time  of  the  tragedy.  May  I  ask  if 
anything  is  known  of  Mrs.  Knox? 


Langton  House,  Charlton  Kings,  Cheltenham. 

ROCKALL. — Has  any  scientific  account  ever 
been  written  of  Rockall,  an  island  or  rock  in 

the  North  Atlantic  1  So  far  as  I  know  the 
late  Capt.  Hans  Busk  was  the  only  person 
who  had  landed  thereon.  Is  it  a  volcanic 
peak  ?  ASTARTE. 

OF  BERWICK. — In  an  opinion,  Rex  v.  Cowle, 
1759,  Burrow's  'Reports,'  p.  851,  Lord  Mans- 
field alludes  to  "a  complaint  of  Austria 
claiming  the  Isle  of  Man,"  referring  to  Rymer, 
608.  What  claim  was  this?  The  opinion 
contains  a  valuable  collation  of  the  history, 
the  constitution,  the  charter,  and  the  laws  of 
the  town  of  Berwick-upon-Tweed. 


Portland,  Oregon. 

LADY  ELIZABETH  PERCY.— Lady  Elizabeth 
Percy  i*>  said  to  have  been  married  to  the 
Rev."  William  Nicholson,  M.A.,  rector  of 
Derrybrusk  (Derrybrughas),  co.  Fermanagh, 
who  was  murdered  at  Taulbridge,  co.  Down, 
in  1641.  The  only 'Lady  Elizabeth  Percy  I 
can  trace  at  the  period,  the  daughter  of 
Thomas,  seventh  Earl  of  Northumberland,- 
was  married'  to  Thomas  Woodruffe,  of 
Woolley,  Yorkshire,  whom  she  may  have 
survived.  The  family  tradition  represents 
her  as  a  member  of  the  Northumberland 
family.  Is  there  any  evidence  (documentary 
or  otherwise)  of  La4y  Elizabeth's  marriage 
with  Mr.  Nicholson1? 


29,  Woolwich  Common,  Kent. 


(9th  S.  vii.  466 ;  viii.  70,  148,  312,  388,  527  ; 

ix.  95,  209,  309,  414,  469,  512.) 

IN  my  last  communication  on  this  subject 
I  adduced  certain  passages  from  other  poems 
of  Bruce  as  illustrations  of  the  thought  and 
style  exemplified  in  the  '  Ode  to  the  Cuckoo.' 
It  seems  necessary  now  to  say  that  in  doing 
so  I  had  no' intention  of  claiming  for  the 
poet  a  monopoly  of  the  ordinary  words  of 
the  English  language.  I  trust  that  very  few 
readers,  received  such  a  fantastic  impression 
as  that  this  was  the  purpose  of  what  I  wrote. 
The  poems  from  which  the  citations  were 
made  were  in  the  volume  published  by  Logan 
in  1770  as  '  Poems  on  Several  Occasions  by 
Michael  Bruce,'  and  he  did  not  afterwards 
claim  them  publicly  as  his  own. 

In  his  preface  to  the  little  book  to  which 
he  gave  the  title  just  quoted  Logan  wrote  as 
follows : — 

"Michael  Bruce,  the  Author  of  the  following 
Poems,  lives  now  no  more  but  in  the  remembrance 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        [9*  s.  x.  JULY  26, 1902. 

of  his  friends It  was  during  the  summer  vaca- 
tions of  the  college  that  he  composed  the  following 

Poems To  make  up  a  miscellany,  some  poems, 

wrote  by  different  authors,  are  inserted,  all  of  them 
original,  and  none  of  them  destitute  of  merit.  The 
reader  of  taste  will  easily  distinguish  them  from 
those  of  Mr.  Bruce,  without  their  being  parti- 
cularized by  any  mark." 

With  this  somewhat  self-contradictory  and 
perplexing  statement  before  him  as  a  means 
of  guidance,  it  is  not  very  clear  how  "  the 
reader  of  taste "  could  be  expected  to  show 
his  discernment,  especially  as  nothing  of 
Bruce's  had  previously  appeared.  One 
obvious  thing  to  do  would  be  to  assign  to 
the  author  named  on  the  title-page  the  best 
things  in  the  book,  and  thus  the  '  Ode  to  the 
Cuckoo,'  as  the  masterpiece  of  the  collection, 
would  from  the  first  be  considered  the  work 
of  the  poet  eulogized  in  the  introduction.  The 
"  miscellany,"  on  the  editor's  own  showing, 
was  a  collection  of  the  poems  of  Michael 
Bruce,  associated  with  whom  were  certain 
unnamed  authors,  included,  apparently,  for 
the  sake  of  padding,  and  introduced  with  a 
somewhat  apologetic  commendation.  This 
was  the  way  to  exalt  Bruce  and  to  depreciate 
his  companions,  whose  claims  to  attention 
would  naturally  be  regarded  by  comparison 
as  somewhat  insignificant.  The  confusion 
began  when  Logan  in  1781  included  the 
'  Cuckoo '  in  a  volume  published  under  his 
own  name. 

As  regards  Campbell's  assertion  that  "  the 
charge  of  stealing  the  '  Cuckoo '  from  Bruce 
was  not  brought  against  Logan  in  his  life- 
time," it  may  simply  be  said  that  this  is  one 
illustration  of  Campbell's  imperfect  acquaint- 
ance with  the  subject.  The  matter  was  judi- 
cially examined  over  a  '  Bill  of  Suspension 
and  Interdict,'  by  which  in  1781  Logan  at- 
tempted to  prevent  _the  reissue  of  the  1770 
volume  by  Bruce's  friends.  He  then  declared 
himself  the  "  proprietor  "  of  the  poems— sug- 
gestively avoiding  the  specific  claim  of 
authorship — and  asserted,  in  his  instructions 
to  his  agent,  that  "  Mr.  Logan  was  entrusted 
by  Michael  Bruce,  previous  to  his  death,  with 
these  very  poems."  As  this  was  untrue,  he 
naturally  failed  to  secure  evidence,  the  case 
went  against  him,  and  the  volume  was  printed 
at  Edinburgh  "  by  J.  Robertson  for  W.  Ander- 
son, bookseller,  Stirling."  This  is  what  is 
known  as  the  reprint  of  1782.  Surely,  if 
Logan  had  been  the  author  of  the  '  Ode  to 
the  Cuckoo,'  and  the  other  pieces  in  the 
"  miscellany  "  that  his  advocates  have  claimed 
for  him,  this  was  the  occasion  for  establish- 
ing his  rights.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  what  he 
did  establish,  by  clear  inference  from  his  own 
words,  was  that  the  poems  were  Bruce's. 

Mr.  Young,  his  law  agent  in  the  case,  ex- 
pressed his  estimate  of  his  client  with  out- 
spoken frankness  to  Dr.  Mackelvie.  "  Logan," 
he  remarked,  "certainly  never  said  to  me 
that  he  was  the  author."  Again,  when  Mac- 
kelvie's  edition  of  Bruce  appeared,  the  same 
candid  witness  gave  his  emphatic  testimony 
to  the  editor's  labours  in  these  terms  : — 

"  I  really  am  at  a  loss  to  express  to  you  my  appro- 
bation of  the  manner  in  which  you  have  executed 
the  work,  and  the  justice  you  have  done  to  the 
talents  and  memory  of  a  most  extraordinary  youth, 
more  especially  by  rescuing  them  from  the  fangs  of 
a  poisonous  reptile." 

It  is  apparently  proposed  to  discredit 
David  Pearson's  evidence  on  the  ground  that 
it  was  not  given  till  after  Logan's  death  ; 
and  Dr.  Mackelvie  is  quoted  as  writing  that 
Pearson  "had  almost  no  education,  under- 
standing by  that  term  training  at  school." 
Pearson's  views  on  the  subject  would  be  per- 
fectly well  known  from  the  first  where  they 
were  likely  to  be  understood  and  appreciated, 
but  the  difficulty  would  be  to  gain  the  atten- 
tion of  a  wide  audience.  Had  there  been 
at  the  time  an  appreciable  body  of  public 
opinion,  Logan  would  hardly  have  dared  to 
publish  as  his  own,  without  a  word  of 
explanation,  a  revised  version  of  Dr.  Dod- 
dridge's  hymn  '  O  God  of  Bethel ! '  The 
man  capable  of  thus  utilizing  a  poem  that 
had  been  before  the  world  for  nearly  thirty 
years  had  a  boldness  of  appropriation  that 
must  have  been  determined  by  his  contempt 
for  the  general  intelligence  and  the  special 
knowledge  of  his  time.  Difficulties  and 
scruples  would  vanish  when  he  had  to  handle 
merely  the  unpublished  MSS.  of  an  obscure 
poet,  who  had  died  before  tasting  fame,  whose 
relatives  were  poor  and  lowly,  and  whose 
intimate  friends  lacked  position  and  power. 
Those  were  not  the  days  of  the  popular  news- 
paper and  the  monthly  magazine,  in  which 
grievances,  literary  and  other,  could  be  dis- 
cussed, and  Pearson,  although  a  versifier,  and 
a  strong,  upright,  and  independent  character, 
was  not  a  professional  man  of  letters.  While 
Mackelvie's  estimate  of  his  school  education 
is  probably  correct,  it  is  also  true  that 
Michael  Bruce  respected  his  abilities  and 
gave  him  his  fullest  confidence.  Dr.  Ander- 
son, also,  of  the  'British  Poets,'  who  came  in 
contact  with  him,  considered  him  "  a  man  of 
strong  parts,  and  of  a  serious,  contemplative, 
and  inquisitive  turn,  who  had  improved  his 
mind  by  a  diligent  and  solitary  perusal  of 
such  books  as  came  within  his  reach."  This 
is  a  testimonial  that  might  have  been  written 
for  Shakespeare  himself.  Pearson  prepared 
a  memoir  of  Bruce  after  Anderson  had 

X.  JULY  28, 1MB.]  NOTES   AND    QUERIES. 


assigned  to  Logan  the  '  Ode  to  the  Cuckoo,' 
and  in  reference  to  this  Anderson  wrote  to 
him  thus : — 

"  I  have  since  seen  your  account  of  Bruce,  which, 
so  far  as  it  goes,  is  pleasing  and  interesting.  I 
hope,  however,  you  will  do  me  the  justice  to 
cancel  the  sentence  relating  to  me.  I  dp  not  com- 
plain of  its  coldness,  but  of  its  unfairness.  In 
my  narrative  I  followed  Dr.  Baird's  authority  in 
assigning  the  '  Ode  to  the  Cuckoo '  to  Logan." 

Here  we  have  a  very  important  admission. 
Dr.  Baird  was  the  Principal  of  Edinburgh 
University,  who  had  at  first  believed  in 
Logan,  but  in  1796  he  published  an  edition 
of  Bruce's  'Poems,'  in  which  he  included  the 
' Ode  to  the  Cuckoo'  without  comment.  He 
had  seen  reason  to  change  the  opinion  by 
which  Anderson  had  guided  himself,  and  the 
explanation  given  (in  a  letter  quoted  by  Dr. 
Mackelvie)  is  to  the  effect  that  "Dr.  Baird 
has  found  the  '  Cuckoo '  to  be  Michael  Bruce's, 
and  has  the  original  in  his  own  [Bruce's] 
handwriting."  Either  this  copy,  or  another 
like  it,  was  seen  by  Prof.  Davidson  of  Aber- 
deen, son  of  Bruce's  medical  adviser  in 
Kinross.  Davidson  says  his  father  never 
doubted  Bruce's  authorship  of  the  poem — 
knowing  it  familiarly  and  apart  from  Logan's 
publication,  as  Pearson  and  other  friends 
knew  it— and  he  adds  for  himself  that,  "  in 
1786  or  thereby,"  he  had  the  satisfaction  of 
seeing  the  poem  in  the  author's  own  hand- 
writing. It  was  "  written  upon  a  very  small 

quarto  page,  with  a  single  line  below  it 

and  signed  *  Michael  Bruce.' "  Underneath 
the  poem,  he  adds,  was  the  remark,  "  You 
will  think  I  might  have  been  better  employed 
than  writing  about  a  gowk "  (provincial 
Scotch  for  cuckoo).  This  is  the  kind  of 
"  documentary  evidence "  that  would  be  of 
the  last  importance  if  it  were  available,  but, 
pendingitsproblematicalrecovery,  why  should 
there  be  any  hesitation  in  accepting  the 
statements  of  honourable  witnesses?  These 
men  had  nothing  to  gain  by  disseminating 
falsehood,  and  they  all  knew  the  full  signifi- 
cance of  their  words. 

Dr.  Baird's  change  of  front  is  specially 
notable.  It  is,  perhaps,  too  much  to  hope 
that  the  MS.  by  which  he  was  convinced  will 
yet  come  to  light ;  but  things  equally  remark- 
able have  happened.  Meanwhile  the  copy 
or  copies  seen  by  him  and  Prof.  Davidson 
more  than  counterbalance  the  importance  of 
the  version  in  Logan's  handwriting,  which  is 
said  to  have  come  under  the  notice  of  his 
cousin,  Mrs.  Hutcheson.  That  Logan  would 
circulate  the  poem  as  written  out  by  himself 
is  a  perfectly  plausible  surmise,  and,  at  any 
rate,  he  had  ample  opportunity  for  making 

such  an  experiment,  as  Bruce's  MSS.  were  in 
his  possession  for  about  three  years  before 
he  published  the  "  miscellany."  On  this 
point,  however,  Dr.  Anderson's  view  may 
suffice.  In  the  life  prefixed  to  Logan's 
'  Poems '  he  writes  : — 

"  If  the  testimonies  of  Dr.  Robertson  and  Mrs. 
Hutcheson  went  the  length  of  establishing  the 
existence  of  the  ode  in  Logan's  handwriting  in 
Bruce's  lifetime,  or  before  the  MSS.  came  into 
Logan's  possession,  they  might  be  considered  de- 
cisive of  the  controversy.  The  suppression  of 
Bruce's  MSS.,  iu  must  be  owned,  is  a  circumstance 
unfavourable  to  the  pretensions  of  Logan." 

Anderson  thus  shows  his  desire  to  be  per- 
fectly fair,  just  as  he  elsewhere  does  wnen 
declining  to  be  swayed  by  the  possible  par- 
tisanship of  Robertson  on  the  one  hand,  and 
David  Pearson  on  the  other.  He  also  displays 
his  sense  of  just  and  reasonable  decision 
when  he  defers  to  the  influential  judgment 
of  Baird.  Here  we  find  the  beginning  of  the 
editorial  currents.  '  Principal  Baird's  original 
position  led  Anderson  to  the  conclusion  he 
adopted,  and  it  also  produced  a  line  of  editors 
and  commentators  who  had  neither  oppor- 
tunity nor  inclination  for  direct  investigation 
of  the  subject.  This  accounts  for  the  atti- 
tude of  Chalmers,  Southey,  D'Israeli,  Camp- 
bell, and  so  on.  Again,  Dr.  Mackelvie  and 
Dr.  Grosart,  accepting  Principal  Baird's  deli- 
berately revised,  decision,  have  hot  only 
assigned  the  poem  to  Bruce,  but,  by  rare  and 
assiduous  diligence  and  editorial  skill,  have 
accumulated  overwhelming  evidence  in  favour 
of  his  authorship.  When  the  attention  given 
to  the  matter  by  all  other  editors  and  antho- 
logists together  is  com  pared  with  the  laborious 
and  untiring  devotion,  the  consuming  zeal, 
and  the  judicial  attitude  of  these  scholarly 
experts,  the  contrast  presented  is  as  that  of 
moonshine  unto  sunshine  or  as  that  of  water 
unto  wine.  THOMAS  BAYNE. 

In  '  Between  the  Ochils  and  Forth  '  (Black- 
wood,  1888)  the  author,  David  Beveridge, 
says  (pp.  86,  87)  :— 

"  There  can  be  little  doubt,  both  from  the  evi- 
dence of  Bruce's  letters  and  that  furnished  by  con- 
temporaneous testimony,  that  a  base  and  unworthy 
fraud  was  committed  by  Logan  in  appropriating 
the  authorship  of  the  ode." 

And  after  an  allusion  to  the  singeing  of  fowls 
story  he  adds  :  "  Logan  long  enjoyed  his  chief 
reputation  as  a  poet  on  the  strength  of  this 
unrighteous  spoliation."  I  quote  the  above 
without  pronouncing  any  opinion  on  the 
merits  of  the  case.  GEORGE  ANGUS. 

St.  Andrews,  N.B. 

SNODGRASS,  A  SURNAME  (9th  S.  ix.  366,  496). 
—The  late  Mr.  Robert  Langton,  one  of  the 

NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [9*  s.  x.  JOT.Y  26, 1902. 

very  few  careful  commentators  on  Dickens, 
was  of  opinion  that  the  "  editor  "  of  the '  Pick- 
wick Papers '  borrowed  the  name  Snpdgrass 
from  one  Gabriel  Snodgrass,  a  shipbuilder  of 
Chatham.  Gabriel,  it  will  be  remembered, 
also  occurs  in  '  Pickwick '  as  the  Christian 
name  of  Grub,  the  sexton.  Col.  Mockler- 
Ferryman,  editor  of  the  Oxfordshire  Light 
Infantry  Magazine,  informs  me  that  a  Capt. 
Snodgrass,  who,  as  likely  as  not,  was  a  relation 
of  the  aforesaid  Gabriel,  attained  some  dis- 
tinction in  the  Peninsular  war  as  leader  of  a 
Portuguese  regiment.  Young  Dickens's  know- 
ledge of  military  Chatham  was  mostly  picked 
up  between  1817  and  1827,  when  the  Peninsula 
and  Waterloo  were  still  things  to  talk  about. 
The  Oxfordshire  Light  Infantry  is  com- 
posed of  the  43rd  and  52nd  regiments,  two 
of  the  three  regiments  mentioned  in  '  Pick- 
wick ';  and  I  may  add  that  one  of  the  sisters 
of  Mr.  Spong,  of  Cobtree,  who  is  believed  to 
have  suggested  the  character  of  "  Old  Wardle," 
married  Capt.  (afterwards  Field-Marshal  Sir) 
William  Rowan,  of  the  52nd,  whose  uncle 
and  two  brothers  served  in  the  same  regi- 
ment, and  who  celebrated  his  twenty-sixth 
birthday  at  the  battle  of  Waterloo.  It  has 
always  seemed  to  me  an  interesting  coinci- 
dence that  'Pickwick'  and  'Vanity  Fair' — 
the  two  most  popular  works  of  the  two  most 
popular  novelists  of  the  Victorian  era — both 
touch  on  military  life  at  Chatham,  and  while 
one  brings  the  cannon's  roar  of  Waterloo 
more  nearly  home  to  us  than  any  history,  the 
other  gives  the  honour  of  inviting  Mr.  Jingle 
to  Rochester  to  the  52nd — the  regiment  which 
claims  that  it  routed  the  last  charge  of  the 
Imperial  Guard.  HAMMOND  HALL. 

509). — It  may  interest  DR.  KRUEGER  to  know 
that  before  Mrs.  Gallup's  days  a  'Biblio- 
graphy of  the  Bacon-Shakespeare  Contro- 
versy, with  Notes  and  Extracts,'  was  compiled 
by  Mr.  W.  H.  Wyman  (Cincinnati,  Peter  G. 
Thomson,  1884).  G.  F.  R.  B. 

NAPOLEON'S  FIRST  MARRIAGE  (9th  S.  ix.  347, 
371). — Some  account  of  this  romantic  inci- 
dent is  to  be  found  in  the  'Life  of  Napo- 
leon,' by  George  Moir  Bussey,  vol.  i.  p.  43 
(London,  1840),  illustrated  with  two  vignette 
engravings  after  Horace  Vernet.  One  repre- 
sents Eugene  Beauharnais  when  a  b  )y  begging 
his  father's  sword  from  General  Bonaparte 
in  1795,  and  the  other  depicts  the  old 
negress,  an  Obi  woman  in  the  island  of 
Martinique,  prophesying  to  Josephine  when 
a  girl  that  "sne  should  one  day  become 

greater  than  a  queen,  and  yet  outlive  her 
ignity."    A  lady   of  high  rank,   to  whom 

Tosephine  had  mentioned  the  matter,  related 
;his  circumstance  to  Sir  Walter  Scott  when 
Napoleon  was  just  beginning  to  attract 
general  notice.  Her  name  is  given  as  Marie 
Josephine  Rose  Tascher  de  la  Pagerie,  and  she 
s  said  to  have  been  married  when  very  young 
x)  Viscount  Beauharnais,  who  was  guillotined! 
in  1794. 

In  Thiers's  '  History  of  the  Consulate  and 
Empire'  (book  vi.).  translated  by  Thomas  W. 
Redhead,  the  prophecy  is  given  in  a  different 
:orm :  "  On  this  subject  she  recalled  the 
strange  prediction  of  a  woman,  a  sort  of 
pythoness  then  in  vogue,  'You  will  occupy 
ihe  first  place  in  the  world,  but  only  for  a 
brief  period.'"  JOHN  PICKFORD,  M.A. 

NewDourne  Rectory,  Woodbridge. 

MOURNING  SUNDAY  (9th  S.  ix.  366,  390,  497). 
— Quite  fifty  years  ago  this  was  the  custom 
in  all  the  Derbyshire  villages,  and  is  still 
ontinued,  though  hardly  to  the  same  extent. 
On  the  Sunday  after  the  "  berryin' "  the 
whole  family,  together  with  those  who  had  re- 
sponded to  the  "  funeral  askings,"  met  at  the 
house  where  the  death  had  occurred.  Funeral 
cakes  or  finger  biscuits,  with  a  few  glasses  of 
elderberry  wine,  were  usually  passed  round, 
and  then  the  whole  party  went  to  church, 
the  nearest  to  the  dead  heading  the  proces- 
sion. Seats  were  reserved  for  them  oy  the 
sexton,  who  showed  them  to  their  places. 
All  sat,  and  usually  remained  seated  during 
the  whole  of  the  morning  service,  the  women 
with  downcast  heads  and  kerchiefs  to  their 
eyes.  In  those  days  all  the  "  berryin's  "  were 
"  b't  parson,"  and  chapel  folk  went  to  church 
like  the  rest  as  a  rule  ;  but  chapel  folk  had 
also  "  berryin'  Sundays,"  or  else  the  mourners 
went  to  church  in  the  morning  and  to  chapel 
in  the  afternoon.  The  customs  varied  some- 
what, but,  as  a  rule,  the  family  and  mourners 
took  little  or  no  part  in  the  services.  Some- 
times male  mourners — not  relations — did  not 
enter  the  church,  but  waited  in  the  church- 
yard until  the  "  berryin'  party  "  came  out  at 
the  end  of  the  service.  The  Sunday  was 
always  called  "  Berryin'  Sunday." 



In  a  parish  that  I  know  in  South- West 
Yorkshire  it  is  customary  for  "  mourners  "  to 
come  to  church  on  the  Sunday  after  the 
funeral,  and  to  occupy  the  front  seat  in  the 
have.  When  the  present  vicar  first  came  to 
the  parish  in  1864,  all  sat  through  the  whole 
of  the  service,  but  now  Church  people  do  as 
the  rest  of  the  congregation  do.  Dissenters 
sit  still  all  the  time.  If  offered  Prayer-books 
they  do  not  know  how  to  use  them,  but  they 

*HS.x.JiTLY26,i902.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


will  sometimes  look  at  a  hymnbook.  On 
one  occasion  a  woman  stood,  and  a  neighbour 
pulled  her  dress  and  pointed  out  to  her 
that  she  was  not  "showing  proper  respect." 
Sometimes  they  go  to  church  in  the  morning 
and  to  their  own  place  in  the  evening.  I 
believe  it  to  be  a  survival  from  early  times. 
If  a  Sunday  intervene  between  the  death 
and  the  funeral,  some  people  think  it  is  not 
"showing  proper  respect"  if  you  go  to 
church  before  the  following  Sunday. 

J.  T.  F. 

The  practice  described  is  still  almost  uni- 
versally prevalent  in  the  northern  part  of 
Northamptonshire.  The  farHly,  and  gener- 
ally all  the  bearers,  whether  Church  people 
or  not,  attend  church  on  the  Sunday  follow- 
ing the  funeral,  the  family  always  remaining 
seated  throughout  the  service.  At  the  funeral 
itself  none  of  the  mourners  would  think  of 
standing  up  while  the  Psalm  was  being  read. 

Holy  Trinity  Vicarage,  Rotherhithe. 

*  THE  DIRTY  OLD  MAN  '  (9th  S.  ix.  428,  512). 
—The  original  lines  in  Household  Words 
give  Leadenhall  Street.  A  note  of  mine  on 
the  subject  will  be  found  9th  S.  vii.  354  (but 
by  inadvertence  I  put  Chamberss  Journal), 
also  a  reference  to  various  engravings  relating 
to  the  house  in  Leadenhall  Street.  MR. 
COLEMAN  is  quite  right  in  supposing  that  the 
present  name  is  an  advertisement. 


ix.  481).— It  may  interest  your  readers  to 
know  that  the  miracle  of  our  Lord's  portrait, 
"which  Nicodemus  gave  as  a  present  to 
Gamaliel,"  was  the  subject  of  a  special  festival 
in  the  old  Welsh  ecclesiastical  calendar,  being 
commemorated  on  9  September  under  the 
title  of  "  Y  ddelw  fy  w  "  ("  the  living  image  "). 

Town  Hall,  Cardiff. 

LINGTON (9th  S.  ix.  466;  x.  11).— It  were  a 
pity  that  the  origin  of  this  sobriquet  should 
be  left  in  uncertainty,  if  it  be  possible  to 
ascertain  it.  I  cannot  throw  any  light  upon 
it,  but  can  only  repeat  the  tale  as  told  by 
others,  namely,  that  an  iron  steamship— a 
novelty  at  the  time— was  launched  in  the 
Mersey  and  christened  the  Duke  of  Welling- 
ton. It  was  called  for  short  the  Iron  Duke, 
and  the  fitness  of  that  designation  for  the 
eponymus  of  the  ship  was  too  obvious  not 
to  find  favour.  MR.  EDGCUMBE  affirms  that 
the  term  was  applied  first  to  the  Duke 

himself,  but  he  does  not  offer  any  evidence 
or  reference  in  support  of  that  statement. 
I  think  the  other  version  is  the  more  probable, 
but  neither  can  I  produce  evidence  to  support 

MR.  RICHARD  EDGCUMBE'S  contention  that 
the  title  of  the  Iron  Duke  was  popularly 
bestowed  on  Arthur,  Duke  of  Wellington, 
many  years  before  the  launching  of  the  large 
ship  at  Liverpool,  does  not  agree,  I  beg  to 
remark,  with  the  information  on  the  subject 
in  question  contained  in  the  very  latest 
life  of  the  illustrious  Duke,  namely,  that 
in  two  volumes  by  the  Right  Honourable 
Sir  Herbert  Maxwell,  M.P.,  published  by 
Sampson  Low  &  Co.,  London,  1899.  The 
following  is  taken  from  my  copy  of  the  third 
edition,  1900,  vol.  i.  p.  304  :— 

"  The  sobriquet  conferred  on  Wellington  of  the 
'  Iron  Duke,'  it  is  true  came  to  him  in  a  roundabout 
way.  An  iron  steamship,  a  novelty  at  the  time, 
was  launched  in  the  Mersey  and  named  the  Duke 
of  Wellington.  The  vessel  came  to  be  known  as 
the  Iron  Duke,  and  the  transition  from  the  subject 
to  the  eponymus  was  too  easy  and  obvious  not  to 
be  effected." 


119,  Elms  Road,  Clapham,  S.W. 


328,  431). — Here  is  Another  euphemism.  In 
'  Some  Records  of  the  Later  Life  of  Harriet, 
Countess  Granville,'  there  are  extracts  from 
a  letter  of  Lady  Georgiana  Fullerton  refer- 
ring to  a  visit .  paid  to  Louis  Philippe  at 
Claremont.  The  king  said  : — 

"  We  went  away  [from  Paris]  at  last  in  little 
broughams.  Vous  savez,  mesdames,  ce  que  sont 
des  broughams.  Clementine  souffrait,  etant  dans 
ce  que  vous  appellez,  Ladies,  '  the  happy  way.' " 
-Pp.  32,  33. 


GERMAN  LETTERS  (9th  S.  ix.  509).— Consult, 
for  instance,  the  correspondence  between 
Goethe  and  Schiller  (in  6  vols.),  between 
the  brothers  Jacob  and  Wilhelm  Grirnm, 
and  between  the  brothers  Alexander  and 
Wilhelm  von  Humboldt,  as  well  as  their 
various  letters  written  to  many  distin- 
guished men  and  women  of  science  and 
art.  Of  more  recent  date  and  widely 
interesting  are  the  letters  of  Bismarck 
and  Moltke,  especially  those  written  by 
Moltke  from  England  to  his  wife,  which  may 
rival  any  French  works  of  the  class  in 
epistolary  skill  and  facility  as  well  as  in 
literary  value.  A  great  variety  of  letters 
written  by  Germans  of  note  may  also  be 
found  in  the  Deutsche  fiundschau,  one  of  the 
leading  periodicals,  published  in  Berlin  during 
the  last  twenty-eight  years.  H.  K. 

NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [9th  s.  x.  JULY  26, 1902. 

'  COMIC  ANNUAL'  (9th  S.  ix.  188,  338).— I 
can  remember  the  amusement  caused  by  this 
annual,  sparkling  with  wit,  much  of  which 
was  reproduced  in  Hood's  Own,  a  monthly 
periodical  issued  in  shilling  parts  about  1842. 
It  certainly  was  the  wit  that  carried  off  the 
woodcuts,  not  their  execution.  The  fancy 
portraits  were  most  amusing — as  Capt.  Back, 
Prof.  Silliman,  natives  of  the  Scilly  Isles, 
Mrs.  Trimmer,  and  Theodore  Hook.  Much 
of  the  poetry  may  be  found  in  Hood's  col- 
lected poems,  'Comic  and  Serious.'  About 
that  time,  or  more  recently,  copies  of  the 
Comic  Annual  could  be  bought  for  very  small 
sums  at  Lacey's  in  St.  Paul's  Churchyard.  I 
can  also  remember  large  sheets  of  engravings 
from  Hood's  Own  hanging  in  booksellers' 
windows  in  order  to  procure  subscribers. 


Newbourne  Rectory,  Woodbridge. 

CROSSING  KNIVES  AND  FORKS  (9th  S.  viii. 
325,  433  ;  ix.  14,  357).— At  the  first  reference 
this  superstition  is  thought  to  date  from  the 
French  Revolution,  but  I  think  its  approxi- 
mate origin  may  almost  certainly  be  traced 
to  ultra-Protestant  days,  when  it  was  the 
fashion  to  scent  the  Pope  in  the  bare  sugges- 
tion of  a  cross.  And  what  tends  to  emphasize 
this  probability  is  the  fact  that  the  Italian 
invention  of  the  fork  for  ordinary  eating 
purposes  does  not  appear  to  have  been  in 
general  use  until,  the  Restoration,  while  its 
introduction  into  this  country,  according  to 
Thomas  Coryat  in  his  '  Crudities,'  was  owing 
to  his  own  initiative  in  the  early  years  of 
James  I.'s  reign.  "  Hereupon  I  myself,"  says 
the  "Odcombian  leg  -  stretcher,"  "thought 
good  to  imitate  the  Italian  fashion  by  this 
forked  cutting  of  meat,  not  only  while  I  was  in 
Italy,  but  also  in  Germany,  and  oftentimes 
in  England  since  I  came  home."  He  came  home 
in  the  year  1608,  and  the  account  of  his  tour 
was  published  in  1611.  See  also  Ben  Jonson's 
'  Devil's  an  Ass,'  brought  out  in  1616,  Act  V. 
sc.  iv.  The  objection  to  a  crossed  knife  and 
fork  seems  to  have  been  new  to  such  a  keen 
observer  as  Addison,  whose  Spectator,  No.  7, 
on  such  superstitions  as  were  current  in  his 
time,  contains,  1  think,  sufficient  answer  to 
MR.  BUTLER'S  inquiry  as  to  how  far  in  the 
past  the  usage  can  be  traced  : — 

"  I  despatched  my  Dinner  as  soon  as  I  could  with 
my  usual  Taciturnity  ;  when  to  my  utter  Confusion 
the  Lady  seeing  me  quitting  my  Knife  and  Fork, 
and  laying  them  across  one  another  upon  my  Plate, 
desired  me  that  I  would  humour  her  so  far  as  to 
take  them  out  of  that  Figure,  and  place  them  side 
by  side.  What  the  Absurdity  was  which  I  had 
committed  I  did  not  know,  but  I  suppose  there  was 
some  traditionary  Superstition  in  it ;  and  there- 
fore, iu  obedience  to  the  Lady  of  the  House,  I  dis- 

posed of  my  Knife  and  Fork  in  two  parallel  Lines, 
which  is  the  figure  I  shall  always  lay  them  in  for 
the  future,  though  I  do  not  know  any  Reason  for  it." 

In  Southern  Russia  this  objection  would 
not,  of  course,  obtain,  so  that  it  is  customary 
there,  as  ROBIN  GOODFELLOW  points  out,  to 
place  the  knife  and  fork,  preparatory  to  a 
meal,  in  the  form  of  a  Greek  cross,  without 
any  fear  as  to  what  may  happen  in  conse- 
quence. J.  HOLDEN  MAcMlCHAEL. 

I  agree  with  ST.  SWITHIN  that  neither 
religion  nor  superstition  had  anything  to  do 
with  the  prescription  fifty  years  ago.  To 
leave  the  knife  and  fork  side  by  side,  in 
certain  grades  of  provincial  society,  was  an 
indication  to  the  waiter  that  no  more  was 
required  ;  on  the  other  hand,  a  crossed  knife 
and  fork  was  a  silent  call  for  another  helping. 

See  Gay's  '  Fables,' l  The  Farmer's  Wife  and 
the  Raven  ' : — 

Alas  !  you  know  the  cause  too  well : 
The  salt  is  spilt,  to  me  it  fell. 
Then  to  contribute  to  my  loss, 
My  knife  and  fork  were  laid  across  ; 
On  Friday  too  !  the  day  I  dread  ! 
Would  I  were  safe  at  home  in  bed  ! 

F.  R.  R. 

SILHOUETTES  OF  CHILDREN  (9th  S.  ii.  307, 
353,  396,  436  ;  v.  190 ;  vi.  255,  356 ;  vii.  417). 
— Supplementary  to  the  interesting  circular 
of  Mr.  Miers,  mentioned  by  MR.  WELFORD, 
there  is  a  silhouette  portrait  of  Lieut.  John 
Blackett  Watson  (see  9th  S.  ix.  388),  now  in 
the  possession  of  Mrs.  Henry  Leighton,  of 
East  Boldon,  which  has  pasted  on  the  back 
of  it  the  following  advertisement : — 


Profile-Painter  &  Jeweller 

No.  Ill  opposite  Exchange,  Strand, 


Continues  to  execute  Likenesses  in  Profile  Shade, 
in  a  style  peculiarly  Striking  &  elegant  whereby  the 
most  forcible  animation  is  retained  to  the  minute 
size  for  setting  in 

Rings  Lockets  Bracelets,  &c. 

N.B.  Mr.  Miers  preserves  all  the  Original 
Sketches,  so  that  those  who  have  once  sat  for  him 
may  be  supplied  with  any  number  of  Copies  without 
the  trouble  of  Sitting  again. 

Flat  or  Convex  Glasses  with  Burnished  Gold 
Borders  to  any  dimensions  for  Prints,  Drawings,  &c. 

The  portrait  is  unlike  any  other  silhouette 
I  have  ever  seen,  being  beautifully  painted 
in  black  upon  a  piece  of  French  chalk  3f  in. 
by  3  in.  in  size,  and  about  half  an  inch  thick ; 
the  detail  in  the  officer's  wig  and  lace  ruffle 
is  very  neat. 

On  the  back  of  the  chalk  is  written  in 
pencil : — 

Mr.  J.  Black'  Watson. 

9»  8.  X.  JULY  98, 1MB.]  NOTES   AND    QUERIES. 


The  frame  is  ebonized  wood,  and,  needless 
to  say,  contains  a  "Convex  Glass  with  Bur- 
nished Gold  Border,"  there  being  four  stripes 
of  blaok,  two  wide  and  two  narrow,  running 
through  the  gold.  The  date  is  probably 
about  1805. 

As  Lieut.  Watson  was  a  native  of  New- 
castle, it  seems  probable  that  the  London  Mr. 
Miers  is  identical  with  the  Nova-Castrian 
visitor  J.  Miers,  and  query  if  he  was  a  pupil 
of  Charles  1 — the  above  evidently  resembling 
the  portraits  mentioned  by  MR.  DRURY. 

It  would    be   of   interest  to  know  what 
became  of  Mr.  Miers's  "original  sketches." 

East  Boldon,  R.S.O.,  co.  Durham. 

GREEK  PRONUNCIATION  (9th  S.  vii.  146,  351, 
449;  viii.  74,  192,  372,  513;  ix.  131,  251,  311, 
332,  436,  475).— I  have  read  PROF.  SKEAT'S 
note  with  great  interest,  even  though  it  was 
written  to  correct  astatementof  mine.  I  think, 
however,  that  PROF.  SKEAT  should  not  lay  the 
whole  blame  upon  his  careless  readers.  I  also 
venture  to  think  that  PROF.  SKEAT'S  own 
view  of  the  etymology  of  the  word  salt  has 
been  modified.  If  this  is  not  so,  I  do  not  see 
why  in  his  'Etymological  Dictionary,'  1884, 
second  edition,  he  should  put  salt— A.-S. 
sealt  (the  symbol  —  he  tells  us  is  always  to 
be  read  "directly  derived  from  or  borrowed 
from  "),  and  then,  in  his  '  Concise  Etymolo- 
gical Dictionary '  of  1885,  second  edition,  leave 
out  this  symbol ;  though  he  still  makes  no 
mention  at  all  of  the  Old  Mercian  word 
salt.  It  is  true  that  in  the  '  Etymological 
Dictionary'  of  1884  he  gives  a  caution  in 
the  preface,  p.  xv,  about  words  said  to  be 
derived  from  A.-S. ;  but  the  ordinary  reader 
looking  out  the  derivation  of  any  word 
would  not  necessarily  read  the  whole  of  the 
long  preface,  and  the  caution  is  quite  apart 
from  the  explanation  of  the  symbols  used. 
In  any  case,  if  PROF.  SKEAT  had  put  in  his 
former  dictionaries  salt,  M.E.  salt.  Old 
Merc,  salt,  A.-S.  sealt,  as  it  stands  in  his 
revised  one  of  1901,  which  I  do  not  possess, 
it  is  clear  that  no  reader,  even  though  "  un- 
initiated," could  have  mistaken  his  meaning. 


SIAN (9th  S.  ix.  445).— May  I  supplement  the 
note  of  my  excellent  friend  DR.  H.  KREBS 
with  the  observation  that  Prince  Bismarck, 
an  able  European  linguist,  considered  that 
Russian  might  be  substituted  for  Greek  with 
advantage  for  educational  purposes,  on  ac- 
count of  the  mental  discipline  involved  in 
learning  the  declensions  of  substantives  1  In 
the  other  Slavonic  languages,  as  I  have  had 

the  honour  of  pointing  out  in  *N.  &  Q.,'  the 
declensions  are  confused.  Bulgarian  has 
borrowed  a  postponed  definite  article  from 
non-Slavonic  languages.  I  venture  to  think 
that  Russian  prose  is  more  intelligible  than 
cultivated  German,  with  its  frequent  involu- 
tions and  interpolations. 

Brixton  Hill. 

"  OTE-TOI  DE  LA,  QUE  JE  M'Y  METTE  "  (7th  S. 
xi.  348,  416).— A  remarkable  sonnet  by  Giu- 
seppe Giusti,  the  Tuscan  poet,  written  in 
1849,  concludes  with  these  lines  : — 

Vedrai  che  1'  uom  di  setta  e  sempre  quello, 
Pronto  a  giocar  di  tutti,  e  a  dire  addio 
Al  conoscente,  all'  amico  e  al  fratello. 
"  E  tutto  si  riduce,  a  parer  mio  " 
(Come  disse  un  poeta  di  Magello), 
"A  dire :  esci  di  11,  ci  vo  star  io." 

The  poet  of  Magello  was  Filippo  Pananti, 
born  at  Ronta,  in  Magello,  19  March,  1766, 
and  who  died  at  Florence  14  September,  1837. 
The  expression  referred  to  is  taken  from 
canto  xciv.  sestina  2  of  the  '  Poeta  di  Teatro,"" 
his  best  work  : — 

E  donde  nascqn  le  rivoluzioni  ? 
Dai  lumi  dei  filosofi  ?  dal  peso 
Dell'  ingiustizia,  delle  imppzioni  ? 
So  che  questo  si  dice,  anche  is  1'  ho  inteso : 
Ma  tutto  si  riduce,  al  parer  mio, 
Al  dire :  esci  di  n,  ci  vo  star  io. 


CLIFFORD  -  BRAOSE  (9th  S.  v.  355,  499;  vi. 
75,  236,  437).  — I  cited  from  the  old  (MS.) 
Calendar  of  Close  Rolls  at  the  Record  Office 
[p.  206,  No.  4)  an  entry  "  concerning  certain 
lands  [in  Sussex]  which  m.  de  Wyk  held  of 
Honora  de  Thony,  who  was  wife  of  Roger  de 
Thony,  lately  defunct,"  &c.  By  comparison 
with  the  original  roll  I  afterwards  found 
:>hat  the  words  I  have  italicized  were  a 
Dlunder  of  the  translator's,  no  such  person 
3eing  referred  to  in  the  original,  where  the 
statement  is  that  the  lands  were  "held 
of  the  Honour  of  Tony."  Happily  the  old 
VIS.  Calendar  has  recently  been  superseded 
:)y  a  new  printed  one,  and  in  the  latter  a 
correct  version  is  given. 


AUTOGRAPH  COTTAGE  (9th  S.  ix.  368,  454).— 
[  am  obliged  for  MR.  JULIAN  MARSHALL'S 
dnd  offer,  which  I  shall  be  pleased  to  avail 
myself  of  when  most  convenient  for  him. 
Probably  the  catalogues  record  many  items 
of  Islingtoniana.  ALECK  ABRAHAMS. 

39,  Hillmarton  Road,  N. 

ELIZABETH,  LADY  MORLEY  (9th  S.  ix.  388). 
— Since  forwarding  this  query  I  have  been 
fortunate  in  obtaining  information  which 



x.  JULY  26,  1902. 

largely  solves  the  difficulty  mentioned.  For 
this  successful  issue  I  am  much  indebted  to 
the  kind  offices  of  MR.  ALFRED  T.  EVERITT 
and  MR.  JOHN  RADCLIFFE,  two  of  the  most 
valued  contributors  to  '  N.  &  Q.' 

1.  It    appears    that    the    'Dictionary    of 
National  Biography  '  is  wrong  in  stating  that 
William  de  la  Pole,   first  Duke  of  Suffolk 
(murdered  1450),  by  his  wife  Alice  Chaucer 
had  only  one  child,  John  (i.e.,  the  second 
duke).    For : — 

a.  The   '  Catalogue  of  Honor,'  by  Robert 
Glover,  1610,  p.  537,  says  the  issue  of  William 
de  la  Pole,  Duke  of  Suffolk,  and  Alice  Chaucer 
was  John,  afterwards  duke,  and  William  de 
la  Pole. 

b.  Burke  speaks  of  John,  second  duke,  as 
having  been  the  eldest  son  of  William,  first 

c.  The  late  Mr.  Charles  Frost,  F.S.A.,  in 
his  '  Notices  relating  to  the  Early  History  of 
the  Town  and  Port  of  Hull,'  1827— a  work  of 
much  local  value — says  that  William,  first 
duke,  and  his  wife  Alice  Chaucer,  had  three 
children :  John,  second  duke,  William  de  la 
Pole  (who  married  Katharine,  third  daughter 
of  William,  second  Lord  Stourton),  and  Anna 
de  la  Pole. 

2.  It  appears  that  Mr.  J.  Pym  Yeatman,  in 
the  '  Early  Genealogical  History  of  the  House 
of  Arundel.'  is  also  incorrect  in  stating  that 
Elizabeth  de  la  Pole,   who  married   Henry, 
Lord  Morley,  was  the  daughter  of  William, 
first  duke.    For : — 

a.  The  inquisition  taken  on  the  last  day 
of  October,  5  Henry  VII.,  1489,  after  the  death 
of  Henry,  Lord  Morley,  states 

"the  said  Henry  took  to  wife  at  Wyngfeld,  co. 
Suffolk,  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  John,  Duke  of  Suffolk, 

but  afterwards  died  without  issue the  aai d  Hen ry 

Lovell,  Lord  Morley,  died  13th  June  last.  Alice, 
wife  of  William  Parker,  Knt.,  aged  22  and  more,  is 
his  sister  and  heir." 

b.  Banks,  in  his  '  Extinct  Baronage,'  states 
that  Elizabeth,  who  married   Henry  Lovel, 
Lord  Morley,  was  the  youngest  daughter  of 
John,  second  Duke  of  Suffolk  ;  also  that 

"  Elizabeth  survived  her  husband  many  years  ;  and 
though  a  woman  of  more  than  common  beauty, 
resisted  all  temptation  of  a  second  marriage,  and 
died  in  the  fifty-second  year  of  her  age  ;  and  lies 
buried  in  the  church  of  Hallingbury  Morley,  in 

The  husband,  Henry  Lovel,  Lord  Morley,  who 
was  born  in  1465,  had  died  in  1489  without 

c.  The  late  Mr.  Charles  Frost  also  stated 
that    his    researches    proved    that    "Eliza- 
beth  de   la    Pole,  died  s.p.  aged  51,"  who 
"  married  Henry  Lovel,  second  and  last  Lord 
Morley  of  that  surname,  died  s.p. ,"  was  the 

youngest  daughter  of  John,  second  Duke  of 
Suffolk.  RONALD  DIXON. 

The  writer  in  the  '  D.N.B.'  may  have  strong 
evidence  for  his  statement  that  William  de  la 
Pole,  the  first  Duke  of  Suffolk,  and  Alice 
Chaucer  his  wife,  had  only  one  child  John, 
but  the  'Catalogue  of  Honor,'  by  Robert 
Glover  (edited  by  Thomas  Milles),  1610,  at 
p.  537,  says  their  issue  was  two  sons :  John, 
who  succeeded  his  father  in  the  dukedom,  ana 
William  de  la  Pole.  Burke,  writing  on  the 
same  person,  seems  to  agree  with  Glover,  and 
ends  thus  :  "All  the  duke's  honours,  &c.,  de- 
volved on  his  eldest  son  John."  There  is 
evidently  an  error  in  Mr.  Yeatman's  work,  or 
it  has  been  misread  in  perusal,  for  it  was 
Elizabeth,  youngest  daughter  of  John  de  la 
Pole,  the  second  Duke  of  Suffolk,  and  Lady 
Elizabeth  Plantagenet,  daughter  of  Richard, 
Duke  of  York,  and  sister  of  King  Edward  IV., 
his  wife,  who  married  Henry  Lovel,  Lord 

"BARRACKED"  (9th  S.  ix.  63,  196,  232,  355, 
514). — As  to  larrakin,  it  is  remarkable  that 
none  of  your  correspondents  has  referred  to 
Prof.  Skeat's  '  Concise  Dictionary '  (1901),  s.v. 
'  Lark  '  (2),  wherein  7th  S.  vii.  345  is  quoted. 
It  appears  still  questionable  whether  the 
Irish  rolled  r  does  not  account  for  the  form 
as  soundly  as  the  Professor's  lavrock—larrick. 
To  the  etymological  student,  however,  far 
greater  interest  arises  in  the  fact  that  Prof. 
Skeat  derives  "  to  lark  "  in  the  above  edition 
from  the  note  C?  or  movement)  of  the  bird, 
and  in  his  1887  edition  from  A.-S.  ldcan,to 

Elay,  sport.  Here  r  is  treated  as  intrusive 
>r  the  phonetic  laak,  and  referred  to  are  A.-S. 
lac,  sport,  play ;  Icel.  leikr ;  Goth,  laiks, 
dance,  laikan,  to  skip  for  joy,  &c.  A.-S. 
Idcan  appears  very  early  ('Gnomic  Verses') 
of  the  soaring  of  birds,  it  is  true  ;  but  it 
cannot  surely  be  derived  from  Idwerce,  a  lark 
(bird),  the  Gothic  equivalent  of  which  we  do 
not  know.  "Laike,"  "layke,"  vb.  and  sb., 
sport  or  play,  so  common  in  Mid.  Eng.  and 
obviously  from  Idcan,  seem  to  have  dis- 
appeared, to  be  succeeded  by  the  modern 
Eng.  "  lark,"  as  to  which  we  await  informa- 
tion from  the  '  N.E  D.'  H.  P.  L. 

[The  '  H.E.D.'  says  of  lark,  to  frolic :  "  The  origin 
is  somewhat  uncertain.  Possibly  it  may  represent 

the  northern  Lake,  v On  the  other  hand,  it  is 

quite  as  likeljtthat  the  word  may  have  originated 
in  some  allusion  to  Lark,  sb."] 

J.  QUANT,  23  MAY,  1791  (9th  S.  ix.  486).— 
The  following  is  not  an  answer  to  A.  C.  H.'s 
query,  but  it  may  interest  him.  A  search 
through  the  Gentleman's  Magazine  or  the 
'  Annual  Register '  of  the  perioa  named  in  the 

9»S.X.  JULY  26,  1902.]  NOTES   AND    QUERIES. 


query  may  result  in  a  discovery.  Abraham 
Weber,  a  Swiss  sculptor,  aged  twenty-four, 
settled  in  England,  anglicized  his  name,  and 
married  an  Englishwoman  named  Quandt. 
This  looks  like  Quant.  Their  son  was  John, 
the  famous  landscape  painter.  The  Webbers 
lived  in  London  in  1771 ;  he  died  single  1792. 


LIME-TREE  (9th  S.  viii.  42). — Bacon's  essay 
'  Of  Gardens '  (ed.  Arber,  1871,  p.  556)  tells 
us :  "  In  July,  come  Gilly-Flowers  of  all 
Varieties  ;  Muske  Roses  ;  the  Lime-Tree  in 
blossome  [&c.]."  Had  the  compositor  played 
PROF.  SKEAT  false  1  O.  0.  H. 

BARONETS  OF  NOVA  SCOTIA  (9th  S.  x.  28). — 
In  vol.  ii.  of  G.  E.  C.'s  '  Complete  Baronet- 
age,' now  in  progress,  will  be  found  full 
particulars  of  these  baronetcies  between 
1625  and  1646,  the  after  creations  to  follow  in 
due  course.  At  pp.  275-7  the  various  lists  are 
fully  described,  and  their  differences  ex- 
plained. One  of  these,  stated  by  G.  E.  C.  to 
be  "  by  far  the  most  valuable,"  is  printed  in 
Joseph  Foster's  '  Baronetage '  for  1883. 

W.  D.  PINK. 

G.  C.  will  find  a  full  account  of  the  institu- 
tion of  the  above  order,  with  lists  of  members, 
some  created  between  the  years  required,  in 
Sir  T.  C.  Banks's  '  Baronia  Anglica  Concen- 
trata,'  vol.  ii.,  published  1844. 


PAPAL  PROVISIONS  (9th  S.  x.  6).— YGREC  will 
be  glad  to  know  that  '  A  History  of  the 
English  Church '  is  not  "  discontinued."  The 
fourth  volume  (Henry  VIII. — Mary),  by  Dr. 
James  Gairdner,  was  published  last  month. 
Perhaps  the  following,  from  the  Statute  of 
Provisory  (25  Edward  III.),  may  furnish  the 
information  asked  for  : — 

"Auxibien  a  la  suite  le  Roi  come  de  partie,  et 
qen  le  mesne  temps  le  Roi  eit  les  profitz  de  tielx 
benefices,  issint  ocupez  partielx  provisours,  forspris 
Abbeies,  Priories,  et  autres  mesons  qont  college 
ou  Covent ;  et  en  tieles  mesons  eient  les  Covent  et 
colleges  les  profitz,  sauvant  totefoitz,"  &c. 

C.  S.  WARD. 

MAY  CATS  (9th  S.  x.  9).— So  long  ago  as 
January,  1851,  a  contributor  to  the  'Folk- 
lore' column  of  '  N.  <k  Q.'  stated  that  in 
Wilts,  and  also  in  Devon,  it  is  believed  that 
cats  born  in  the  month  of  May  will  catch 
neither  mice  nor  rats ;  will  bring  in  snakes 
and  slow-worms,  and  are  held  in  general  con- 
tempt. Another  correspondent  said  that  in 
Hampshire  May  kittens  were  always  killed. 
In  Pembrokeshire  they  are  called  "  May- 
cletts,"  and  the  same  custom  of  killing  pre- 
vails. In  Huntingdonshire  it  is  a  common 

saying  that  a  "May  kitten  makes  a  dirty 
cat."  The  County  Palatine  folk-lore  says, 
"  It  is  unlucky  to  keep  May  kittens ;  they 
should  be  drowned." 

71,  Brecknock  Road. 

As  a  child  I  used  to  be  told  May  kittens 
must  be  drowned,  because,  if  kept,  they 
"sucked  the  breath,"  i.e.,  got  on  children's 
beds,  sat  on  their  chests,  and  breathed  the 
child's  breath  till  it  died.  My  informant  was 
an  old  nurse,  a  native  of  Lanchester,  near 
Durham,  who  died  at  an  advanced  age  in 
1866.  She  also  told  a  tale  of  a  farm  servant 
who  had  drunk  of  a  spring  or  tank  whilst 
hay-making,  and  swallowed  an  egg  of  toad 
or  newt,  which  hatched  in  her  inside,  and 
became  a  monstrous  animal,  causing  death. 


S.  ix.  67,  155, 317).— Although  no  special  time 
is  mentioned,  the  following  reference  may  be 
of  interest.  It  occurs  in  Sir  John  Vanbrugh's 
comedy  '  The.  Relapse ;  or,  Virtue  in  Danger*' 
(1761)  :- 

"Lord  Foppington.  Why  faith,  Madam — Sunday 
—is  a  vile  Day,  I  must  confess  ;  I  intend  to  move 
for  leave  to  bring  in  a  Bill,  That  Players  may  work 
upon  it,  as  well  as  the  Hackney  Coaches.  Tho' 
this  I  must  say  for  the  Government,  it  leaves  us 
the  Churches  to  entertain  us— But  then  again,  they 
begin  so  abominably  early,  a  Man  must  rise  by 
Candle-light  to  get  dress'd  Toy  the  Psalm. 

"  Berinthia.  Pray  which  Church  does  your  Lord- 
ship most  oblige  with  your  Presence  ? 

"Lord Foppington.  Oh, St.  James's,  Madam," &c. 
Vide  Act  II.  sc.  i. 


West  Haddon,  Northamptonshire. 

DUTCH  REFUGEES  IN  LONDON  IN  1566  (9th  S. 
ix.  289,  414).— The  late  Mr.  Cornelius  Hallen 
printed  this  list  in  the  Genealogical  Magazine, 
quoted  from  Lansdowne  MSS.,  vol.  x.  No.  62. 
Many  were  located  about  Fleming  Street 
near  the  Tower,  and  a  Sir  Francis  Fleming 
was  master  of  St.  Katherine's  Hospital  from 
1549  to  1557.'  As  early  as  1393  regulations  as 
to  "  street  walkers  "  define  Flemish  women  as 
chief  offenders.  ABSENS. 

"YE  GODS  AND  LITTLE  FISHES  !"  (9th  S.  ix. 

369.)— When  referring  to  the  '  Life  of  Charles 
Lever,'  by  W.  J.  Fitzpatrick,  LL.D.  (Chap- 
man &  Hall,  1879),  for  another  matter,  I  came 
across  the  statement  that  the  author  of 
'  Charles  O'Malley  '  and  his  man  Micky  Free 
were  very  fond  of  amateur  theatricals  in 
Dublin.  A  loft  was  fitted  up  as  a  theatre, 
and  Lever  did  everything.  He  was  scene 
painter,  prompter,  played  the  fiddle,  sang 
all  the  songs,  and  acted  all  the  chief  parts. 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        [9*  s.  x.  JULY  26, 1902. 

The  favourite  pieces  were  the  '  Warwickshire 
Wagg '  and  '  Bombastes  Furioso.'  The  latter 
piece,  it  need  hardly  be  added,  was  a  burlesque 
tragic  opera,  written  by  William  Barnes 
Rhodes  in  ridicule  of  the  heroic  style  of  the 
modern  dramas,  and  produced  in  1790.  In 
the  days  of  my  youth  in  Dublin,  I  understood 
that  the  expression 

Ye  gods  and  little  fishes  ! 

What  is  a  man  without  his  breeches  ? 

was  to  be  found  in  '  Bombastes  Furioso.' 

119,  Elms  Road,  Clapham;  S.W. 

Does  not  "Ye  gods"  refer  to  the  cycle  of 
the  gods,  and  the  latter  part  of  the  phrase  to 
the  mystical  association  therewith  of  the  fishes 
(Pisces)  of  the  zodiac  ? 


HEBREW  INCANTATIONS  (9th  S.  x.  29). — This 
question  is  to  me  personally  a  most  interest- 
ing one.  I  fancy  the  association,  real  or  sup- 
posed, of  Jews  with  the  black  art  must  date 
from  the  captivity  in  Babylon.  Recent  re- 
searches have  proved  that  the  Babylonians 
were  desperate  sorcerers,  second  to  none.  It 
has  even  been  suggested  (I  forget  by  whom) 
that  the  extraordinary  hieroglyphics  which 
figure  in  mediaeval  grimoires  as  the  seals 
denoting  planets  are  survivals  of  the  cunei- 
form syllabary.  Be  that  as  it  may,  the  asso- 
ciation of  magic  with  the  Hebrews  is  very 
old.  If  MR.  BRESLAR  can  find  time  to  inspect 
at  the  British  Museum  a  copy  of  Cornelius 
Agrippa's  'Occult  Philosophy,'  he  will  see 
that  from  cover  to  cover  it  is  crammed  with 
Hebrew  names  and  phrases,  sometimes  very 
correctly  written,  but  often  misprinted  or 
debased.  Thus,  Aye  Saraye,  a  sacred  sentence 
frequent  in  this  and  similar  treatises,  is  ob- 
viously intended  for  rvnK  "IPX  HMN.  Agrippa 
was  far  from  considering  the  Kabbala  as 
merely  mystical.  For  him  it  was  a  practical 
handbook  to  magic.  The  amulets  which  are 
illustrated  in  his  pages  are  mostly  in  Hebrew, 
and  I  may  add  that  in  Petticoat  Lane  Hebrew 
amulets  may  still  be  bought,  protective  against 
almost  every  ill  that  flesh  is  heir  to,  from 
croup  to  the  evil  eye.  Among  English  writers 
I  have  always  looked  upon  Harrison  Ains- 
worth  a.sfacileprincepsin  dealing  with  things 
hidden,  and  in  some  of  his  works— notably 
'  Crichton ' — he  shows  very  clearly  that  there 
was  a  Hebrew  substratum  to  his  magical 
studies.  Besides,  in  Jewish  history  there  are 
well-known  cases  of  wonder-working  Rabbins. 
MR.  BRESLAR  must  have  heard  of  Rabbi 
Ezekiel,  he  of  the  magic  hammer,  at  each 
blow  of  which  upon  a  nail  in  his  cell  one  of 
his  enemies,  "  even  were  he  2,000  leagues  off, 

sank  into  the  earth,  which  swallowed  him 
up"  (see  'Notre  Dame,'  lib.  vi.  cap.  iv., 
wnere  Hugo  has  made  skilful  use  of  this 
tradition).  Another  magician  of  legendary 
fame  is  the  Rabbi  Lion  of  Prague  (died  1609), 
and  I  must  plead  guilty  to  having  myself  per- 
petrated a  snort  story  under  his  name,  which 
appeared  in  French  in  a  Belgian  journal,  the 
IndJpendant,  30  March,  1899.  A  great-grand- 
son of  his,  Naphthali  Cohen,  was  also  a  magi- 
cian. Upon  nis  house  in  Frankfort  taking 
fire,  he  began  to  recite  an  exorcism  to  summon 
a  spirit  to  pnt  it  out.  But  in  his  hurry  he 
made  the  trifling  mistake  of  calling  up,  in- 
stead of  the  extinguishing  angel,  the  angel 
of  fire ;  the  consequence  of  which  was  that 
not  only  Cohen's  house,  but  most  of  the 
Jewish  quarter,  was  burnt.  The  local  autho- 
rities took  the  matter  very  seriously,  and  for 
his  error  the  unfortunate  mage  had  to  lose 
his  position  as  Rabbi  and  even  to  suffer  a 
long  imprisonment.  Magicians  are  favourite 
characters  in  the  modern  Yiddish  drama. 
I  remember  a  play,  called  '  Gliickliche  Liebe,' 
in  which  demons  are  invoked  from  the  "  vasty 
deep "  under  burlesque  names  (one  of  them 
was  Schnappsiel !),  evidently  as  a  skit  upon 
the  Kabbalistic  nomenclature  of  the  spirit 
world,  whereof  it  is  a  leading  principle  that 
every  name  must  end  in  either  -el  or  -jah. 
JAS.  PLATT,  Jun. 

After  all,  there  is  a  good  deal  about  magic 
in  the  Bible,  and  the  Jews  undoubtedly 
practised  it.  Was  not  Lilith  the  first  of  the 
witches ;  and  does  not  the  witch  of  Endor 
stand  high  among  them  ?  It  is  not  surprising 
that  in  the  popular  mind,  at  any  rate,  magic 
and  Hebrew  should  be  closely  associated. 
Then,  too,  there  are  what  Robert  Burton  calls 
"Solomon's  decayed  works"  to  be  taken 
account  of.  It  is  not  altogether  without 
reason,  though  it  may  be  not  with  strict 
accuracy,  that  Scott  classes  "  magic,  cabala, 
and  spells  "  together.  C.  C.  B. 

In  this  connexion  the  books  used  by  Faust 
to  conjure  with  may  be  worth  noting.  Mar- 
lowe, '  The  Tragical  History  of  Dr.  Faustus,' 
I.  i.,  at  the  end  : — 

Faust.   Come,    shew   me   some    demonstrations 


That  I  may  conjure  in  some  lusty  grove, 
And  have  these  joys  in  full  possession. 

Valdes.  Then  haste  thee  to  some  solitary  grove, 
And  bear  wise  Bacon's  and  Albertus'  works, 
The  Hebrew  Psalter,  and  New  Testament ; 
And  whatsoever  else  is  requisite 
We  will  inform  thee  ere  our  conference  cease. 

W.  R.  B.  PRIDEAUX. 

According  to  MacGregor  Mathers  ('  The 
Kabbalah  Unveiled ')  one  section  of  the 

9»s.x.  JULY  26, 1902.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


Cabalah,  known  as  the  "  practical,"  is  con- 
cerned with  talismanic  and  ceremonial  magic. 
The  formularies  therein  used  are  explicable 
by  the  "literal"  and  "dogmatic"  sections. 
Thus  the  mystical  learning  contained  in  the 
books  of  the  Zohar  is  the  basis  of  much 
practical  magic.  No  student  of  magic,  whether 
serious  or  from  curiosity  only,  can  acquire 
even  an  elementary  knowledge  of  the  subject 
unless  he  possesses  some  slight  acquaintance 
with  Hebrew.  E.  E.  STREET. 

"RETURNING  THANKS"  (9th  S.  x.  26).—  I  do 
not  quite  see  the  point  of  MR.  RATCLIFFE'S 
objection.  A  return  may  be  made  that  is  not 
a  return  in  kind  :  and  I  hold  that  a  customer 
has  often  as  much  occasion  to  *-hank  a  trades- 
man for  the  attention  he  has  given  to  his 
wants  as  the  tradesman  has  to  thank  the 
customer  for  his  patronage.  The  obligation 
is  by  no  means  all  on  one  side  :  the  con- 
ditions of  life  being  what  they  are,  the  trades- 
man is  as  necessary  to  the  customer  as  the 
customer  to  the  tradesman,  and  he  often 
fulfils  his  part  a  great  deal  more  honourably. 

C.  C.  B. 


A  New  English  Dictionary  on  Historical  Principles. 

Edited  by  Dr.  J.  A.  H.  Murray.—  0—Onomastic. 

(Oxford,  Clarendon  Press.) 

THE  latest  instalment  of  the  '  New  English  Dic- 
tionary,' issued  under  the  immediate  supervision 
of  Dr.  Murray,  contains  about  half  the  letter  O,  and 
forms  the  opening  portion  of  the  seventh  volume, 
which  is  to  consist  of  the  letters  O  and  P.  As  we 
are  now  more  than  half  way  through  the  alphabet 
we  may  say,  to  use  the  once  familiar  locution,  that 
the  back  or  the  task  is  broken  and  that  no  very  for- 
midable opposition  is  to  be  anticipated.  Quite 
remarkable  and  wholly  commendable  is  the  punc- 
tuality that  has  been  observed  in  recent  years— 
ever,  indeed,  since  the  work  got  in  trim.  So  soon  as 
the  section  reached  us  we  turned,  by  an  instinct  of 
self  -protection,  to  the  word  oil  and  to  the  phrase  "  To 
pour  oil  on  troubled  waters."  Less  frequently  than 
in  early  days,  but  with  aggravating  persistency,  the 
question  as  to  source  of  the  phrase  recurs.  Now 
that  all  that  is  known  about  it  is  to  be  found  in  the 
national  lexicon,  it  is  to  be  hoped  that  we  shall  be 
troubled  with  it  no  more.  At  any  rate,  our  answer 
to  correspondents,  should  such  appeal,  will  in 
future  be,  "Consult  'New  English  Dictionary,' 
under  '  oil,'  vol.  vii.  p.  93,  col.  1,  3  e."  For  the  purpose 
of  general  perusal  and  study  the  double  section  is 
one  of  the  most  interesting  we  have  yet  encountered. 
O/and  o^foccupy  some  score  columns,  and  represent, 
as  we  are  told  and  may  well  believe,  many  weeks' 
consecutive  and  arduous  labour.  The  mere  study 
of  what  is  advanced  concerning  them  is  laborious. 
It  is  not  with  of,  which  is  judged  probably  the  most 
difficult  of  the  prepositions  —  themselves  the  most 
difficult  words  with  which  the  lexicographer  can  be 
called  upon  to  deal—  that  we  occupy  ourselves.  The 

opening  essay  on  the  letter  0  and  its  different 
sounds  repays  close  study.  Two  of  the- earliest 
words  on  which  we  light  are  oaf  and  oak.  The 
former,  which  is  a  phonetic  variant  of  auf,  denotes 
originally  the  child  of  a  goblin  or  elf,  and  came 
thence  to  signify  a  changeling  or  booby.  Oak,  in 
the  form  ac,  is  found  so  early  as  the  year  749.  In 
similar  fashion  oar  first  appears  as  ar.  Oat,  with 
its  numerous  derivatives — as  oatenpipe,  &c. — has  an 
interesting  history  and  some  well-selected  illustra- 
tions. Among  the  various  uses  of  obeisance,  which 
=obedience,  we  find  it  used  in  the  'Book  of 
St.  Albans'  as  a  term  for  a  company  of  servants — 
"An  obeisians  of  seruauntis."  This  instance  of 
use  is  apparently  unique.  Objective,  as  opposed  to 
subjective,  was  frequently  used  in  the  first  half  of 
the  seventeenth  century.  Some  of  the  compounds 
of  this  word  are  atrocious.  Few  words  are  more 
interesting  than  odd  in  its  various  significances. 
Of  its  use  in  asseveration  it  is  said,  "A  minced 
form  of  God,  which  came  into  vogue  about  1600, 
when,  to  avoid  the  overt  profanation  of  sacred  names, 
many  minced  and  disguised  equivalents  became 
prevalent."  With  "  Od  rabbit  it '  we  are,  of  course, 
familiar.  In  "drat  it"  we  failed  to  recognize  the 
equivalent  phrase  "  Od  rat  it."  In  such  locutions  as 
Shakespeare's  "Od's  my  little  life,"  it  has  been 
suggested  that  "  Od  save  my  little  life  "  is  intended. 
No  form  fuller  than  that  given  has,  however,  been 
encountered.  All  that  is  said  concerning  odd,  "  a 
unit  in  excess  of  an  even  number,"  is  very  interest- 
ing and  curious.  Ogre,  sometimes  hogre,  a  man- 
eating  monster,  is  first  used  by  Perrault  in  his 
'Con  tea,'  1697.  The  derivation  from  the  ethnic 
name  Ugri,  once  favoured,  is  said  to  be  historically 
baseless.  Hogress  ap$§ars  in  the  first  translation 
of  the  '  Arabian  Nights.'  In  the  case  of  a  dictionary 
published  periodically,  it  is  impossible  for  us  to  do 
more  than  glance  through  the  successive  parts  and 
pick  out  a  few  gems  of  explanation  and  illustration 
to  represent  the  work  that  is  being  done,  leaving 
to  our  readers  the  pleasant  task  of  feeding  on  the 
fare  provided.  We  are  but  tasters.  The  superiority 
to  previous  or  rival  dictionaries,  on  which  we  have 
frequently  dwelt,  is  as  remarkable  as  before.  In  a 
period  of  noteworthy  accomplishment  the  progress 
made  with  this  truly  national  undertaking  stands 

The  Neiv  Volumes  of  the  Encyclopaedia  Britannica. 
—Vol.  III.,  being  Vol.  XXVII.  of  the  Complete 
Work.  (A.  &  C.  Black  and  the  Times.) 
IN  some  respects  the  article  on  drama  by  Mr. 
William  Archer  and  M.  Augustin  Filon  is  the  most 
interesting  in 'the  latest  "new  volume"  of  the 
'  Encyclopedia  Britannica.'  It  is  the  work,  so  far 
as  the  portion  dealing  with  the  English  stage  is  con- 
cerned, of  a  man  of  wide  erudition  and  strongly  held 
convictions.  Had  no  name  of  author  been  attached 
to  it,  those  familiar  with  the  published  criticisms 
of  Mr.  Archer  could  have  had  no  hesitation  in 
ascribing  it  to  him.  A  single  sentence  such  as  the 
following  would  serve  to  betray  the  supposed  secret: 
"  Even  while  it  seemed  that  French  comedy  of  the 
school  of  Scribe  was  resuming  its  baneful  predomi- 
nance the  seeds  of  a  new  order  of  things  were  slowly 
germinating."  (The  italics  are  ours.)  With  Mr. 
Archer's  general  views  we  are  in  accord,  though  the 
measure  of  importance  he  attaches  to  individual 
writers  is  naturally  different  from  that  we  should 
ourselves  furnish.  Among  the  playwrights  of  the 
sixties  and  seventies  we  should  name  Westland 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [9th  s.  x.  JULY  26, 1902. 

Marston,  whose  influence  on  the  stage,  so  far  as  it 
extended,  was  beneficial.  M.  Filon's  survey  of  the 
Drench  stage  is  brief  but  adequate.  It  extends  from 
Emile  Augier  to  MM.  Richepin  and  Rostand,  and 
leaves  unmentioned  M.  Capus,  who  presumably 
when  the  article  was  written  had  produced  neither 
'  La  Veine '  nor  '  Deux  Ecoles,'  but  whose  '  Rosine,' 
played  in  June,  1897,  gave  promise  of  the  gifts  he 
has  since  displayed.  It  is  to  be  regretted  that  M. 
Filon  has  been  accorded  no  power  of  revision  over 
the  earlier  contribution  on  the  French  stage.  The 
prefatory  essay  by  Dr.  Henry  Smith  Williams  is  on 
the  influence  of  modern  research  on  the  scope  of 
world-history.  Among  the  subjects  brought  forward 
is,  of  course,  Assyrian  discovery,  which  brings  with 
it  the  mention  of  Prof.  Mahaffy's  suggestion  that 
"  the  era  of  the  Pyramids  may  have  been  the  verit- 
able autumn  of  civilization."  Recent  classical 
archaeology  and  the  Mycenaean  civilization  are  also 
discussed.  '  Chicago '  is  the  opening  article,  and 
naturally  supplies  some  startling  statistics  of 
growth.  It  is  accompanied  with  maps  of  the  city 
and  suburbs.  '  Chile '  and  '  China,'  the  latter 
especially,  are  articles  of  the  highest  importance. 
With  the  account  of  the  China-Japan  war  China 
occupies  some  fifty  columns.  Dr.  Arthur 
Shad  well  deals  with  'Cholera,'  and  the  Bishop  of 
Ripon  with  the  '  Christian  Church.'  The  '  Chrono- 
logical Table'  extends  from  1  Jan.,  1876,  to  31  Dec., 
1900.  It  chronicles  some  "  small  beer,''  but  is  dis- 
tinctly useful  as  an  aide  -  mdmoire,  for  which  it  is 
intended.  '  Biblical  Chronology,'  as  regards  the 
Old  Testament,  is  in  the  hands  of  Prof.  Driver,  and 
so  far  as  the  New  Testament  is  concerned  in  those  of 
Mr.  C.  H.  Turner.  Mr.  Sidney  J.  Low  contributes 
the  life  of  Lord  Randolph  Churchill.  Passing  over 
without  mention  many  articles  of  importance,  we 
come  to  Prof.  Poulton's  deeply  interesting  '  Colours 
of  Animals,'  which,  among  other  points,  dwells  on 
the  various  aspects  of  mimicry  in  insect  life.  Much 
that  is  said  is  naturally  conjecture,  but  the  pro- 
fessor is  the  best  authority  we  possess.  Dr.  Holden, 
formerly  director  of  the  Lick  Observatory,  deals 
with  '  Comets.'  Prof.  Sir  Frederick  Pollock  writes 
on  'Contract,'  and  Mr.  Wadsworth  on  'Con- 
veyancing.' Prof.  Nairne  has  a  short  communica- 
tion on  the  vexed  questions  of  Creatianism  and 
Traducianism.  Cremation  has  received,  of  course, 
much  attention  during  the  period  covered  by  the 
new  volume,  the  most  recent  results  being  tabu- 
lated. The  modern  development  of  cricket  is  said 
to  date  from  the  first  visit  in  1878  to  England  of 
an  Australian  team.  In  the  county  records  sup- 
plied Notts  is  shown  to  occupy  a  brilliant  place, 
having  been  champion  during  no  fewer  than 
eleven  years.  Ample  statistics  are  furnished.  A 
similar  article  is  that  by  Mr.  Lillie  on  '  Croquet,' 
which  has  had  in  recent  days  a  conspicuous 
revival.  Under  'Corot'  a  delightful  landscape  of 
that  painter  is  furnished.  Under  '  Cross '  we  have 
a  sympathetic  life  of  George  Eliot  by  Mrs.  Craigie. 
Courbet's  '  The  Stag  Fight '  is  also  reproduced. 
Reproductions  of  two  illustrations  of  Dickens 
accompany  a  short  and  not  quite  adequate  life  of 
Cruikshank.  '  Cuba '  and  '  Cyprus  '  are  instances 
of  articles  in  which  recent  history  effects  some- 
thing like  a  revolution.  'Cycling'  also,  which  is 
fully  illustrated,  has  undergone  great  modifica- 
tion. '  Dairy  Farming'  occupies  considerable  space 
and  is  thoroughly  practical.  Daubigny's  '  Moon- 
light' constitutes  an  attractive  illustration.  In 
fact,  the  reproductions  of  French  pictures  by  men 

such  as  Degas,  Detaille,  &c.,  form  a  very  agree- 
able feature  in  the  work.  Under  'Dictionary' 
a  vindication  of  a  practice  of  which  we  are  some- 
times disposed  to  complain,  of  disregarding  litera- 
ture in  the  interest  of  philology,  is  given.  Among 
those  who  write  on  '  Divorce'  is  Sir  Francis  Jeune. 
Valuable  and  interesting  articles  in  the  volume 
are  those  by  various  writers  on  Egypt,  and  by 
Prof.  Flinders  Petrie  and  Mr.  Griffith  on  Egypto- 
logy. It  is  obviously  as  impossible  to  give  an  idea 
of  the  contents  of  separate  contributions  as  to 
convey  an  idea  of  the  value  of  the  whole.  We  have 
to  congratulate  those  concerned  with  the  production 
on  the  rate  of  progress  that  is  maintained.  The 
price  of  the  volume  is  not  given,  since  that 
at  which  the  work  is  supplied  is  temporary,  and 
subject  to  alteration  after  the  first  subscription 
list  is  closed.  

THE  REV.  JOHN  PICKFORD  writes  :  "  An  honour 
conferred  by  the  University  of  Oxford  on  one  of 
your  oldest  and  most  esteemed  correspondents,  the 
Rev.  William  Dunn  Macray,  M.A.,  ought  not  to 
pass  unnoticed  in  the  pages  of  '  N.  &  Q.'  He  has 
recently  been  created  Doctor  of  Literature  (Litt. 
Doct. )  by  that  university,  a  well-earned  and  well- 
deserved  honour  by  one  whose  services  have  been 
so  great  not  only  in  the  literary,  but  in  many  other 
fields.  The  general  expression  of  feeling  is  that  it 
ought  to  have  come  long  ago.  However,  the  old 
proverb  tells  us  that '  it  is  better  late  than  never.'  " 

J&alitt*  tor 

We  must  call  (special  attention  to  the  following 
notices : — 

ON  all  communications  must  be  written  the  name 
and  address  of  the  sender,  not  necessarily  for  pub- 
lication, but  as  a  guarantee  of  good  faith. 

WE  cannot  undertake  to  answer  queries  privately. 

To  secure  insertion  of  communications  corre- 
spondents must  observe  the  following  rules.  Let 
each  note,  query,  or  reply  be  written  on  a  separate 
slip  of  paper,  with  the  signature  of  the  writer  and 
such  address  as  he  wishes  to  appear.  When  answer- 
ing queries,  or  making  notes  with  regard  to  previous 
entries  in  the  paper,  contributors  are  requested  to 
put  in  parentheses,  immediately  after  the  exact 
heading,  the  series,  volume,  and  page  or  pages  to 
which  they  refer.  Correspondents  who  repeat 
queries  are  requested  to  head  the  second  com- 
munication "  Duplicate." 

D.  S.  R.  ("  Et  in  Arcadia  ego").— See  4th  S.  i.  509, 
561 ;  x.  432,  479,  525,  532  ;  xi.  86  ;  6th  S.  vi.  396. 

COL.  LONGLEY  ("Moves  at  Russian  Backgam- 
mon ").  —  Consult  '  Encyclopaedia  Britannica,' 
'  Russian  Backgammon,'  at  end  of  article  on  '  Back- 

CORRIGENDUM.— 9th  S.  ix.  312,  col.  2,  1.  10,  for 
ap  read  ap\ 


Editorial  communications  should  be  addressed 
to  "The  Editor  of  'Notes  and  Queries'"— Adver- 
tisements and  Business  Letters  to  "  The  Pub- 
lisher"— at  the  Office,  Bream's  Buildings,  Chancery 
Lane,  E.C. 

We  beg  leave  to  state  that  we  decline  to  return 
communications  which,  for  any  reason,  we  do  not 
print ;  and  to  this  rule  we  can  make  no  exception. 

9th  S.  X.  AUG.  2, 1902.] 




CONTENTS. -No.  240. 

NOTES  : -Stamp  Collecting  Forty  Years  Ago,  81— Notes  on 
Skeat's  'Concise  Dictionary,'  83 — Italian  Jingoism  in  1591, 
84  —  Book -titles  in  Books  —  "  Quick  "=Italian-  iron  — 
"Raising  the  wind  "  — Coronation  Postponement,  85  — 
Cries  of  Animals— Female  Stenographers  in  Old  Times- 
Dickens  and  Tibullus,  86. 

QUERIES:  —  Bolton  Abbey  Compotus,  86— General  E. 
Mathew— Black  for  Mourning  —  Race  of  the  Gybbins— 
Mrs.  Barker,  Novelist— Anderton— Flint :  Ferrey— "  None- 
soprett  ies  "  :  "  Spinnel,"  87 — Holme  of  Holme  Hall— Dun- 
lop— Coincidence  —  "  Pristinensis  Episcopus  "  — Baker — 
St.  Ernulphus — Waterloo  Ballroom,  88— Haselock  Family 
—Danes  in  Pembroke — Borough  of  Bishop's  Stortford— 
Forster — Russian  Story,  89. 

REPLIES  :— 'Aylwin,'  89  — Albino  Animals,  91  — Castle 
Carewe,  92—"  Wild-Cat"  Company— C<  ndace— "Endorse- 
ment "— Kennett's  Wharf—  "  Mallet"  or  "Mullet,"  93— 
"  Met  "—National  Flag-Orange  Blossoms,  94— "  Beatific 
vision  " — "  Astonish  the  natives "' — Waldby  Family  Arms 
—Stoning  the  Wren— Marks  on  Table  Linen—"  Sixes  and 
sevens,"  95 — American  Edition  of  Dickens  —  Locomotive 
and  Gas — Fleetwood  Pedigree,  96  —  Lady  Nottingham — 
Ainsworth  —  Byron's  Grandfather  —  Halley  Family  — 
Heuskarian  Rarity,  97— Slang  of  the  Past— Book-mar ke»s 
— Phaer— Grace  before  Meat  — "Box  Harry "  — Hobbins 
Family— Tib's  Eve,  98. 

NOTES  ON  BOOKS:  -Hills"  Antonio  Stradivari '— «  York- 
shire Archaeological  Journal,'  Parts  63  and  64— 'English 
Historical  Review.' 

Notices  to  Correspondents. 


(See  2nd  S.  iv.  329,  421,  500  ;  v.  308  ;  ix.  482 ;  3rd  S. 
i.  149,  195,  277,  357,  393,  474  ;  v.  418  ;  4th  S.  xi.  214  ; 
xii.  384  ;  5th  S.  viii.  266,  506 ;  xii.  88,  172,  238,  256, 
389,  474,  515  ;  6th  S.  ix.  508  ;  x.  98,  234,  373,  468,  478, 
496 ;  xi.  33,  74,  117,  217,  406,  517  ;  xii.  428,  505  ;  7th  S. 
iii.  30,  152  ;  iv.  396 ;  x.  385 ;  8th  S.  v.  509 ;  vi.  9,  93, 
117,  368 ;  vii.  192  ;  x.  415,  499 ;  xii.  469 ;  9th  S.  i.  115 ; 
v.  404,  501 ;  ix.  438.) 

THE  mania  for  amassing  vast  numbers  of 
used  stamps  dates  from  a  much  earlier  period 
than  anything  of  the  nature  of  philately 
proper.  So  far  back  as  1841  I  find  this  ad- 
vertisement in  the  Times : — 

"A  young  lady,  being  desirous  of  covering  her 
dressing-room  with  cancelled  postage  stamps,  has 
been  so  far  encouraged  in  her  wish  by  private 
friends  as  to  have  succeeded  in  collecting  16,000. 
These,  however,  being  insufficient,  she  will  be 
greatly  obliged  if  any  good-natured  person  who 
may  have  these  (otherwise  useless)  little  articles  at 
their  disposal  would  assist  her  in  her  whimsical 
project.  Address  to  E.  D.,  Mr.  Butt's,  Glover, 
Leadenhall  Street;  or  Mr  Marshall's,  Jeweller, 

In  1842  Punch  had  a  skit  on  the  same 
subject : — 

"A  new  mania  has  bitten  the  industriously  idle 
ladies  of  England.  To  enable  a  large  wager  to  be 

gained    they  have  been  indefatigable  in  their  en- 
deavours to  collect  old  penny  stamps  ;  in  fact,  they 
betray  more  anxiety  to  treasure  up  Queen's  heads 
than  Harry  the  Eighth  did  to  get  rid  of  them. 
Colonel  Sibthorpe,  whose  matchless  genius  we  have 
so  often  admired,  sends  us  the  following  poem  upon 
the  prevailing  epidemic  : — 
When  was  a  folly  so  pestilent  hit  upon 
As  folks  running  mad  to  collect  every  spit-upon 
Post-office  stamp,  that 's  been  soiled  and  been  writ 

Oh,   for  Swift !  such  a  subject  his  spleen  to  emit 

'Tis  said  that  some  fool  in  mustachios  has  split  upon 

The  rock  of  a  bet, 

And  therefore  must  get, 

To  avoid  loss  and  debt, 
Half  the  town  as  collectors  to  waste  time  and  wit 

Bothering  and  forcing  their  friends  to  submit,  upon 

Pain  of  displeasure, 

To  fill  a  peck  measure 

With  the  coveted  treasure 

Of  as  many  old  stamps  as  perforce  can  be  hit  upon, 
To  paper  a  room,  or  stuff  cushions  to  sit  upon. 
Do,  dearest  Punch,  let  fly  a  sharp  skit  upon 
This  new  pursuit,  and  an  ass's  head  fit  upon 
The  crest  of  the  Order  of  Knights  of  the  Spit-upon."  , 

It  yet  remains  for  'N.  &  Q.'  to  fix  with 
something  like  accuracy  the  date  when  stamp 
collecting  in  the  true  sense  (i.e.,  the  collecting 
of  different  varieties  of  stamps)  first  began  to 
attract  general  attention  in  Britain.  Judge 
Suppantschitsch,  of ,  Vienna,  claims  to  have 
unearthed  a  reference  to  collecting  -  in  the 
Family  Herald  for  22  March,  1851.  The 
Philatelic  Journal  of  America  for  March,  1885, 
asserts  that  advertisements  from  English 
dealers  appeared  as  far  back  as  1857.  I  have 
been  unable  to  obtain  confirmation  of  this 
assertion,  but  probably  the  advertisement 
pages  of  the  early  volumes  of  the  first  series 
of  Beeton's  Boys  Oivn  Magazine,  1855-62,  if 
anywhere  accessible,  might  yield  some  result. 

In  the  Museum  (Edinburgh..  James  Gordon) 
for  July,  1861,  appeared  an  article  on  '  Edu- 
cation through  trie  Senses,'  by  the  author 
of  '  Rab  and  his  Friends.'  Dr.  Brown  urges 
the  propriety  of  interesting  children  in 
occupations  requiring  the  use  of  their  own 
hands  and  eyes,  and  remarks  incidentally  : — 

"Even  the  immense  activity  in  the  Post-office- 
stamp  line  of  business  among  our  youngsters  has 
been  of  immense  use  in  many  ways,  besides  being  a 
diversion  and  an  interest.  I  myself  came  to  the 
knowledge  of  Queensland,  and  a  great  deal  more, 
through  its  blue  twopenny." 

The  earliest  printed  matter  devoted  ex- 
clusively to  collecting  appears  to  have  been  : — 

1.  A  list  of  stamps  (12  pp.,  no  title)  issued 
privately  in  September,  1861,  by  M.  Oscar 
Berger-Levrault,  Strassburg  (second  edition 
in  December). 

2.  '  Catalogue  des  Timbres  Poste  cre'es  dans 
lea  divers  Etats  du  Globe,'  issued  in  December 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.         [9th  s.  x.  AUG.  2, 1*02. 

of  the  same  year  by  M.  Alfred  Potiquet,  Paris 
(43  pp.;  second  edition  in  March,  1862). 

3.  'Manuel  du  Collectionneur  de  Timbres 
Poste  et  Nomenclature  generale  de  tous  les 
Timbres  adoptes  dans  les  divers  Pays  de 
1'Univers,'  published  in  January,  1862,  by 
M.  J.  B.  Moens,  Brussels  (72  pp.;  second 
edition  in  same  year).  A  sketch  and  portrait 
of  M.  Moens  will  be  found  in  the  Philatelic 
Record  for  December,  1893. 

In  1862  English  philatelic  literature  made 
a  fair  start.  In  April  there  appeared  '  Aids 
to  Stamp  Collectors  :  being  a  List  of  English 
and  Foreign  Stamps  in  Circulation  since  1840,' 
by  a  Stamp  Collector.  Brighton,  H.  &  C. 
Treacher.  This  volume  was  little  more  than 
a  translation  from  the  works  of  Potiquet  and 
Moens.  Second  and  third  editions  of  the 
'  Aids '  rapidly  followed  within  the  same  year, 
the  title-page  bearing  the  name  of  the  author, 
Frederick  Booty.  Mr.  Booty  also  brought  out 
a  '  Stamp  Collector's  Guide '  (same  publishers 
and  year),  the  earliest  illustrated  catalogue. 
The  lithographs  of  stamps,  some  200  in 
number,  are  said  to  be  the  result  of  Mr. 
Booty's  own  artistic  skill,  and  are  at  least 

In  May,  1862,  appeared  a  book  which, 
though  not  more  systematic  than  Booty's, 
gained  a  much  wider  popularity,  '  Catalogue 
of  British,  Colonial,  and  Foreign  Postage 
Stamps,'  by  Mount  Brown.  London,  Pass- 
more  (second  edition  in  June;  third,  De- 
cember ;  fourth,  May,  1863 ;  fifth,  March, 
1864).  Mr.  Brown  originally  based  his  list  on 
the  collection  of  the  Rev.  F.  J.  Stainforth, 
Perpetual  Curate  of  Allhallows,  Staining, 
one  of  our  earliest  collectors,  who  died  in 
1866.  The  number  of  varieties  described 
rises  from  1,200  in  the  first  edition  to  2,400 
in  the  fifth.  Of  the  latter  fifty  copies  were 
printed  on  large  paper,  forming  decidedly 
the  handsomest  specimens  of  early  English 
philatelic  literature.  An  American  piracy  of 
the  first  edition  was  published  in  1862  at 
Philadelphia  by  A.  C.  Kline,  under  the  title 
of  The  Stamp  Collector's  Manual  :  being  a 
Complete  Guide  to  the  Collectors  of  American 
and  Foreign  Postage  and  Despatch  Stamps.' 
This  seems  to  be  the  earliest  American  phila- 
telic publication.  A  more  remarkable  prooi 
of  the  popularity  of  Mr.  Brown's  work  was 
afforded  by  the  appearance  of  a  '  Catalogue 
of  nearly  Two  Thousand  Varieties  of  British, 
Colonial,  and  Foreign  Postage  Stamps/  by  a 
Collector.  Gloucester,  1863  This  was  simply 
an  almost  verbatim  reprint  of  Mr.  Brown's 
third  edition.  It  was  suppressed  at  his 
instance,  and  is  consequently  very  scarce.  A 
sketch  and  portrait  of  Mr.  Mount  Brown  wil 

be  found  in  the  Philatelic  Record  for  De- 
cember, 1894. 

In  the  number  for  June,  1862,  of  Young 
England  (London,  Tweedie)  the  late  Dr. 
John  Edward  Gray,  of  the  British  Museum, 
oegan  a  series  of  articles  entitled  '  The 
Postage  Stamps  of  the  World.' 

'The  collecting  of  postage  stamps,"  writes  Dr. 
Uray,  "  having  lately  become  a  fashion,  especially 
among  the  young  persons  at  schools,  it  certainly 
will  be  interesting  to  the  readers  of  Young  England 
jO  have  as  complete  a  list  of  them  as  I  have  been 

able  to  form I  may  state  that  I  began  to  collect 

ihem  shortly  after  the  system  was  established,  and 
many  years  before  it  had  become  the  fashion,  simply 
because  I  believe  that  1  was  the  first  that  proposed 
the  system  of  a  small  uniform  rate  of  postage,  to 
be  prepaid  by  stamps,  having  satisfied  myself  that 
the  great  cost  of  the  Post-office  was  not  the  recep- 
tion, carriage,  and  delivery  of  the  letters,  but  the 
complicated  system  of  accounts  that  the  old  system 
required,  and  that  the  collection  of  money  by 
stamps  was  the  most  certain  and  most  economical. 
But  1  found  there  was  little  chance  of  getting  any 
attention  to  the  plan  without  I  could  devote  the 
whole  of  my  time  and  energy  to  the  development 
and  the  agitation  of  it.  Fortunately  Mr.  (now  Sir) 
Rowland  Hill,  who  had  leisure  at  his  command, 
undertook  the  question,  and  with  the  assistance  of 
Mr.  G.  MofFatt,  Mr.  Henry  Cole,  and  sundry  mer- 
chants and  members  of  Parliament,  whom  they 
induced  to  interest  themselves  in  the  question,  they 
carried  the  measure  after  great  exertion." 

Further  instalments  of  Dr.  Gray's  con- 
tribution appeared  in  Young  England  for 
July,  August,  and  September,  1862,  and  the 
substance  of  these  articles  was  reprinted  in 
book  form  as  '  A  Hand  Catalogue  of  Postage 
Stamps  for  the  Use  of  Collectors,'  Londo:., 
Hardwicke  (second  edition,  1863;  subse- 
quent editions,  having  the  title  altered  to 
'  The  Illustrated  Catalogue,'  &c.,  in  1865, 1866, 
1870,  1875).  The  claim  of  priority  of  sug- 
gestion set  forth  by  Dr.  Gray  was  not  allowed 
to  pass  unchallenged.  An  interesting  corre- 
spondence on  the  subject,  embracing  letters 
from  Sir  Rowland  Hill  and  Mr.  Charles 
Knight,  will  be  found  in  the  Athenaeum  for 
13,  20,  27  December,  1862  ;  3  and  10  January, 

In  All  the  Year  Round  for  19  July,  1862,  is 
given  a  short  sketch,  '  My  Nephew's  Col- 
lection,' descriptive  of  "  the  last  new  mania." 

In  the  number  for  26  July,  1862,  of  Cassell's 
Illustrated  Family  Paper  (series  ii.  vol.  x. 
p.  140)  appeared  the  first  of  an  extended  series 
of  copiously  illustrated  articles  under  the 
heading  '  Postage  Stamps.'  The  articles  are 
anonymous,  and  the  present  editor  of  Cassell's 
Magazine  tells  me  that  it  is  now  impossible 
to  trace  the  authorship.  The  articles  are 
continued  in  vpls.  x.  xi.  xii.  xiii.  xiv.,  and  in 
series  iii.  vols.  iii.  and  iv.  Unlike  Dr.  Gray, 
the  writer  does  not  seek  to  give  a  complete 

9t»s.x.Aua.2,i902.]         NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


catalogue  of  known  postage  stamps,  but 
rather  inclines  to  dwell  on  the  collateral 
topics  suggested  by  the  emissions  of  each 
country.  He  was  probably  indebted  for  some 
of  his  details  to  two  similar  series  of  articles 
which  appeared  in  the  Magasin  Pittoresque, 
Paris,  1862-6  (' Les  Timbres  -  poste  de  tous 
les  Etats  du  Globe,'  by  M.  Natalis  Rondot), 
and  in  the  Bazar,  Berlin,  1862-4  (' Beschrei- 
bung  aller  Briefmarken  der  Erde  '). 

In  September,  1862,  the  first  number  of  the 
Monthly  Intelligencer  was  published  by  Wil- 
liam Macmillan,  Birmingham.  It  was  largely, 
but  not  exclusively,  devoted  to  stamps,  and 
ceased  with  the  tenth  number.  A  more  im- 
portant periodical  was  the  Monthly  Advertiser, 
published  by  Edward  Moore  &  Co.,  Liverpool 
—the  true  literary  progenitor  of  the  copious 
philatelic  press  of  the  present  day.  No.  1 
was  dated  15  December,  1862.  "Towards  the 
middle  of  the  year  1862,"  writes  Mr.  T.  W. 
Kittin  the  Philatelist,  vol.  i.  p.  31, 

"  when  philately  was  becoming  very  popular,  ap- 
pearances led  me  to  conclude  that  a  periodical 
entirely  devoted  to  that  subject  would  prove  a  great 
boon  to  collectors,  and  also  a  lucrative  investment 
to  its  proprietors.  Accordingly,  in  the  summer  of 
the  year  named,  I  inserted  an  advertisement  in  the 
Boy  s  Own  Magazine,  requesting  any  gentlemen  who 
were  of  a  similar  opinion  to  join  me  in  the  under- 
taking. This  advertisement  was  productive  of  in- 
numerable replies,  requesting  further  information  ; 
but  not  so  many  as  half-a-dozen  of  them  spoke 
favourably  of  my  scheme.  In  order  to  '  leave  not 
a  stone  unturned'  for  the  attainment  of  the  end  in 
view,  I  had  personal  interviews  with  many  of  the 
leading  English  collectors  residing  in  or  near  Lon- 
don ;  and  in  consequence  of  its  being  '  Exhibition 
year '  I  was  also  enabled  to  meet  several  from  the 
country;  but  public  opinion  seemed  so  much  against 
me,  that  I  reluctantly  abandoned  the  enterprise, 
thinking  it  folly  to  undertake  what  my  superiors  in 
the  knowledge  of  philately  thought  so  unpromising. 
My  voluminous  correspondence  on  the  subject,  and 
earnest  endeavours  to  bring  about  the  consumma- 
tion of  my  wishes,  were,  however,  rewarded  with 
success  ;  for  Mr.  A  Perris,  of  Liverpool  (one  of  the 
few  gentlemen  who  thought  favourably  of  my  plans), 
entered  warmly  into  the  matter,  but  from  reasons 
above  stated  I  declined  rendering  him  any  pecuniary 
assistance,  though  1  placed  my  pen  at  his  service, 
of  which  he  availed  himself.  However,  finus  coronal 
opus — on  December  15th,  1862,  the  harbinger  of  a  new 
style  of  literature  made  its  appearance,  in  the  shape 
of  the  Monthly  Advertiser,  afterwards  known  as  the 
Stamp  Collectors'  Jteview." 

From  the  outset  the  late  Mr.  E.  L.  Pember- 
ton  was  the  leading  spirit  of  this  magazine, 
contributing  to  it  the  first  sketch  of  his 
'Forged  Stamps:  How  to  Detect  Them,' 
together  with  much  general  criticism.  When 
the  second  volume  began,  in  January,  1864, 
he  was  formally  installed  as  editor.  In  June 
of  the  same  year  the  Revieiv  came  to  an  un- 
timely end  "through  the  folly  of  the  pro- 

prietors," writes  Mr.  Pemberton  in  the  Phila- 
telical  Journal,  vol.  i.  p.  217;  "  we  harve  the 
MS.  for  the  July  number  by  us  as  written 
for  publication." 

The  prepared  stamp  album,  like  the  cata- 
logue, had  its  origin  in  France,  and  the  only 
example  that  falls  to  be  mentioned  here  is 
the  English  reproduction  of  the  well-known 
'  Album-timbres-poste  orne  des  Cartes,'  par 
Justin  Lallier.  Both  French  and  English  first 
editions  were  published  in  Paris  in  1862. 
This  handsome  book — in  spite  of  many  errors 
that  were  persistently  left  uu corrected,  not- 
withstanding much  adverse  criticism  in  the 
English  journals— long  retained  a  hold  on 
public  favour,  thirteen  editions  appearing  in 

It  remains  to  speak  only  of  the  price  lists 
of  dealers,  of  which  1362  produced  a  plentiful 
crop.  Among  the  more  important  were  those 
of  C.  Gloyn,  Manchester ;  T.  W.  Kitt,  Lon- 
don ;  E.  Moore  &  Co-.,  Liverpool ;  E.  L.  Pem- 
bert^n,  Birmingham;  Stafford  Smith  &  Smith, 
Bath  ;  J.  J.  H.  Stockall  &  Co.,  Liverpool ;  G.  • 
Swaysland,  Brighton  ;  H.  R.  Victor,  Belfast; 
J.  J.  Woods,  Hartlepool;  B.  York  &  Co., 

MR.  INGLEBY  inquires  as  to  the  highest  price 
ever  paid  for  a  postage  stamp!  I  believe  that 
the  record  is  held  by  the  la.  and  2d.  "  Post 
Office  "  Mauritius  of  1847.  Only  1,000  copies 
of  these  stamps  were  printed,  500  of  each ; 
and  only  twenty-one  are  known  to  survive, 
twelve  of  the  Id.  and  nine  of  the  2o*.  The 
pair  that  had  formerly  been  in  the  collection 
of  Dr.  Legrand  (Id.  used,  2o".  unused)  was 
acquired  in  1897  by  M.  Jules  Bernichon  at 
the  enormous  price  of  48,000  fr.  (1,920/.).  The 
British  Museum  possesses  a  pair  in  the  col- 
lection bequeathed  to  the  nation  by  the  late 
Mr.  T.  K.  Tapling,  M.P.  Not  far  behind  the 
Mauritius  stamps  comes  the  Sandwich  Islands 
2c.  of  1851.  Only  ten  copies  are  known,  one 
of  which,  used,  changed  hands  in  1897  for 
700£.  But  of  a  still  higher  degree  of  rarity 
is  the  British.  Guiana  Ic.  of  1856.  Of  this 
stamp  only  a  single  copy  is  believed  to  be  in 
existence,  in  the  collection  of  M.  La  Renotiere, 
Paris,  who  obtained  it  many  years  ago  for 
what  would  now  be  considered  a  ridiculously 
small  sum.  P.  J.  ANDERSON. 

University  Library,  Aberdeen. 


DICTIONARY,'  1901. 

1.  Solace. — Prof.  Skeat  gives  solatium  as 
the  original  Latin  form,  and  proceeds  to 
derive  solatium  from  solatus.  This  etymology 
falls  to  the  ground,  from  the  fact  that  the 
form  solatium  is  a  barbarism,  the  only  form 

NOTES  AND  QUERIES.         [9*  s.  x.  A™.  2, 1902. 

recognized  by  Latin  scholars  being  solatium. 
For  the  suffix  compare  mendacium.  See  Roby, 
Breal,  Georges. 

2.  Race. — The  dictionary  says,  "  answering 
to  L.  type  *radia."    The  connexion  is  pho- 
netically impossible,  as    is    shown    by    the 
Italian    and    Spanish    forms.     The    Italian 
razza,  with  the  z  pronounced  as  ts,  points  to 
a  Romanic  type  with  tj,  not  dj.    The  Spanish 
rdza  also  points  to  intervocalic  tj  or  cf,  e.g., 
raz6n  (rationem),  ceddzo  (setacium).  A  Romanic 
form  with  intervocalic  dj  would  have  given 
in    Spanish    y,    eg.,    rayo    (radium),    moyo 

3.  Fray  (an  affray). — This  word  is  treated 
as    cognate    with    affray  (to  frighten),  but 
the  words  are  radically  distinct  in  meaning 
and  origin.   The  radical  meaning  of  an  affray 
(or  a  fray)  is  a  disturbance,  especially  one 
caused  by  fighting.    It  is  the  Anglo-Norman 
a/ray  used  by  Bozon  in  the  sense  of  "  agita- 
tion."   This  Norman  afray  is  cognate  with 
Spanish   refriega    (a  fray,  a  skirmish)  j  see 
Stevens's  dictionary  ;  cp.   refregdr  (to  rub), 
Lat.   re+fricare.     Fray    (a    disturbance)  is, 
therefore,  cognate  with  fray  (to  wear  away 
by  rubbing),  O.Fr.freyer  (to  rub),  and  must 
be  kept  apart  from  M.E.  affray  (fright),  Fr. 
effroi  and  effrayer,  Lat.  ex+*fridare. 

4.  Lozenge. — It    is   well  known    that   this 
word  is  a  derivative  of  Provencal  lausa,  lauza, 
Portuguese  lousa,  identical  in  form  and  mean- 
ing with  Spanish  laude  (a  sepulchral  stone). 
But  what  is  the  etymology  of  laude  (lausa)t 
Laude  is  the  regular  representative  of  Latin 
lapidem,    Spanish   aud    representing    Latin 
ap'd  or  ap't,  as  we  may  see  from  raudo  (rapi- 
dum),  caudillo  (*capitellum).    In  Provencal, 
as  is  well  known,   intervocal  d  becomes  z, 
e.g.,  cazer  (cadere). 

5.  Maund.— This  is  marked  as  an  English 
word,  due  to  O.E.  mand.  This  is  phonetically 
impossible.      O.E.    mand    would     have    re- 
mained mand  to  the   present  day,  cp.  and, 
hand,    land,    sand.      The    combination    aun 
points  to  an  immediate  French  source,  cp. 
daunt  (danter),  haunt  (hanter),  laund,  mod. 
lawn  (lande),  spaund,  mod.  spawn  (espandre), 
pawn  (pander).    Maund  is  the  representative 
of  O.Fr.  mande,  "panier  d'osier"  (La  Curne). 
The  French  word  is  of  Teutonic  origin,  being 
common  to  many  German  dialects. 

6.  Squeamish.  —  The   dictionary    suggests 
relation  to  shame.    This  is  phonetically  im- 
possible.   Neither  the  initial  consonant  nor 
the  stem  vowel  will  permit  of  such  an  hypo- 
thesis.   And  the  radical  meanings  of  the  two 
words  have  nothing  to  do  with  one  another. 
The    Anglo-French    escoymous    points    to    a 
Romanic  type  *scematdsumt  over  nice,  over 

particular  as  to  appearance,  a  derivative  of 
Late  Lat.  scema  for  schema,  "  forma,  species, 
habitus,  ornatus,  vestitus,"  Gr.  crx^a.  See 
Ducange  fs.v.),  where  it  will  be  seen  that  the 
word  and  its  derivatives  were  well  known  in 
the  Romanic  languages. 

7.  Full  (to  full  cloth).— This  is  marked  as  a 
French  word,  due  to  O.Fr.  filler,  Fr.  fouler. 
But  should  we  not  expect  a  Fr.  fouler  to  be 
represented    by  an    English  form  fowl  ?     I 
think  we  may  safely  assume  that  the  verb 
full  represents  an  unrecorded  O.E.  *fullian, 

whence  was  formed  the  derivative  fullere; 
see  Sweet's  'Anglo-Saxon  Diet.'  It  is  pro- 
bable that  Fr.  fouler  (to  trample)  may  be 
unconnected  with  Lat.  fullo  (a  fuller).  The 
Spanish  form  hollar,  pres.  stem  huelle  (to 
tread),  points  to  an  open  o  in  the  stem 

8.  Giraffe. — The  Spanish  form  girdfa  is  not 
due  to  the  Arabic  form  with  z,  zardfah,  but 
to  a  form  with  dj.    Humbert  says,  "Les  Arabes 
disent    aujourd'hui    non    seulement    zordfa, 
mais  aussi  djordfa"  ;  see  Ford's  'Old  Spanish 
Sibilants,'  '  Harvard  Notes  '  (1900),  p.  27. 

9.  Dance. — What  is  the  etymology  of  this 
wide-spread   Romanic   word  ?     The   word   is 
generally  equated  with  the  O.H.G.  danson, 
and    the  '  Concise '  follows   the   traditional 
account.     But  the  learned  Schade,   who   in 
his   dictionary  always    gives    the    Romanic 
forms  corresponding  to  the  German  word,  is 
silent  on  such  a  connexion.    And  not  without 
reason.    The  Romanic  forms — as,  for  example, 
O.Fr.  dancer,  It.  danzare,  Sp.  danzar — point 
to  z  ( =  ts),  and  not  s   after  the  nasal  as  the 
older  sound.    Now  in  French  the  symbol  c 
(=ts)  after  a  nasal  generally  corresponds  to 
an  O.H.G.  z  (=ts),  as,   for  example,   O.Fr. 
grincer  (O.H.G.  grimmizzon),  O.Fr.  grander 
(O.H.G.    grunnizjan),    O.Fr.    ronce    (O.H.G. 

10.  Tennis.  —  Why    is    the    Anglo  -  French 
tenetz  (hold  !)  equated  formally  with   Latin 
tenete  ?    Surely  the  tz  of  tenetz  is  the  formal 
equivalent  of  the  Latin  t's  in  tenetis. 


ITALIAN  JINGOISM  IN   1591.— The  bard  of 
the  music-halls  who  wrote 
We  don't  want  to  fight,  but  by  jingo  if  we  do, 
We've  got  the  ships,  we  've  got  the  men,  we've  got 
the  money  too — 

doggerel  to  which  we  are  indebted  for  the 
term  "jingoism" — knew  not  that  he  was 
echoing,  after  the  lapse  of  nearly  three 
centuries,  the  words  of  a  Veronese  named 
Christoforo  Sylvestrani  Brenzone,  who  pub- 
lished in  1591  a  curious  book  entitled  'Vita 

9*  s.  x.  AUG.  2, 1902.]         NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


et  Fatti  del  valorosissimo  Capitan  Astorre 

Baglione  da  Perugia con  la    Guerra    d 

Cypro.'  Astorre  was  governor-general  o; 
Cyprus,  having  been  specially  appointed  by 
the  Venetian  Senate  in  April,  1569,  for  the 
defence  of  that  island  against  the  Turks,  anc 
was  slain,  by  Mustapha  Pasha's  treachery, 
after  the  capitulation  of  Famagosta  which 
terminated  Venetian  rule  in  Cyprus. 

In  his  concluding  observations  on  the 
causes  of  this  catastrophe  the  author  of  the 
book  attributes  it  to  fear  on  the  part  of 
the  Venetian  republic  of  its  inability  to  cope 
singly  with  the  overwhelming  force  of  the 
Turks,  whose  army  outnumbered  the  Vene- 
tian by  more  than  ten  to  one*  Fear,  he 
adds,  is  always  commendable,  but  with 
regard  to  the  Turk  Venice  ought  not  to  fear, 
because,  among  other  reasons,  "  1'  arrne,  le 
Galee,  e  i  danari  fanno  paura  a  tutt'  il  mondo. 
La  Republica  ha  1'  arme  :  Ha  i  Nauilij :  Ha  i 
Tesori :  Ha  g]'  Huomeni."  However,  ships, 
men,  and  money  notwithstanding,  Cyprus 
remained  the  prize  of  the  Turks,  who  ruled 
it  until  1878,  when  it  was  transferred  to  the 

It  is  surely  one  of  the  curiosities  of  history 
that  an  Italian  of  the  sixteenth  and  a  Briton 
of  the  nineteenth  century,  each  nation  having 
dominion  in  Cyprus,  should  utter  the  same 
brag  in  connexion  with  Turkey,  the  one  as 
an  enemy,  the  other  as  a  friend. 


FABUL.E  IN  FABULIS.—  That  consummate 
artist  E.  A.  Poe,  in  the  '  Fall  of  the  House  of 
Ulster,'  gives  a  list  of  books,  besides  quoting 
from  the  '  Mad  Trist '  of  Sir  Launcelot  Can- 
ning in  such  a  manner  as  to  make  every 
imaginative  reader  long  for  the  complete 

A  customer  in  a  bookshop  is  said  not  long 
since  to  have  asked  for  '  The  Idols  of  the 
Market-Place,'  which  book-title  Mrs.  Hum- 
phry Ward  quotes  in  one  of  her  novels.  The 
title  is,  of  course,  Bacon's  '  Idola  Fori,'  which 
Bacon  himself  borrowed  from  Roger  Bacon, 
from  whom  he  also  borrowed  much  beside. 

As  a  French  criminal  lawyer  is  said  to 
have  used  one  of  Balzac's  novels  as  a  treatise 
on  bankruptcy,  so  an  American  novelist 
represents  the  following  books  as  being  upon 
the  shelves  of  a  student  (and  professor)  of 
American  criminal  law  :  Poe's  Works  ;  '  The 
Moonstone,'  by  Collins;  'A  Confidential 
Agent,'  by  James  Payn  ;  'The  Leaven  worth 

"Certo  neir  acquisto  del  Regno  di  Cypro  il 
Turco  mand6  piii  di  trecento  mila  Soldati  Turchi. 
I  Nostri  in  tutto  il  Regno  tra  buoni,  <k  non  buoni, 
nonerano  trenta  mila  (p.  96). 

Case,' by  A.  K.  Green  ;  .'His  Natural  Life,' by 
Marcus  Clarke ;  '  The  Mark  of  Cain,'  by 
Andrew  Lang  ;  '  The  New  Arabian  Nights,' 
by  Stevenson ;  and  '  Memoires  de  Vidocq.' 
Then  come  tales  by  Gaboriau  and  Fortune  du 
Boisgobey,  and  '  Les  Morts  Bizarres,'  by  Jean 

In  Miss  Ferrier's  'Inheritance'  there  are 
some  delightfully  suggestive  titles,  such  as 
The  Enchanted  Head,"  The  Invisible  Hand,' 
'The  Miraculous  Nuptials,'  'Bewildered 
Affections  ;  or,  All  is  not  Lost,'  and  '  The  Mid- 
night Marriage.'  It  is  no  wonder  that  Lady 
Betty  was  impatient  to  find  the  missing 
volume  of  the  last-mentioned  work  ;  it  must 
have  been  interesting.  THOMAS  AULD. 

"QUICK  "  =  ITALIAN-IRON.  —  In  one  of  the 
lodges  of  Cholmondeley  Castle,  Cheshire,  I 
happened  to  see  an  Italian-iron,  or  tally-iron, 
such  as  is  still  used  on  the  frills  of  caps.  An 
old  body  of  eighty-eight,  who  had  been  a 
laundress  in  the  establishment  of  one  of  the 
marquesses,  and  who,  judging  from  her  regu-' 
larity  of  feature  and  relatively  good  com- 
plexion, must  have  been  a  very  charming 
rustic  damsel  in  her  youth,  told  me  that  she 
knew  the  instrument  not  only  as  a  tally-iron, 
but  as  a  "quick,"  the  latter  because  work 
was  done  expeditiou«ly  by  its  means.  I  do 
not  find  "  quick  '  with  this  meaning  in  any 
Cheshire  or  other  glossary. 


"RAISING  THE  WIND."— The  following  cut- 
ting from  the  Irish  Times  of  19  April  may 
not  be  without  interest  for  students  of  folk- 
ore  and  old  superstitions  : — 

"  It  seems  incredible,  but  is  nevertheless  a  fact, 
,hat  as  late  as  the  year  1814  an  old  woman  named 
Bessie  Millie,  of  Pomona,  in  the  Orkney  Islands, 
sold  favourable  winds  to  seamen  at  the  small  price 
of  Qd.  a  vessel.  For  many  years  witches  were  sup- 
)osed  to  sell  the  wind.  The  Finlanders  and  Lap- 
anders  made  quite  a  trade  by  selling  winds.  The 
old  women,  after  being  well  paid  by  the  credulous 
sailors,  used  to,,  knit  three  magical  knots ;  the 
>uyer  was  told  he  would  have  a  good  gale  when  he 
untied  the  first  knot,  the  second  knot  would  bring 
a  strong  wind,  and  the  third  a  severe  tempest.  At 
one  tinate  .winds  were  sold  at  Mont  St.  Michel,  in 
STormandy,  and  arrows  were  sold  at  the  same  time 
o  charm  away  bad  storms." 

39,  Renfrew  Road,  Lower  Kennington  Lane. 

puzzling  to  future  historians  and  antiquaries 
will  be  the  mass  of  evidence  existing  to  point 
,o  26  July,  1902,  as  the  date  of  Edward  VII.'s 
joronation.  Surely,  however,  '  N.  &  Q.'  should 
,ake  the  lead  in  doing  what  can  be  done  to 
minimize  the  risk  of  error.  Yet  not  only  is 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.         [9«»  s.  x.  A™.  2, 1902. 

it  unfortunate  that  the  Coronation  number 
was  the  last  of  a  volume,  but  there  is  no 
explicit  correction  in  the  issue  for  5  July  of 
the  wrongly  anticipated  past  tense :  only 
two  vague  allusions,  one  in  a  review. 

The  sumptuous  Coronation  number  of  the 
Illustrated  London  News  not  only  gives  pic- 
tures of  what  did  not  take  place  on  26  June, 
but  does  not  in  all  cases  correctly  represent 
what  should  have  happened— e.g.,  the  Coro- 
nation robes.  I  will  not  go  into  detail,  lest 
its  editor  deal  with  '  me  as  with  another 
correspondent ;  but  I  may  point  out  that 
Drs.  Ingram  and  Moule  are  represented  as 
sitting  in  the  House  of  Lords  on  14  Feb., 
1901,  on  which  day  the  see  of  London  was 
vacant  and  that  of  Durham  filled  by  Dr. 
Westcott,  who  died  on  27  July,  1901.  The 
present  bishops  of  those  sees  became  such  in 
April  and  October,  1901,  respectively. 

W.  E.  B. 

CRIES  OF  ANIMALS.  —  The  following  lines 
are  tucked  away  in  an  obscure  corner  of  Du 
Cange,  who  gives  as  his  reference  "Ebrardus 
Betun.  in  Grsecismo,  c.  19":— 

Drensat  olor,  clingit  anaer,  crocitat  quoque  corvus, 
Ac  pardus  fellit,  vultur  pulpat,  leo  rngit, 
Ac  onager  mugilat,  bos  mugit,  rana  coaxat, 
Vociferans  barrit  elephas,  grillusque  minurrit, 
Blatterat  ac  vespertilio,  strictinnit  hirundo, 
Balat  pvis,  vehyat  capra,  sed  gallina  gracillat, 
Frendit  aper,  vulpes  quoque  gannit,  rudit  asellus, 
Hinnit  equus,  grunnit  porcus,  pipilat  quoque  nisus, 
Sed  catulus  latrat,  hinc  murilegubusque  [?]  catillat, 
Est  hominumque  loqui,  quod  dicto  prsevalet  omni. 

See  Du  Cange,  sub  voce  '  Vehyare.' 

Portland,  Oregon. 

— In  my  little  note  '  Shorthand  in  the  Third 
Century  '  (9th  S.ix.  446)  I  had  written,  "Puellas 
notarias  (stenograph  girls)  I  cannot  find  in 
ancient  times."  Now  Dr.  Heraeus  (Offen- 
bach o/M.)  publishes  in  the  scholarly  Archiv 
fur  Stenographie  the  epitaph  of  a  Greek 
female  stenographer,  and  I  see  that  the  old 
culture  knew  already  this  branch  of  female 
activity.  The  epitaph  cannot  be  dated  with 
certainty  ;  it  seems  to  belong  to  the  first 
Christian  century.  It  has  been  published 
before  in  the  Notizie  deqli  Scavi  di  Antichita 
of  the  Accademia  dei  Lincei,  1890,  p.  15, 
and  was  found  in  1889  in  the  old  Via 
Tiburtina  (Tivoli) :  "  Dis  manibus  sacrum. 
Hapateni  notarise  grsece,  que  vix.  ann.  xxv., 
Pittosus  fecit  conjugi  dulcissime."  (H)Apateni 
is  a  vulgar  dative  ;  e  for  ce  is  also  vulgar 
writing.  Apate  is  a  name  not  unusual  for 
slaves  and  freed  women.  Apate  may  have 
been  a  stenographer  in  Greek,  as  her  name 

indicates  already  her  Greek  birth.  This  is 
the  only  evidence  for  a  stenograph  girl  in 
ancient  times.  Fulgentius,  'Mythologiarum,' 
iii.  10,  must  be  read,  "  ut  in  puerilibus 
litteris  prima  abecedaria,  secunda  nota,"  not 
"notaria."  DR.  MAX  MAAS. 

Munich,  Bavaria. 


"'I  mean  this  here,  Sammy,'  replied  the  old 
gentleman,  '  that  wot  they  drink,  don't  seem  no 
nourishment  to  'em  ;  it  all  turns  to  warm  water, 
and  comes  a'  pourin'  out  o'  their  eyes.  'Pend  upon 
it,  Sammy,  it  s  a  constitootional  infirmity.'"-  -'  The 
Posthumous  Papers  of  the  Pickwick  Club,'  chap.  xlv. 

With  this  "scientific  opinion"  of  the  elder 
Mr.  Weller  we  may  aptly  compare  the  follow- 
ing distich  from  Tibullus  (i.  v.  37,  38)  :— 
Stepe  ego  temptavi  curas  depellere  vino : 
At  dolor  in  lacrimas  verterat  omne  merum. 

On  the  second  line  Jan  van  Broekhuyzen, 
the  celebrated  Dutch  Latinist,  commented 
thus : — 

"  Elegans  inventio,  et  venustatis  poeticse  plenis- 
sima.  Quam  quo  crebrius  verses  atque  excutias,  eo 
suavius  iucundiusque  adridet." 

As  we  may  safely  presume  that  Dickens  was 
not  indebted  to  the  Latin  elegist,  the  passage 
in  'Pickwick,'  which  has  "arrided"  many  a 
reader,  has  an  equal  claim  to  the  liberal 
praise  of  the  Batavian  editor. 

The  University,  Adelaide,  South  Australia. 

WE  must  request  correspondents  desiring  infor- 
mation on  family  matters  of  only  private  interest 
to  affix  their  names  and  addresses  to  their  queries, 
in  order  that  the  answers  may  be  addressed  to  them 

('History  of  Craven,'  second  edition,  1812, 
p.  369)  says :  "  The  Compotus  of  Bolton 
begins  in  1290,  and  ends  in  1325."  He  further 
says:  "I  chuse  to  exhibit  the  accounts  of 
the  first  year  at  large,  and  afterwards  to 
extract  a  few  particulars  only  from  each 
year."  This  promise  is  followed  by  a  docu- 
ment entitled  "Compotus  Monasterii  beate 
Marie  de  Boulton  in  Craven  a  festo  sancti 
Martini  in  hieme  A.D.  M°  CC°  nonagesimo 
octavo  usque  ad  idem  festum  A.D.  M°  CC° 
nonagesimo  nono,  per  unum  annum  inte- 
grum."  On  the  completion  of  this  account 
he  begins,  at  p.  384,  a  series  of  extracts  from 
accounts,  presumably  later  in  date  (see  the 
second  quotation  above),  but  actually  dated 
1294-6-7,  &c. 

I  shall  be  glad  if  some  Yorkshire  corre- 
spondent will  explain  this  chronological 

9th  S.  X.  AUG.  2, 1902.] 



puzzle  (further  complicated  by  Burton,  see 
below),  and  say  where  the  Compotus,  "a 
folio  of  a  thousand  pages,"  now  is,*  and 
whether  any  parts  of  it  have  been  printed 
in  full  beyond  the  above  account,  and  that 
for  the  year  ending  Michaelmas,  1325,  in  John 
Burton  s  '  Monasticon  Eboracense  '  (1758, 
pp.  121-33).  Is  it  known  when  and  why 
the  end  of  the  financial  year  was  changed 
from  Martinmas  to  Michaelmas  ? 

C.C.C.,  Oxford. 

'  Life  of  Major  Andre '  reference  is  made  to 
this  officer  in  these  words  :  "the  Antipodes, 
where  the  brave  Mathew,  a  brother  soldier  in 
the  American  war,  had  already  found  a  death 
so  horrid  that  Andre's  was  an  enviable  fate." 
Who  can  inform  me  of  the  time,  place,  and 
manner  of  General  Mathew's  death  ? 

W.  A 

New  York. 

you  kindly  inform  me  when  and  why  the 
early  Christians  first  adopted  black  as  a 
badge  of  mourning  ?  I  have  been  unable  to 
find  any  account  whatever  of  the  subject, 
and  was  told  that  if  any  one  could  tell  me 
anything  relating  to  the  same,  you  could. 

[See  1"  S.  viii.  411,  502.] 

RACE  OF  THE  GYBBINS.— I  have  a  copy  of 
Childrey's  'Britannia  Baconica,' 1661,  which 
contains  many  notes  written  in  a  hand  of 
the  seventeenth  century.  On  p.  28  is  the 
sentence:  "Devonshire  abounds  with  Wool, 
Kersies,  Sea-fish,  and  Sea-fowl  [and  Gub- 
bins],"  the  words  in  brackets  being  written 
and  the  rest  printed.  On  the  next  page  I 
find,  written  in  the  same  hand  :  "Inquire 
concerning  the  Race  of  the  Gybbins  in  this 
County,  a  people  that  live  promiscuously, 
and  know  not  difference  between  wife  and 
daughter."  It  is  possible  that  the  notes  were 
written  by  Childrey  himself. 

Without  assenting  to  the  truth  of  this 
statement,  or  believing  what  Caesar  says 
about  the  marriages  of  the  ancient  Britons, 
we  may  at  all  events  believe  that  at  least 
one  endogamous  aboriginal  race  continued  to 

*  Burton  (op.  cit.,  121  note)  describes  it  as  "  a 
manuscript  book  on  vellum,  containing  the  account 
fo  all  the  revenues  of  the  abbey,  whence  they  arose, 
and  how  disbursed,  from  A.D.  1287  to  1355,  inclusive. 
Penes  comitissa  de  Burlington."  The  book  is  not 
described  among  the  papers  of  the  Duke  of  Devon- 
shire in  the  Third  Report  of  the  Historical  MSS. 
Commission,  where  one  .night  naturally  look  for 
some  mention  of  it. 

exist  in  this  country  to  a  late  period.  Is  any- 
thing known  of  this  race  of  the  Gybbins  or 
Gubbins  1  S.  O.  ADDY. 

MRS.  JANE  BARKER,  NOVELIST.  —  Can  any 
reader  supply  any  particulars  relating  to  the 
life  of  this  writer?  'Poetical  Recreations' 
(London,  1688)  appears  to  have  been  her 
earliest  published  work.  She  also  wrote 
'Exilius'  (1715),  'A  Patch-work  Screen' 
(1723), '  The  Lining  of  the  Patch- work  Screen ' 
(1726),  and  '  The  Novels  of  Mrs.  Jane  Barker ' 
(third  edition  1736).  In  the  last-named  book 
she  is  described  on  the  title-page  as  of  Wills- 
thprpe  "in  Northamptonshire."  Should  not 
this  be  "of  Willsthorpe,  near  Stamford,  in 
Lincolnshire "  ?  The  parochial  registers  at 
this  place  appear  to  afford  no  information 
on  the  point.  LINCOLN'S  INN. 

JAMES  ANDERTON.  — On  21  August,  1705, 
the  Scottish  Parliament  ordered  thanks  and 
400Z.  to  Mr.  James  Anderton  for  answering 
Mr.  Attwood's  book  called  '  The  Superiority 
of  England  over  Scotland,'  which  they  ordered 
to  be  burnt  by  the  common  hangman  (Lut- 
trell's  '  Diary ').  Who  was  this  James  Ander- 
ton] W.  D.  PINK. 

FLINT  :  FERREY.— «Jn  getting  gravel  from  a 
brook  (which,  by  the  way,  is  the  boundary 
of  Wales)  a  peculiar  piece  of  iron  was  found. 
An  old  workman,  who  found  it,  was  able  to 
explain  its  use  and  to  give  it  the  name 
it  bore  fifty  years  ago,  when  it  was  still 
used  by  the  poor.  It  is  what  we  should  call 
a  steel  for  striking  a  flint  with  ;  but  in  this 
neighbourhood  it  appears  that  they  always 
spoke  of  "a  flint  and  ferrey,"  and  this  was  a 
"ferrey."  The  spelling  is  my  own.  It  is 
evident  that  the  name  "  ferrey "  must  be 
derived  from  ferrum  or  fer.  Was  the 
name  "  ferrey "  for  a  steel  common  to  all 
parts  of  England,  or  was  it  restricted  to  the 
border  of  Wales  1  As  there  are  so  many 
Latin  words  in  Welsh,  and  here,  though  we 
are  English,  some  Welsh  words  still  linger, 
this  may  be  the  survival  of  a  Welsh  word. 
This  "ferrey"  will  be  placed  in  the  new 
Whitchurch  Museum,  if  it  is  accepted. 


Iscoyd  Park,  Whitchurch,  Salop. 

"  NONESOPRETTIES  "  :  "  SPINNER"  —  I  have 
in  my  possession  several  copies  of  an  adver- 
tisement of  a  draper's  shop  or  warehouse  in 
Drury  Lane,  owned  by  my  great-great-great- 
grandfather, Mark  Gregory,  born  1698,  died 
1738.  They  are  printed  in  fours  on  a  sheet  of 
rough  paper  14  in.  by  10  in.,  two  and  two, 
back  to  back.  The  actual  advertisement 

NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        [9*  s.  x.  AUG.  2, 1902. 

measures  6^  in.  by  3£  in.,  and  is  headed  by  a 
woodcut,  3  in.  square,  of  a  raven  (?)  stand- 
ing on  a  stump  of  a  tree  or  seizing  a  large  fish 
in  water,  its  head  not  seen.  Above  the  bird 
is  a  sun's  face  surrounded  by  rays,  the  whole 
enclosed  in  an  oval  geometrical  border.  The 
motto— one  word  in  each  corner — is,  "  No 
Trust  At  All."  The  advertisement  beneath 
runs  thus  : — 

"Mark  Gregory, 

At  the  Raven  and  Sun  in  Drury-Lane,  sells 
several  Sorts  of  Haberdashery  Ware,  viz.  Canvass, 
Buckram.  Whalebone,  Pe.rriwig-Ribbon,  Raw  and 
Dyed  Silks,  Cauls  and  Weaving  Thread,  and  all 
Sorts  of  fine  Gilders  and  Coloured  Threads,  Crapes 
and  Scotch  Muslin,  Quality-Bindings,  Boot-Strap- 
ping and  Gallows  ;  Webb-Cane  and  Leather  Hoop- 
ing ;  Gartering  of  all  Sorts,  Nonesopretties,  Pins 
and  Needles,  Inkle  and  Spinnel,  and  Scotch  Yarn, 
Golooms  and  Breeds  of  all  Sorts,  Ferrits,  Ribbons 
and  Girdles ;  Tapes  and  Laceings  of  all  Sorts, 
Dimity  and  Waddings,  Printed  and  Dyed  Linnens, 
and  Flannels ;  fine  Dutch  Twine  for  Patridge  [sic] 
Nets,  and  Twine  for  Fishing  Nets,  and  several 
Sorts  of  Yard-wide  Linnen,  Stuffs,  Russels,  Persians 
and  Tabbies,  &c.  Wholesale  and  Retail,  very  cheap 
for  ready  Money." 

Can  any  of  your  correspondents  give  an  ex- 
planation of  "  nonesopretties"and  "spinnel"  ? 
They  are  not  known  to  the  editors  of  the 
'  New  English  Dictionary.'  "  Gallows,"  I 
understand,  is  an  old  term  for  braces,  and 
"ferrit "  for  a  narrow  cord  to  tie  up  wigs  and 

Ynysyngharad,  Pontypridd. 

[Webster's  '  International '  defines  spinel  as 
"  bleached  yarn  used  in  making  the  linen  tape 
called  inkle ;  unwrought  inkle.  For  ferret  see 
5th  S.  xi.  247 ;  xii.  292  ;  6th  S.  i.  205  ;  7th  S.  xii.  252  : 
for  gallows= braces,  9th  S.  vi.  330,  393  ;  vii.  155  ;  and 
the  'H.E.D.'  for  both  of  these  words.] 

HOLME  OF  HOLME  HALL.— The  Heralds' 
Visitations  of  Cheshire  and  Yorkshire  both 
contain  pedigrees  of  branches  of  the  family 
of  Holme  (or  Hulme)  of  Holme  (or  Hulme) 
Hall,  Lancashire.  Can  any  one  refer  me  to 
a  pedigree  of  the  early  Holmes  or  Hulmes? 
There  is  an  account  of  them  in  Burke's 
'  Commoners,'  vol.  iv.  (under '  Bankes  of  Win- 
stanley '),  but  I  do  not  know  upon  what  autho- 
rity it  rests.  FRANCIS  P.  MARCHANT. 

51,  Medora  Road,  Brixton  Hill. 

DUNLOP.— The  Rev.  Sam.  Dunlop  was  a 
Presbyterian  minister  who  led  the  band 
of  first  settlers  to  Cherry  Valley,  New 
York  State,  in  1741.  The  families  he 
gathered  together  were  from  the  region  of 
Londonderry,  '  Scotch-Irish."  It  is  affirmed 
that  he  was  a  graduate  of  Trinity  College, 
Dublin.  He  was  driven  out  from  Cherry 
Vallev  by  the  massacre  in  1778,  and  is  be- 
lieved to  have  died  somewhere  in  New  Jersey. 

Can  any  correspondent  help  me  to  news  of 
him,  his  birthplace,  &c.? 


panying  cutting  from  the  Daily  Chronicle  of 
14  May  surely  records  a  very  strange  coinci- 
dence as  regards  the  Chicago  fire;  but  can  it 
be  authenticated  1 

"The  finding  of  the  hospital  clock  alone  intact 
among  the  ruins  of  St.  Pierre  recalls  the  even  more 
remarkable  survival  of  the  destruction  of  Chicago. 
When  that  city  was  burnt  out  in  1871,  the  only  relic 
of  more  than  a  million  volumes  in  Booksellers'  Row 
was  the  charred  leaf  of  a  Bible.  It  was  the  first 
chapter  of  Lamentations,  and  the  only  verse  dis- 
tinctly legible  read,  '  How  doth  the  city  sit  solitary, 
that  was  full  of  people !  how  is  she  become  as  a 

widow  ! she  weepeth  sore  in  the  night,  and  her 

tears  are  on  her  cheeks.'  Preachers  in  search  of  a 
text  appropriate  to  the  present  calamity  may  find 
this  to  supply  their  needs." 


Can  any  of  your  readers  identify  the  digni- 
tary referred  to  in  the  British  Museum 
Additional  Charter  15,200,  to  wit,  Robert, 
D.g.  Pristinensis  Episcopus,  who  grants  to  a 
Bristol  burgess  a  tenement  in  one  of  the 
principal  streets  of  that  town  in  July,  1368 1 
rristina  is  stated  to  be  in  Upper  Mcesia;  but 
the  bishop  was  doubtless  an  Englishman,  and 
probably  the  son  of  a  Bristolian. 


[Was  Robert  a  bishop  in  partibu*  infidelium  ?] 

BAKER  FAMILY.  —  Can  any  reader  of 
'  N.  &  Q.'  inform  me  concerning  the  ancestry 
of  Father  Augustin  Baker,  the  author  of 
'Sancta  Sophia,'  &c.  ?  There  are  monu- 
ments of  relatives  in  Abergavenny  Church  ; 
the  family  seem  _  to  have  at  one  time  been 
large  landowners  there.  I  wish  also  to  learn 
the  ancestry  of  Admiral  John  Baker,  promi- 
nent in  Queen  Anne's  reign,  whose  family 
lived  for  generations  at  Deal.  C.  BAKER. 

ST.  ERNULPHUS. — Who  was  St.  Ernulphus? 
Huxley,  in  the  1894  preface  to  the  reissue  of 
'Man's  Place  in  Nature,'  alludes  to  "the 
barking  of  the  dogs  of  St.  Ernulphus  "  and 
"  Ernulphine  advertisements."  I  can  find 
nothing  to  the  point  in  notices  of  St.  Arnul- 
phus.  R.  B.  B. 

[For  St.  Ernulphus  see  7th  S.  vii.  160,  197,  258.] 

THE  WATERLOO  BALLROOM.— I  should  be 
glad  to  know  whether  the  discovery  by  Sir 
William  Fraser  of  the  room  at  Brussels  in 
which  the  famous  ball  was  held  is  usually 
accepted  as  settling  the  dispute.  In  his 
4  Words  on  Wellington '  the  late  baronet  cer- 

9«>s.x.At7G.2,i902.]         NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


tainly  makes  out  a  strong  case  for  the  room 
he  found  off  the  Rue  de  la  Blanchisserie,  and 
near  to  the  Rue  des  Cendres.  I  am  aware 
that  the  matter  has  been  discussed  in 
'N.  &  Q.,'  but  I  wish  to  ascertain  how  it 
now  stands,  for  in  his  '  Life  of  Wellington ' 
Sir  Herbert  Maxwell  says  :— 

"The  late  Sir  William  Fraser  was  strongly  of 
opinion  that  he  had  identified  this  historic  ball- 
room as  still  in  existence  ;  but  the  late  Dowager 
Lady  de  Ros  and  Lady  Louisa  Tighe,  both  of 
whom  were  at  their  mother's  ball,  were  positive 
that  the  building  had  disappeared,  and  that  the 
site  of  it  is  now  traversed  by  the  Rue  des  Cendres." 
-Vol.  ii.  p.  13. 


[See  8th  S.  viii.  248,  315,  411.] 

HASELOCK  FAMILY.  — I  find  a  family  named 
Haselock  or  Hazelock  settled  in  Aston  juxta 
Birmingham  in  1631.  One  branch  of  that 
family  still  remains  in  that  neighbourhood. 
Can  any  of  your  readers  tell  me  whether  the 
name  is  to  be  met  with  elsewhere  ? 


DANES  IN  PEMBROKE. — I  should  like  to 
know  if  there  are  any  evidences  that  the 
Danes  made  a  settlement  in  this  county  in 
or  about  the  district  of  Kemeys.  There 
were  many  plunder  raids  on  the  Pembroke- 
shire coasts,  and  St.  David's  was  burnt 
several  times  ;  but  are  there  proofs  that  a 
colony  was  established  ?  If  so,  can  a  Norse 
element  be  traced  in  the  population,  as  well 
as  a  Flemish,  Norman,  and  Welsh  ? 

G.  H.  W. 

Henry  Chauncy,  in  his '  History  of  Hertford- 
shire (vol.  i.  p.  325,  reprinted  1826),  under 
'  Stortford,'  states  : — 

"  He  [King  John]  seized  the  Town  into  his  hands, 
made  it  a  Borough,  constituted  Burgesses  to  govern 
the  Town,  incorporated  them  into  a  commonality, 
authorized  the  Commonality  to  choose  officers  out 
of  themselves  in  their  Borough,"  &c. 

Can  any  one  state  the  source  from  which 
Chauncy  derived  his  authority  for  this  state- 
ment? J.  L.  GLASSCOCK. 
Bishop's  Stortford. 

FORSTER. — Thomas  and  Christopher  Forster 
were  admitted  to  Westminster  School  in  1781 
and  1809  respectively.  Can  any  correspondent 
of  'N.  &  Q.'  help  me  to  identify  these  Forsters? 

G.  F.  R.  B. 

RUSSIAN  STORY.— In  the  Sun  newspaper  of 
4  May,  1894,  there  was  printed  a  short  story, 
stated  to  be  translated  from  the  Russian, 
entitled  '  A  Love  Lesson :  the  Serf's  Awaken- 
ing.' The  characters  in  the  story  are  Prince 
Horostienko,  his  wife,  Count  Alexis  Kara- 

gine  (a  lover  of  the  princess),  and  Yann 
Bassouck,  the  prince's  huntsman.  Can  any 
of  your  readers  inform  me  who  is  the'author 
of  this  story,  and  whether  his  works  have 
been  translated  either  into  English  or  French  ? 

C.  L. 

(9th  S.  ix.  369,  450 ;  x.  16.) 

THE  question  raised  by  JAY  AITCH  as  to 
the  school  of  mystics  founded  by  Lavater, 
and  the  large  book  '  The  Veiled  Queen,'  by 
"  Philip  Aylwin,"  which  contains  quotations 
that  JAY  AITCH  affirms  have  haunted  him 
ever  since  he  read  them,  are  certainly  ques- 
tions about  as  interesting  as  any  that  could 
have  been  raised  in  connexion  with  the  story. 
And  in  answering  these  queries  I  find  an 
opportunity  of  saying  a  few  authentic  words 
upon  a  subject  upon  which  many  unauthen- 
tic  ones  have  been  uttered — tnat  of  the 
occultism  of  D.  G.  Rossetti  and  some  of  his" 
friends.  It  has  been  frequently  said  that 
Rossetti  was  a  spiritualist,  and  it  is  a  fact 
that  he  went  to  several  stances;  but  the 
word  "  spiritualism  "  seems  to  have  a  rather 
elastic  meaning.  A,  spiritualist,  as  distin- 
guished from  a  materialist,  Rossetti  certainly 
was,  but  his  spiritualism  was  not,  I  should 
say,  that  which  in  common  parlance  bears 
this  name.  It  was  exactly  like  "  Aylwinism," 
which  seems  to  have  been  related  to  the 
doctrines  of  the  Lavaterian  sect  about  which 
JAY  AITCH  inquires.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  it 
was  not  the  original  of  "  Wilderspin  "  nearly 
so  much  as  the  original  "  D'Arcy  "  who  was 
captured  by  the  doctrine  of  what  is  called  in 
the  story  the  "  Aylwinean " ;  and  it  is  a 
remarkable  fact  in  reference  to  '  Aylwin,' 
that  a  story  written  to  give  expression  to 
certain  emotions  and  ideas  in  connexion 
with  the  world  and  the  universe  should,  to 
the  surprise  of  all  those  who  had  the  privi- 
lege of  reading  it  before  publication,  have 
obtained  a  popularity  as  a  mere  story  equal 
to  that  of  the  ordinary  circulating-library 
novel.  • 

With  regard  to  Johann  Kaspar  Lavater 
JAY  AITCH  is  no  doubt  aware  that,  although 
this  once  noted  writer's  fame  rests  entirely 
upon  his  treatise  '  Physiognomische  Frag- 
mente,'  he  founded  a  school  of  mystics  in 
Switzerland.  This  was  before  what  is  called 
spiritualism  came  into  vogue.  I  believe  that 
the  doctrines  of  'The  Veiled  Queen'  are 
closely  related  to  the  doctrines  of  the  Lava- 
terians  ;  but  my  knowledge  on  this  matter  is 



[9th  S.  X.  AUG.  2,  1902. 

of  a  second-hand  kind,  and  is  derived  from 
conversations  upon  Lavater  and  his  claims 
as  a  physiognomist,  which  [  heard  many 
years  ago  at  Coombe  and  during  walks 
in  Richmond  Park  between  the  author  of 
'  Aylwin  '  and  my  father,  who,  admittedly  a 
man  of  intellectual  grasp,  went  even  further 
than  Lavater.  He  affirmed  that  not  only 
the  face,  but  the  entire  body,  of  every  man 
indicated  his  character,  if  the  observer  had 
the  insight  for  reading  it.  But,  although 
deeply  interested  in  physiognomy  (he  pos- 
sessed the  valuable  early  edition  of  Lavater's 
treatise),  he  was  a  strong  and,  I  suppose, 
prejudiced  opponent  of  all  kinds  of  mysticism. 
A  physiognomist  who  at  that  time  wrote 
under  the  name  of  "Eden  Warwick"  was 
much  discussed  by  the  author  of  'Aylwin' 
and  my  father.  I  wonder,  by-the-by,  if  any 
one  can  tell  me  who  "  Eden  Warwick  "  was. 
He  was  the  author  of  '  Notes  on  Noses,'  a 
little  book  whose  jocosity  seemed  to  hide 
a  real  seriousness  of  meaning.  I  have  at 
various  times,  years  before  the  publication  of 
'Aylwin,'  seen  quotations  from  such  a  book 
as  '  The  Veiled  Queen.'  I  especially  remem- 
ber seeing  the  motto  of  the  novel  'Aylwin  '- 
"  Quoth  Ja'afar,  bowing  low  his  head  :— '  Bold  is 
the  donkey-driver,  O  Ka'dee  !  and  bold  the  ka'dee 
who  dares  say  what  he  will  believe,  what  disbelieve 
—not  knowing  in  any  wise  the  mind  of  Allah— not 
knowing  in  any  wise  his  own  heart,  and  what  it 
shall  some  day  suffer ' " — 

introduced  into  an  article  on  Westland  Mars- 
ton's  collected  plays  and  poems,  either  in  the 
Athenaeum  or  the  Examiner,  twenty -seven 
years  ago.  A  writer  in  the  Literary  World, 
in  some  admirable  remarks  upon  this  story, 
is,  as  far  as  I  know,  the  only  critic  who  has 
dwelt  upon  the  extraordinary  character  of 
"  Philip  Aylwin."  He  says  :— 

"  The  melancholy,  the  spiritual  isolation,  and  the 
passionate  love  of  this  master-mystic  for  his  dead 
wife  are  so  finely  rendered  that  the  readers'  sym- 

Sathies  go  out  at  once  to  this  most  pathetic  and 
jnely  figure It  would  be  difficult  for  any  sensi- 
tive man  or  woman  to  follow  Philip  Aylwin's  story 
as  related  by  his  son  without  the  tribute  of  aching 
heart  and  scalding  tears.  To  our  thinking,  the 
man's  sanity  is  more  moving,  more  supremely  tragic, 
than  even  the  madness  of  Winifred,  which  is  the 
culminating  tragedy  of  the  book." 

I  must  say  that  I  agree  with  this  writer  in 
thinking  "Philip  Aylwin"  to  be  the  most 
impressive  character  in  the  story.  The  most 
remarkable  feature  of  the  novel,  indeed,  is 
that,  although  "Philip  Aylwin"  disappears 
from  the  scene  so  early,  his  opinions,  his 
character,  and  his  dreams  are  cast  so  entirely 
over  the  book  from  beginning  to  end  that 
the  novel  might  have  been  called  'Philip 
Aylwin.'  I  have  a  special  interest  in  this 

character,  because  I  knew  the  undoubted 
original  of  the  character  with  a  considerable 
amount  of  intimacy.  Without  the  permission 
of  the  author  of  '  Aylwin,'  I  can  only  touch 
on  outward  traits — the  deep,  spiritual  life  of 
this  man  is  beyond  me.  Although  a  very 
near  relation,  he  was  not,  as  has  been  so 
often  surmised,  the  author's  father.  He 
was  a  man  of  extraordinary  learning  in  the 
academic  sense  of  the  word,  and  possessed 
still  more  extraordinary  general  knowledge. 
He  lived  for  many  years  the  strangest  kind 
of  hermit  life,  surrounded  by  his  books  and 
old  manuscripts.  His  two  great  passions 
were  philology  and  occultism,  but  he  also 
took  great  interest  in  rubbings  from  brass 
monuments.  He  knew  more,  I  think,  of 
those  strange  writers  discussed  in  Vaughan's 
'  Hours  with  the  Mystics '  than  any  other 
person— including,  perhaps,  Vaughan  him- 
self ;  but  he  managed  to  combine  with  his 
love  of  mysticism  a  deep  passion  for  the 
physical  sciences,  especially  astronomy.  He 
seemed  to  be  learning  languages  up  to  almost 
the  last  year  of  his  life.  His  method  of  learning 
languages  was  the  opposite  of  that  of  George 
Borrow,  that  is  to  say,  he  made  great  use  of 
grammars  ;  and  when  he  died  it  is  said  that 
from  four  to  five  hundred  treatises  on  gram- 
mar were  found  among  his  books.  He  used 
to  express  great  contempt  for  Sorrow's 
method  of  learning  languages  from  diction- 
aries only. 

I  do  not  think  that  any  one  connected  with 
literature — with  the  sole  exception  of  Mr. 
Swinburne,  my  father,  and  Dr.  R.  G.  Latham 
— knew  so  much  of  him  as  I  did.  His  per- 
sonal appearance  was  exactly  like  that  of 
"  Philip  Aylwin,"  as  described  in  the  novel. 
Although  he  never  wrote  poetry,  he  trans- 
lated, I  believe,  a  good  deal  from  the  Spanish 
and  Portuguese  poets.  I  remember  that  he 
was  an  extraordinary  admirer  of  Shelley. 
His  knowledge  of  Shakespeare  and  the 
Elizabethan  dramatists  was  a  link  between 
him  and  Mr.  Swinburne. 

At  a  time  when  I  was  a  busy  reader  at  the 
British  Museum  Reading-Room,  I  used  fre- 
quently to  see  him,  and  he  never  seemed  to 
know  any  cne  among  the  readers  except 
myself,  and  whenever  he  spoke  to  me  it  was 
always  in  a  hushed  whisper,  lest  he  should 
disturb  the  other  readers,  which  in  his  eyes 
would  have  been  a  heinous  offence.  For  very 
many  years  he  had  been  extremely  well 
known  to  the  second-hand  booksellers,  for  he 
was  a  constant  purchaser  of  their  wares.  He 
was  a  great  pedestrian,  and,  being  very  much 
attached  to  the  north  of  London,  would  take 
long,  slow  tramps  ten  miles  out  in 

9«>s.x.AuG.2,i902.]          NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


tion  of  Highgate,  Wood  Green,  &c.  I  have  a 
very  distinct  recollection  of  calling  upon  him 
in  Myddelton  Square  at  the  time  when  I  was 
living  close  to  him  in  Percy  Circus.  Books 
were  piled  up  from  floor  to  ceiling,  appa- 
rently in  great  confusion,  but  he  seemed  to 
remember  where  to  find  every  book  and 
what  there  was  in  it.  It  is  a  singular  fact 
that  the  only  person  outside  those  I  have 
mentioned  who  seems  to  have  known  him 
was  that  brilliant,  but  eccentric  journalist 
Thomas  Purnell,  who  had  an  immense 
opinion  of  him  and  used  to  call  him  "  the 
scholar."  How  Purnell  managed  to  break 
through  the  icy  wall  that  surrounded  the 
recluse  always  puzzled  me ;  but  I  suppose 
they  must  have  come  across  one  another  at 
one  of  those  pleasant  inns  in  the  north  of 
London  where  "  the  scholar  "  was  taking  his 
chop  and  bottle  of  Beaune.  He  was  a  man 
that  never  made  new  friends,  and  as  one 
after  another  of  his  old  friends  died  he  was 
left  so  entirely  alone  that,  I  think,  he  saw  no 
one  except  Mr.  Swinburne,  the  author  of 
'  Aylwin,'  and  myself.  But  at  Christmas  he 
always  spent  a  week  at  the  Pines,  when  and 
where  my  father  and  I  used  to  meet  him. 
His  memory  was  so  powerful  that  lie  seemed 
to  be  able  to  recall  not  only  all  that  he  had 
read,  but  the  very  conversations  in  which  he 
had  taken  a  part.  He  died,  I  think,  at  a 
little  over  eighty,  and  his  faculties  up  to 
the  last  were  exactly  like  those  of  a  man 
in  the  prime  of  life.  He  always  reminded 
me  of  Charles  Lamb's  description  of  George 

Such  is  my  outside  picture  of  this  extra- 
ordinary man ;  and  it  is  only  of  externals  that 
I  am  free  to  speak  here,  even  if  I  were  com- 
petent to  touch  upon  his  inner  life.  He 
was  a  still  greater  recluse  than  the  "  Philip 
Aylwin  "  of  the  novel.  I  think  I  am  right  in 
saying  that  he  took  up  one  or  two  Oriental 
tongues  when  he  was  seventy  years  of  age. 
Another  of  his  passions  was  numismatics, 
and  it  was  in  these  studies  that  he  sym- 
pathized with  the  author  of '  Aylwin's '  friend 
the  late  Lord  de  Tabley.  1  remember  one 
story  of  his  peculiarities  which  will  give  an 
idea  of  the  kind  of  man  he  was.  He  had  a 
brother  who  was  the  exact  opposite  of  him 
in  every  way— strikingly  good-looking,  with 
great  charm  of  manner  and  savoir  faire,  but 
with  an  ordinary  intellect  and  a  very  super- 
ficial knowledge  of  literature,  or,  indeed, 
anything  else,  except  records  of  British 
military  and  naval  exploits— where  he  was 
really  learned.  Being  full  of  admiration  of 
his  student  brother,  and  having  a  parrot-like 
instinct  for  mimicry,  he  used  to  talk  with 

great  volubility  upon  all  kinds  of  subjects 
wherever  he  went,  and  repeat  in  the  same 
words  what  he  had  been  listening  to  from 
his  brother,  until  at  last  he  got  to  be  called 
the  "  walking  encyclopaedia."  The  result 
was  that  he  got  the  reputation  of  being  a 
great  reader  and  an  original  thinker,  while 
the  true  student  and  book-lover  was  fre- 
quently complimented  on  the  way  in  which 
he  took  after  bis  learned  brother.  This  did 
not  in  the  least  annoy  the  real  student,  it 
simply  amused  him,  and  he  would  give  with 
a  dry  humour  most  amusing  stories  as  to  what 
people  had  said  to  him  on  this  subject. 

Before  I  close  this  note  I  have  a  word  to 
say  about  a  letter  concerning  my  previous 
remarks  upon  'Aylwin,'  addressed  by  Mr. 
H.  M.  Birkdale,  a  friend  of  Smetham's,  to 
the  Literary  World,  who  affirms  that  there 
are  some  points  of  likeness  between  Smetham 
and  "  Wilderspin  "  with  very  great  variations. 
This  corroborates  my  words,  for,  as  I  said, 
some  very  salient  characteristics  of  "Wilder- 
spin"  belong  to  another  artist  altogether,  and 
the  personal  history  of  Smetham  was  not  at 
all  like  that  of  "Wilderspin." 

At  the  end  of  my  notes  upon  '  Aylwin  '  in 
9th  S.  ix.  450  I  said  that,  should  any  of  your 
correspondents  ''  want  enlightening  upon 
any  matters  within  my  knowledge  in  con- 
nexion with  '  Aylwjfl,'  I  should  be  pleased 
to  come  to  their  assistance."  I  did  not  mean 
that  I  should  be  able  to  give  private  answers 
to  correspondents  who  should  send  their 
questions  to  my  private  address  ;  but  that, 
should  a  question  be  raised  which  in  the 
opinion  of  the  Editor  of  '  N.  &  Q.'  was  of 
sufficient  importance  to  gain  it  a  place  in  his 
columns,  I  should,  as  an  old  subscriber  to 
the  journal,  be  pleased  to  furnish  any  in- 
formation within  my  power.  I  make  this 
statement  because  it  is  impossible  for  me  to 
answer  the  letters  sent  to  my  private  address. 

[We  had  some  acquaintance  with  the  being  MB. 
HAKE  depicts,  and  can  testify  to  the  truth  of  the 

ALBINO  ANIMALS  (9th  S.  ix.  307).— Herodotus 
(ii.  38)  does  not  say  that  white  cattle  were 
sacred  to  Epaphus.  He  says  that  the 
Egyptians  looked  on  male  oxen  as  belonging 
to  Epaphus,  and  for  purposes  of  sacrifice 
they  rejected  any  that  had  a  single  black 
hair.  He  further  says  that  the  animals  were 
submitted  to  a  searching  examination  to 
determine  whether  certain  marks  were  pre- 
sent or  not.  Herodotus's  statement  is  not 
quite  clear,  and  more  than  one  change  in  the 
text  has  been  proposed ;  but  he  is  usually 



s.  x.  AUG.  2,  1902. 

understood  to  mean  that  the  Egyptians  were 
careful  to  avoid  sacrificing  oxen  that  resem- 
bled the  sacred  Apis  in  colour  or  marks  (the 
colours  of  Apis  were  black  and  white).  Plu- 
tarch, Tiepl  "lo-iSos  /ecu  'Ocr/piSos,  31  (  =  363B), 
says  that  the  Egyptians  sacrificed  red  oxen 
(TCOV  /3owv  TOUS  Trvppous),  and  rejected  them 
if  a  single  black  or  white  hair  was  present. 
Diodorus  Siculus  (i.  88,  4)  says  that  the 
Egyptians  sacrificed  red  oxen  (TOVS  Trvppovs 
/?ous)  The  Jewish  practice  has  been  com- 
pared of  sacrificing  a  red  heifer  without  spot 
(Numbers  xix.  2),  and  the  statement  of  Mai- 
monides  ('  De  vacca  rufa,'  i.)  that  if  two  white 
or  black  hairs  are  found  on  the  beast  it  is 
not  fit  for  sacrifice.  Those  interested  in  the 
question  may  be  referred  to  'Herodot's  zweites 
Buch  mit  sachlichen  Erlauterungen  heraus- 

Ssgeben  von  Alfred   Wiederaann '  (Leipzig, 
.  G.  Teubner,  1890),  pp.  180,  181,  and  the 
references  there  given.      EDWARD  BENSLY. 
The  University,  Adelaide,  South  Australia. 

CASTLE  CAREWE,  PEMBROKE  (9th  S.  ix.  428, 
490). — Opinions  vary  as  to  the  pronunciation 
of  Carew.  Wintering  in  Wales  for  some  years, 
I  have  perambulated  there  by  aid  of  MR.  C.  S. 
WARD'S  excellent  guide-book,  which  informs 
us  that  "  Carew  is  locally  pronounced  Carey.' 
MR    F.  C.  BIRKBECK    TERRY,   writing    from 
Cardiff  (6th  S.  ii.  456),  states  that  while  in 
Tenby  he  "  usually  heard  Carew  pronounced 
as  Carroo  ";  and  though  my  late  friend  Sir 
John  Maclean,  the  historian,  warned  me  that 
the  natives   would   not  understand   my  in- 
quiries for  Carewe,  I  reached  there  by  means 
of  "Carroo,"  and  never  once  heard  Carey, 
remained   there    two   days,  and    discoursec 
much    with    the    incumbent.      For    specia 
reasons    I    have    sought    information    from 
Welsh  gentlemen,  and  a  few  weeks  since  a 
reverend   magistrate    in  Wales   decided  for 
"Carroo."     I    asked    the    Hon.  Mrs.   P.   B 
(daughter  of  the  late  centenarian  Lady  Jan 
Carew  of  Wexford,  who  did  not  dance  at  th 
Waterloo  ball,  and   whose    parents    fled   tc 
Haverf  ord  west,  not  Holy  head,  as  the  news 
papers  stated)  how  she  pronounced  her  familj 
name,   and    she    rendered    it    rather  a  tri 
syllable,  in  accord  with  the  ancient  spelling 
in  the  public  records— Cariou,  temp.  Hen.  II. 
Karrieu,  temp.  Ric.  I.;   Carrio,  temp.  John 
and  Karreu,  temp.  Ed.  I. 

Above  seventy  years  ago  the  Carews  o 
Antony  were  not  known  as  Careys.  Carew 
from  north  of  Cornwall  annually  visitec 
Antony  and  cut  a  turf  from  the  lawn  t 
sustain  an  alleged  title  to  the  estate.  Fo 
explanation  see  Vivian's  'Visitation  o 
Devon.'  Jonathan  Rashleigh  married  Jane 

aughter  of  Sir  John  Carew  of  Antony ; 
heir  daughter  married  the  Rev.  Charles  Pole, 
'hose  son  Reginald  assumed  the  additional 
ame  of  Carew,  in  compliance  with  the  will 
f  his  kinsman  Sir  Coventry  Carew  ;  and  his 
on  (father  of  General  Reginald  Pole  Carew) 
vas,  I  imagine,  persuaded  by  Sir  John  Mac- 
ean  to  become  a  Carey.  Sir  John,  in  an 
article  headed  'The  Families  of  Carew  and 
Jarey  Distinguished,'  stated  that  the  "  repre- 
entation  of  the  elder  line  of  this  distin- 
guished family  devolved "  eventually  on 
George  Carew,  Baron  Clopton  and  Earl  of 
Totnes,  and  ultimately  on  myself  by  descent 
Tom  his  only  sister  (Herald  and  Genealogist, 
vii.  21,  23),  by  virtue  of  which  I  presumed, 
hrough  a  friend,  to  recommend  the  general 
,o  abjure  Carey,  especially  as  his  ancestor 
Richard  Carew  wrote — 

Carew  of  ancient  Carru  was, 
And  Carru  is  a  plowe. 

'Survey  of  Cornw.,'  fo.  103,  ed.  1602. 

And  charrue,  French  for  plough,  is  phonetic- 
ally somewhat  remote  from  Carey. 

SHAMROCK,  under  'Castle  Carew  =  Carey' 
(7th  S.  iii.  447),  alluding  to  the  conveyance  of 
bhe  castle  by  Rhys  ap  Tudor,  Prince  of  South 
Wales,  to  Gerald  de  Windsor  in  marriage 
with  his  daughter  Nesta,  states  in  error  that 
the  Fitz  Geralds  descended  from  the  De  Mor- 
taines  who  accompanied  the  Conqueror,  mean- 
ing Robert,  Comte  de  Mortain,  his  uterine 
brother,  of  whom  Planche  knew  little,  and 
of  whom  I  may,  if  spared,  have  something 
to  say  touching  the  Bayeux  tapestry.  His 
daughter  Agnes  married  Andrew  de  Vitre, 
whose  grandson  Robert  married  Emma  de 
Dinan.  Their  issue  took  the  name  of  Dinan, 
from  whom  descended  Lord  Dynham,  K.G., 
Treasurer  of  the  Exchequer  to  K.  Henry  VII., 
ob.  sp.  A.D.  1500  leaving  his  eldest  sister  and 
coheiress  Margaret,  the  wife  of  Nicholas, 
Baron  Carew.  These  were  grandparents  of 
the  Earl  of  Totnes  above.  Their  mural  altar- 
tomb  is  in  Westminster  Abbey.  I  hardly 
think  SHAMROCK  knew  this  descent  when 
describing  "the  Dukes  of  Leinster,  the  Earls 
of  Desmond  and  Totnes,  and  Barons  Carew, 
also  the  Marquess  of  Lansdowne,"  as  descen- 
dants from  the  Mortaines. 

The  Duke  of  Leinster,  when  Marquis  of 
Kildare,  in  1858,  published  "  A  Notice  of  the 
Fitz  Geralds  or  Geraldines,  descendants  from 
'  Dominus  Otho,'  who  in  1057  was  an  honorary 
Baron  of  England,  and  said  to  have  been  of 
the  family  of  the  Gherardini  of  Florence." 
His  son  Walter,  castellan  of  Windsor,  married 
Gladys,  daughter  of  Rhiwallon  ap  Cynvyn, 
Prince  of  North  Wales.  His  grandson  Gerald 
married  the  Princess  Nesta  aforesaid,  and 

9'"s.x.AuG.2,i902.]         NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


had  three  sons— Maurice,  ancestor  of  the 
Earls  of  Kildare  ;  William,  ancestor  of  the 
Carews  ;  and  David,  Bishop  of  St.  David's. 
The  Earl  of  Totnes,  however  (whose  fore- 
fathers inherited  Carew  Castle),  in  an  auto- 
graph pedigree,  makes  Maurice  the  third  son. 
This  earl  was  Sir  Walter  Raleigh's  most  valued 
friend  and  cousin. 

In  conclusion,  a  trace  from  the  Geraldines 
may  be  of  interest :  Lucian  Lopez  ye  Fair, 
first  Lord  of  Biscay — Manso  Lopez — Inigo 
the  Left-handed — Lopez,  married  Felicia  dei 
Medici,  a  Florentine — Gerald  Dias  Lopez, 
expelled  Biscay  by  his  bastard  brother  Inigo, 
dwelt  in  Florence — Ostorio,  born  in  Florence, 
married  Sancia  de  la  Cerda,  of  the  blood 
royal  of  Castile— Othero,  went  into  Nor- 
mandy :  arms,  Ar.,  a  saltire  gules  (as  borne 
by  the  Earls  of  Kildare)— Walter  Fitz  Otho, 
castellan  of  Windsor — Gerald  de  Windsor  = 
Nesta,  da.  of  Rees  ap  Tewdor,  King  of  South 
Wales,  &c.  ('  Golden  Grove  Book  '). 

Henry,  the  poet  Earl  of  Surrey,  wrote  of 
"  the  fair  Gerafdine,"  daughter  of  the  eleventh 
Earl  of  Kildare  :— 

From  Tuscane  came  my  Lady's  worthy  race : 

Fair  Florence  was  sometime  her  ancient  seat. 

H.  H.  DRAKE. 

The  place  where  Carew  Castle  stands  was 
called  Caerau,  "the  fortified  camps."  It  be- 
longed to  Prince  Rhys  ap  Tewdwr  of  Dine- 
fawr,  who  gave  this  demesne  to  his  daughter 
Nest  for  her  dowry.  She  was  a  concubine  of 
Henry  I.,  and  married  Gerald  de  Windsore. 
There  might  be  a  tower  there  at  that  period, 
but  Gerald  is  thought  to  have  built  the 
castle,  and  his  descendants  assumed  the  sur- 
name of  De  Carew  from  this  estate.  They 
sold  or  mortgaged  it  in  the  fifteenth  century, 
Sir  Rhys  ap  Thomas,  Knt.,  finding  the  money, 
and  he  is  said  to  have  improved  and  enlarged 
the  building.  It  was  eventually  purchased 
by  Sir  John  Carew  (a  remote  descendant  of 
Sir  Edmond  Carew,  who  parted  with  it),  and 
remains  still  in  the  family. 


It  is  a  tradition  of  my  family  that  not  only 
the  Carews,  but  the  Webbers,  also  a  West  of 
England  family  (Devon  and  Cornwall),  are 
descended  from  Nesta's  son  William.  Is  this 
a  trustworthy  tradition  ?  WEBBER  J 

A  "WILD-CAT"  COMPANY  (9th  S.  ix.  405).— 
"  Wild-cat "  banks  were  those  chartered  by 
the  new  States  in  the  West  during  the  thirties. 
The  abundance  of  paper  money  caused  great 
speculation  in  land,  with  the  result  of  the 
great  panic  of  1838.  Some  banks  were  so  far 
in  the  backwoods  that  holders  of  notes  could 
never  find  them.  "  Wild -cat "  oil  wells  are 

those  drilled  in  territory  where  no  oil  has  yet 
been  found.  O.  H.  DARLINGTON. 

QUEEN  CANDACE  (9th  S.  ix  321,  353).— The 
baptismal  name  Candace  occurs  in  the  parish 
registers  and  tombstone  inscriptions  of 
St.  Ives,  Cornwall,  for  the  eighteenth  and 
first  half  of  the  nineteenth  century.  It  is 
there  sometimes  rendered  Candice  and  Can- 
dis.  I  have  never  met  with  it  elsewhere. 


Town  Hall,  Cardiff. 

(9th  S.  ix.  64,  212  331,  415).— All  cheques 
issued  by  the  Bankruptcy  Department  of  the 
Board  of  Trade  require  the  signature  of  the 
payee  on  their  face,  as  in  the  case  of  Post 
Office  orders,  and  no  endorsement  is  neces- 
sary. A.  J.  DAVY. 


KENNETT'S  WHARF  (5th  S.  x.  228,  393).— I 
have  an  extract  from  the  will  of  the  Rev. 
Basil  Kennett,  1686 :  "  To  eldest  son  White 
Kennett,  Lands  and  tenements  in  Folke-" 
stone,  and  lands  lying  upon  Green  Bank  and 
P-  -  Alley,  Wapping."  Would  this  be  in 
the  same  locality  as  Kennett's  Wharf,  Upper 
Thames  Street,  at  the  above  reference  *? 


Sandgate.  'jt 

"MALLET "  OR  "MULLET "  (9th  S.  ix.  486).^ 
The  context  of  the  passage  "There  is  no 
more  conceit  in  him  than  is  in  a  mallet  " 
should,  I  think,  be  convincing  enough  that 
neither  "mullet"  nor,  as  Knight  has  it, 
"  mallard  "  is  meant.  Falstaff  has  previously 
declared  that  Poins's  wit  is  as  thick  as 
Tewksbury  mustard — in  other  words,  that  he 
was  thickheaded — and  further  on  he  says 
Poins  "  hath  a  weak  mind  and  an  able  body." 
Now  thickheadedness,  woodenheadedness, 
and  general  fatuity  could  not  well  be  likened 
to  a  more  insensate  article  than  a  mallet  or 
beetle.  Hence  we  have  the  similes  "as 
blind  "  or  "  as  deaf  as  a  beetle,"  "  as  helpless 
as  a  log  of  wood,"  "  blockheaded,"  &c.  The 
intention,  then,  was  evidently  to  liken  Poins's 
intellectual  equipment  to  that  of  a  mallet, 
"  conceit "  having,  of  course,  the  meaning 
that  Schmidt  assigns  to  it  of  "  mental  faculty, 
comprising  the  understanding  as  well  as  the 
imagination."  J.  HOLDEN  MACMICHAEL. 

Mallet  undoubtedly  is  right.  The  phrase, 
or  its  equivalent,  beetle-head= stupid,  is  still 
quite  common  in  the  Midland  counties. 
Here  we  say  besom- keead,  but  the  idea  is  the 
same,  viz.,  thickhead  ;  and  Falstaff  had  just 
said  that  Poins's  wit  was  as  "  thick  as 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.         [9th  s.  x.  AUG.  2, 1902. 

Tewkesbury  mustard  "  (why  Tewkesbury  ?). 
Cf.  "blind  as  a  beetle."  Beetle  and  mallet  are 
almost  identical  in  meaning — in  some  places 
quite  so  C.  C.  B. 

Ep  worth. 

"MET":  POINTS  OF  THE  COMPASS  (9th  S.  x- 
5). — The  peculiarity  of  bringing  the  points 
of  the  compass  into  use  in  describing  the 
position  of  persons  and  things  is  not  confined 
to  the  island  of  Antigua.  The  habit  is  quite 
common  among  the  peasantry  in  the  south 
and  west  of  Ireland.  Jf  one  were  to  ask  a 
labourer  in  the  fields  the  whereabouts  of  his 
master  he  would  reply,  "He  is  teast  in  the 
wood,"  or  "  west  at  the  forge,"  as  the  case 
might  be.  This  peculiarity  extends  to  the 
position  of  things  in  one's  house ;  and  I 
remember  an  occasion  when  a  raw  servant- 
maid,  in  bringing  the  dishes  to  the  dinner- 
table,  whispered  to  her  mistress,  "Where  will 
I  put  the  potatoes,  ma'm— east  or  west?" 
Prof.  Keane  (Stanford's  '  Compendium,' '  Cen- 
tral and  South  America,'  vol.  ii.)  says  that 
the  Irish  brogue  is  in  evidence  in  some  of  the 
Lesser  Antilles.  This  legacy  of  the  early  Irish 
planters  may  explain  the  existence  of  the 
peculiarity  among  the  blacks  of  Antigua. 


Vailima,  Bishopstown,  Cork. 

When  I  came  from  the  north  of  England 
to  live  in  Worcestershire,  in  1879,  I  noticed 
that  aged  country  people  would  say,  "  I  met 
a  drop  of  rain."  W.  C.  B. 

THE  NATIONAL  FLAG  (9th  S.  ix.  485;  x.  31). 
— I  would  suggest  that  the  white  ensign  is 
generally  used  on  churches  because  the  ground 
of  the  flag  is  the  cross  of  St.  George,  the 
patron  saint  of  England,  the  old  national 
flag  before  the  Union.  I  hope  A.  O.'s  sugges- 
tion to  restrict  everybodj7  to  the  Union  Jack 
will  not  be  adopted.  If  for  no  other  reason 
than  the  sake  of  a  little  variety  in  our 
decorations,  let  us  have  the  use  of  the  Union 
Jack  and  the  red,  white,  and  blue  ensigns. 


I  have  recently  been  to  St.  Kilda  as  the 
bearer  of  kindly  messages  from  the  King  and 
Queen  to  the  islanders,  and  of  gifts  of  photo- 

fraphs  from  Her  Majesty  Queen  Alexandra, 
thought  it  would  be  a  unique  event  in  the 
history  of  "  the  lone  island  "  if  His  Majesty 
would  grant  permission  for  me  to  present  a 
Royal  Standard  for  use  on  St.  Kilda  on  State 
occasions,  so  I  wrote  to  His  Majesty  on  the 
subject,  and  received  the  following  reply  : — 
Buckingham  Palace,  5th  June,  1902. 
Dear  Sir, — I  have  had  the  honour  of  submitting 
your  letter  of  the  2nd  inst.  to  the  King,  and  I  am 

commanded  to  request  you  in  reply  to  inform  the 
inhabitants  of  St.  Kilda,  when  you  next  visit  that 
island,  that  he  trusts  they  will  have  a  successful 
season  in  their  occupation  of  fulmar  catching.  His 
Majesty  regrets  that  he  is  unable  to  grant  you  per- 
mission to  present  a  Royal  Standard,  but  you  can 
give  the  minister  a  Union  Jack. 

Yours  faithfully, 


The  Royal  Standard  may  only  be  used  when 
the  King  and  Queen,  or  King  or  Queen,  are 
in  actual  residence. 


ORANGE  BLOSSOMS  (9th  S.  x.  6).— Most  of 
the  works  on  flower-lore  to  which  I  have 
access  speak  of  the  use  of  orange  blossoms  at 
weddings  as  of  comparatively  recent  origin, 
and  as  due  to  the  fact  that  the  orange  tree, 
bearing  fruit  and  flowers  together,  is  a  symbol 
of  fecundity.  This  is,  I  should  imagine,  the 
real  reason  of  the  custom.  Folkard  ('  Plant- 
Lore  ')  says  that  in  Crete  the  bride  and  bride- 
groom are  sprinkled  with  orange-flower  water, 
and  that  in  Sardinia  oranges  are  attached  to 
the  horns  of  the  oxen  which  draw  the  nuptial 
carriage.  There  is  no  suggestion  of  any  such 
reason  as  Thackeray  supposes  here.  Dr. 
Brewer  ('  Diet,  of  Phrase  and  Fable ')  says 
the  Saracen  brides  carried  orange  blossoms 
at  weddings,  and  suggests  that  our  modern 
custom  is  a  survival,  or  revival,  of  theirs. 
The  second  stanza  of  the  song  "  She  wore  a 
wreath  of  roses  "  begins 

A  wreath  of  orange  blossoms 
When  next  we  met  she  wore. 

I  do  not  know  the  date  of  this  ;  but  it  must, 
I  think,  be  older  than  '  Vanity  Fair.' 

C.  C.  B. 

The  charming  old  song  which  commences 
with  the  line  "She  wore  a  wreath  of  roses," 
and  contains  the  words  "  with  a  wreath  of 
orange  blossoms  upon  her  snowy  brow,"  was 
in  vogue  in  the  early  thirties,  and  would 
seem  to  imply  that  the  decoration  in  ques- 
tion was  then  an  established  custom  at 
weddings.  Perhaps  DR.  MURRAY  can  ascer- 
tain the  date  of  its  composition. 


[T.  Haynes  Bayly,  the  writer  of  the  song,  died  in 

This  subject  has  been  repeatedly  discussed 
in  '  N.  &  Q.,'  for  which  see  lsfc  S.  viii.,  ix.  ; 
3rd  S.  x.,  xi.  ;  4th  S.  i. ;  7tn  S.  vii.  A  question 
arises  out  of  the  quotation  given  by  DR. 
MURRAY  from  'Vanity  Fair'  in  1848,  but 
which  is  attributed  in  Annandale's  '  Imperial 
Dictionary '  to  the  Rev.  Frederick  Farrar, 
D.D.  Who  was  the  author? 

[The  quotation  is  Thackeray's  as  given.] 

9'»s.x.AuG.2,i902.]          NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 

AMBER"  (9th  S.  ix.  408,  471;  x.  17).— With 
due  deference  to  MR.  STEPHENS'S  views,  I 
submit  that  when  an  article  is  stated  to  be 
"of"  a  particular  substance,  one  does  not 
understand  that  it  is  merely  decorated  or 
framed  therewith.  In  resolving  the  am- 
biguity of  "amber"  or  "electrum,"  casually 
mentioned,  one  must  therefore  rely  on  the 
predominant  applicability  or  appropriateness 
of  one  or  other  substance. 

Formerly,  too,  in  the  absence  of  chemical 
analysis,  the  distinction  between  a  metal  and 
the  fossil  resin  was  not  very  apparent. 
Cassiodorus,  for  instance,  though  quoting 
Pliny  (who  distinguishes  amber  from  elec- 
trum), nevertheless  calls  BaltH  amber  "suda- 
tile  metallum."  Again,  the  old  chronicler 
who  credits  the  ancient  Britons  with  the 
possession  of  "  electrina  atque  vitrea  vasa " 
was  doubtless  unconscious  of  any  possible 
misapprehension.  Until,  however,  cups  of 
fossil  amber  were  really  unearthed,  there  was 
an  opening  here  for  the  continuance  of  the 
scholastic^  strife  over  Penelope's  necklace— 
Xpvcreov,  rj\eKTpoi<riv  ffpfjievov,  r/f\LOv  oi's — and 
other  Homeric  passages,  in  which,  by  the 
archaeological  discoveries  of  contemporaneous 
amber  ornaments,  the  probability  of  rjXfKTpov 
being  the  "only  gem  mentioned  by  Homer" 
has  been  largely  augmented.  J.  DORMER. 

"THE  BEATIFIC  VISION"  (9th  S.  ix.  509).— I 
am  not  sure  as  to  the  first  use  of  the  phrase 
"Visio  beatifica,"  but  the  doctrine  under- 
lying it  was  defined  by  Benedict  XII.  in 
the  Constitution  'Benedictus  Deus '  (4  Kal. 
Fehr.,  1330).  In  it  he  speaks  of  a  "  visio 
divinse  essentiae  intuitiva  et  etiam  facialis," 

and   says  that    "ex   tali   visione animse 

eorum,  qui  iam  decesserunt,  sunt  vere  beatse." 
The  Greek  'Orthodox  Confession'  (1643), 
P.  i.  q.  126,  speaks^  of  rj  Oeiopia  rfjs  fjLaKapias 
TpiaSos  as  Trdcnjs  «i5c/>po(nnjjs  TrArypco/ia. 


''ASTONISH  THIS  NATIVES"  (9th  S.  ix.  267).— 
This  expression  I  have  heard  many  years  ago 
in  the  form  of  a  riddle,  and  believe  that  it 
may  be  found  in  '  The  Boy's  Own  Book  '  :— 

"  Why  is  Capt.  Cook  firing  on  the  savages  at 
Otaheite  like  a  man  opening  oysters?  Answer: 
Because  he  astonishes  the  natives." 

Capt.  Cook  was  killed  in  1779.  I  once 
heard  a  witty  chaplain  at  Oxford  at  an 
oyster  supper  observe,  "It  is  our  opening 
day,"  referring  to  the  celebrated  glee  by 
Bishop,  which  had  just  been  sung,  'The 
Chough  and  Crow,'  from  the  opera  of  '  Guy 
Mannering.'  JOHN  PICKFORD,  M.A. 

Newbourne  Rectory,  Woodbridge. 

WALDBY  ARMS  (9th  S.  ix.  448).— Although 
no  direct  answer  to  the-inquiry,  I  recommend 
your  correspondent  to  turn  to  articles  in 
'  N.  &  Q.,'  4th  S.  vi.  459  ;  8th  S.  xii.  8,  72,  on 
the  Wai d  by  families. 

71,  Brecknock  Road. 

STONING  THE  WREN  (9th  S.  ix.  108,  234).— 
The  Manx  fishermen  dare  not  go  to  sea  with- 
out one  of  these  birds  taken  dead  with  them 
for  fear  of  storms.  See  '  Scottish  Gallovidian 
Encyclopaedia,'  p.  157. 


MARKS  ON  TABLE  LINEN  (9th  S.  ix.  427). — 
"  Nemo  me  impune  lacesset "  alludes  to  the 
prickles  of  the  thistle,  and  consequently  was 
adopted  as  the  motto  of  the  Order  of  the 
Thistle.  It  was  first  used  on  coins  of 
James  VI.  of  Scotland  and  I.  of  England ,  and 
I  think  it  is  the  motto  of  the  Royal  Scots 

"Nemo  me  impune  lacesset":  no  man 
shall  provoke  me  with  impunity.  This  is 
the  motto  of  the  Order  of  the  Thistle,  and 
has  reference  to  the  rough  nature  of  that 
plant.  It  was  first  introduced  on  the  coins 
of  James  VI.  of  Scotland.  The  figure  of  a 
man  is  that  of  St.  Andrew,  probably  sur- 
rounded by  rays,  a£ffl  having  its  four  limbs 
alternating  with  the  four  points  of  a  lozenge. 

71,  Brecknock  Road. 

"  SIXES  AND  SEVENS  "  (9th  S.  ix.  427  ;  x,  55). 
—The  suggestion  that  this  phrase  has  any- 
thing to  do  with  learning  elementary  arith- 
metic is  entirely  beside  the  mark.  It  is 
obvious  that  the  reference  is  to  gambling. 
If  any  reader  cares  to  consult  my  edition  of 
Chaucer  he  will  find  that  I  explain  the  line 
in  'Troil.,'  iv.  622,  by  "Boldly  stake  the 
world  on  casts  of  the  dice  ";  and  I  refer  to 
my  notes  on  Chaucer,  '  Cant.  Tales,'  B.  124 
and  C.  653  ;  compare  also  B.  3851.  Set  is  a 
technical  term,  and  actually  occurs  in  the 
very  play  to  which  we  are  referred  for  "  six 
and  seven  ";  for  in  '  Rich.  II.,'  IV.  i.  57,  is  the 
line,  "Who  sets  me  else?  by  heaven,  I'll 
throw  at  all."  Cf.  '  1  Henry  IV.,'  IV.  i.  46  ; 
'  Rich.  III.,'  V.  iv.  9  ;  'Troil.  and  Cres.,' prol. 
22  ;  '  Jul.  Caesar,'  V.  i.  75 ;  '  Macb.,'  III.  i. 
113 ;  '  King  Lear,'  I.  iv.  136.  Seven  was  a 
favourite  "  chance "  in  the  game  of  hazard  ; 
hence,  "  to  set  on  seven  "  was  to  risk,  to  take 
one's  luck.  "  Thus  he  settez  on  seiien  with  his 
sekyre  knyghttez";  'Morte  Arthure,'  1.  2131. 
At  the  same  game  double  sixes  was  a  losing 
throw.  The  transition  from  the  notion  of 
haphazard  to  that  of  disorder  was 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.         [9*  s.  x.  AUG.  2, 1902. 

enough  ;  compare  the  history  of  the  word 
hazard.  The  sense  is  clear  in  the  line,  "  Or 
wager  laid  at  six  and  seven,"  Butler's 
'Hudibras'  (Johnson,  no  reference).  The 
older  phrase  was  six  and  five  ;  this  is  Chaucer's 
sis  cink,  and  Lydgate's  sys  and  cinq  ('  Chau- 
cerian Pieces,'  p.  393).  Hence  it  is  that 
Bacon  has  :  "In  1588  there  sat  in  the  see  of 
Rome  a  fierce  thundering  friar,  that  would 
set  all  at  six  and  seven,  or  at  six  and  five,  if 
you  allude  to  his  name  "  (Sixtus) ;  quoted  in 
Johnson  (no  reference).  It  is  curious  that 
the  dictionaries  give  so  poor  an  account  of 
the  matter.  WALTER  W.  SKEAT. 

387). — The  edition  on  parchment  will  be  pub- 
lished by  G.  D.  Sproul,  of  New  York,  and  is 
limited  to  fifteen  sets,  each  set  contain- 
ing about  150  volumes.  The  printing  of  this 
"St.  Dunstan"  edition  will  be  on  one  side 
only  of  the  skins,  and  every  page  illuminated 
by  hand  ;  the  title-pages,  chapter-headings, 
and  tailpieces,  specially  designed,  will  also 
be  elaborately  decpratea.  Many  other  unique 
features  are  promised,  such  as  critical  intro- 
ductions by  Swinburne,  Gosse,  Dobson, 
Henley,  &c.,  and  a  series  of  new  illustrations. 
This  is  essentially  an  edition  which  appeals 
to  the  millionaire  "  collector,"  for  the  price 
will  be  a  thousand  dollars  a  volume,  or 
30,000^.  for  the  set !  F.  G.  KITTON. 

THE  LOCOMOTIVE  AND  GAS  (9th  S.  vi.  227, 
358  :  ix.  118,  317,  372  ;  x.  35).— There  is  a 
slight  error  which  should,  I  think,  be  rectified 
in  my  last  communication.  Gaslights  were 
not  first  used  in  Pall  Mall  in  1809.  It  was  in 
1807  that  one  side  only  of  Pall  Mall  was 
lighted  with  gas  (Beckmann).  In  Haydn's 
'Dictionary  of  Dates'  it  is  merely  stated 
generally  that  "  gaslights  were  used  in  light- 
ing Pall  Mall  in  1809* 


ix.  261,  429,  513).— MR.  PINK'S  appreciative 
criticism,  and  the  general  interest  my  notes 
on  the  Regicide's  descendants  appear  to  have 
evoked,  have  induced  me  to  compile  the  fol- 
lowing memoranda,  which  are  necessarily 

George  Fleetwood.  —  MR.  PINK  may  be 
right  as  to  the  third  of  this  name  being  a 
figment  of  Lipscomb's  imagination.  In 
Allegations  for  Marriage  Licences  issued  by 
the  Vicar-General  of  the  Archbishop  of 
Canterbury,  July,  1679-June,  1687,  on 
10  December,  1679,  there  is  an  entry  of  a 
"George  Fleetwood  of  the  Inner  Temple, 
Bachelor,  about  27,  and  Mrs.  Sarah  Stebbings 

of  Wissett,*  co.  Suffolk,  Spinster, at 

Halsworth,  co.  Suffolk."  According  to 
Blaydes's  '  Genealogia  Bedfordiensis '  they 
were  married  at  Barton-le-Cley,  co.  Beds,  on 
20  July,  1680.  Can  this  be  the  third  George  1 
There  should  not  be  much  difficulty  in  tracing 
his  parentage.  In  addition  to  the  counties 
mentioned  by  MR.  PINK  (and,  of  course, 
Lancashire  and  Stafford),  I  have  traced  the 
name  in  Berks,  Cambridge,  Cheshire,  Devon, 
Essex,  Hants,  Herts,  Norfolk,  Somerset, 
Surrey,  Warwick,  Wilts,  Worcester,  and  Yorks, 
while  it  is  also  to  be  found  in  the  United 
States,  Ireland,  and  Australia. 

The  note  about  the  East  Indian  Fleetwoods 
(9th  S.  ix.  430)  is  interesting.  Was  the  Mary 
Caryl  mentioned  in  Mrs.  Penny's  work,  whom 
Edward  Fleetwood  married  in  March,  1694, 
one  of  the  Sussex  Carylls  ?  Dallaway's 
'  Sussex '  unfortunately  throws  no  light  on 
the  point.  There  was  correspondence  (Caryll 
Papers,  British  Museum)  between  John 
Caryll,  jun.,  of  Ladyholt  near  Midhurst,  and 
later  of  West  Grinstead,  Sussex,  and  Bene- 
dicta  Fleetwood,  abbess  of  a  convent  of 
English  Benedictines  at  Dunkirk  about  1713- 
1720,  chiefly  regarding  the  sale  of  a  farm 
belonging  to  Benedicta  Fleetwood,  which 
gives  colour  to  the  surmise.  If  the  abbess 
can  be  identified,  it  may  lead  to  the  discovery 
of  the  branch  to  which  the  Madras  Fleet- 
woods  belonged.  The  arms  and  crest  given 
in  Mrs.  Penny's  book  are  those  of  the  Fleet- 
wood  family,  but  the  three  martlets  on  the 
dexter  side  of  the  shield  are  facing  the 
sinister,  so  that  the  martlets  of  each  pair  face 
each  other.  Are  they  correctly  copied  from 
the  monument  in  the  old  cemetery  of 
St.  Mary  ? 

Probably  Charles  Fleetwood,  of  Edgware 
Road,  Paddington,  who  died  in  April,  1784 — 
will  dated  24  September,  1783,  proved 
9  January,  1786,  administration  granted 
samedate  to  Charles  Chapman — was  a  member 
of  the  branch  alluded  to.  He  left  two 
children,  minors — viz.,  Charles,  in  1786  at 
Burdway  in  Bengal,  and  Frances,  at  school 
at  Chigwell  in  1783  In  Chancery  proceed- 
ings in  1787  their  ages  are  given  as  thirteen 
and  seventeen  respectively. 

Can  any  reader  give  particulars  of  a 
Charles  Fleetwood  who  bought  the  Drury 
Lane  patent  in  March,  1734?  There  is  an 
allusion  to  him  in  Doran's  '  Their  Majesties' 
Servants, 'and  to  him  and  his  son  in  Chaloner 
Smith's  'British  Mezzotinto  Portraits.' 

*  The  Confiscation  Acts  of  1651  and  1652  preserve 
the  rights  of  General  Charles  Fleetwood  and  his 
first  wife  Anne,  daughter  of  Thomas  Smith,  in  the 
manor  of  Wisset,  co.  Suffolk,  among  other  places. 

9*  s.  x.  AUG.  2, 1902.]         NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


Edward  Fleet  wood,  of  Holland,  in  co. 
Lancaster,  aged  about  one  hundred,  living 
in  1634.  This  entry  occurs  in  a  pedigree  in 
the  'Visitation  of  London,  1633-1635'  (vol.  xv., 
Harl.  Society),  signed  by  Geoffrey  Fleetwood 
the  son.  Centenarians  are  rare  even  nowa- 
days, when  the  average  duration  of  life  is 
longer ;  can  MR.  PINK  verify  the  dates  of 
birth  and  death  of  this  patriarch  ?  It  would 
be  interesting  to  have  positive  proof,  as 
Geoffrey  may  have  been  "pulling  the  leg" 
of  the  amiable  gentleman  who  recorded  the 

The  Fleet  woods  were  connected  by  marriage 
with  the  family  of  Milton,  as  Thomas  Milton, 
Deputy-Clerk  of  the  Crown  in  Chancery,  and 
nephew  of  the  great  Milton,  married  Martha, 
daughter  of  Charles  Fleetwood,  of  Northamp- 
ton. Milton's  cottage  at  Chalfont  St.  Giles 
was  built  by  the  Fleetwood  family,  as  appears 
by  their  arms  over  the  door. 

It  is  also  worth  noting  that  Samuel  Cooper, 
who  painted  the  known  miniature  of  the 
regicide,  was  uncle  by  marriage  to  Alexander 

The  Fleetwoods  have  represented  at  least 
one  constituency  in  Parliament  during  the 
reign  of  nearly  every  sovereign  from  Ed- 
ward VI.  to  Victoria  inclusive ;  but  here  I 
am  trespassing  on  ground  MR.  PINK  has 
made  peculiarly  his  own,  as  a  reference  to 
the  too  little  known,  but  valuable  work  by 
Messrs.  Pink  and  Beavan  on  the  '  Parlia- 
mentary Representation  of  Lancashire '  will 
easily  prove. 

In  conclusion,  I  may  mention  that  the  his- 
toric estate  of  the  Vache  is  now  (July)  being 
offered  for  sale.  R.  W.  B. 

LADY  NOTTINGHAM  (9th  S.  ix.  128,  213,  455 ; 
x.  11). — The  reprinting  of  an  old  tradition 
should  rout  all  other  approaching  columns. 
The  following  truly  "extraordinary  feat  of 
maternity  "  is  related  of  Margaret,  who  is 
stated  to  have  been  the  great-great-grand- 
daughter of  King  Stephen  and  the  wife  of 
Herman,  Count  of  Henneberg  : — 

"Margaret is  said  to  have  borne  at  one  birth, 

in  1276,  365  children,  the  one  half  males,  baptized 
John,  and  the  other  half  females,  baptized  Elizabeth, 
the  odd  one  being  a  hermaphrodite." 

The  lady  is  reported  to  have  died  shortly 
afterwards  !  RONALD  DIXON. 

AINSWORTH  THE  NOVELIST  (9th  S.  ix.  409 ; 
x.  10,  57). — No  official  biography  of  Ainsworth 
has  appeared  or  is  likely  to  appear.  For  the 
"  Windsor  Edition "  of  his  novels,  now  in 
course  of  publication  by  Messrs.  Gibbings  & 
Co.,  I  have  written  a  memoir,  somewhat 
fuller  in  character  than  that  which  I  con- 

tributed to  the  '  Dictionary  of  National  Bio- 
graphy.' As  many  of.  his  romances  are  of 
historical  interest  there  has  been  added  to 
the  memoir  a  chronology  of  the  novels,  which 
range  in  point  of  date  from  the  thirteenth  to 
the  nineteenth  century. 


BYRON'S  GRANDFATHER  (9th  S.  ix.  509 ;  x. 
52).— In  the  'Registers'  of  Bath  Abbey, 
recently  published  by  the  Harleian  Society, 
I  find  the  following  burial  entry  :  "  1779. 
Jan.  15.  George  Gordon,  Esq.  Under  Mrs. 
Peirce's  stone,  by  the  font."  But  there  is  no 
reference  made  to  the  cause  of  death. 

T.  C.-F. 

HALLEY  FAMILY  (9th  S.  x.  27).— The  streets 
mentioned  by  MR.  McPiKE  are  on  the  north- 
east and  east  sides  of  London.  It  appears 
probable  that  they  are  named  after  Edmund 
Halley,  F.R.S.,  Astronomer  Royal  to  George  I. 
According  to  the '  D.N.B.'  Halley  was  born  at 
Haggerston,  lived  at  Islington,  afterwards  in 
the  City,  and  was  buried  at  Lee  in  Kent.  I 
venture  to  make  the  suggestion,  seeing  that 
a  considerable  part  of  Halley's  life  seems  to 
have  been  spent  more  or  less  on  the  east  side 
of  London.  CITTHBERT  E.  A.  CLAYTON. 

Richmond,  Surrey. 

LIBRARY  (9th  S.  viii.  378  ;  ix.  Ill,  415  ;  x.  14). 
—The  h  in  Heuskarian  is  intrusive,  the 
Basques  themselves  calling  their  language 
Eskuara,  Euskara,  Uskara  (see  'Chambers's 
Encyclopaedia,'  art.  'Basques,'  and  'H.E.D./ 
voc.  '  Euskarian ').  R.  B— R  says  very  pro- 
perly that  the  indefinite  article  preceding  it 
"  should  be  a,  not  an,  as  the  sound  of  the  first 
syllable  is  you,  though  the  letters  are  eu." 
Many  writers  follow  the  rule,  "a  before  a 
consonant,  an  before  a  vowel,"  regardless  of 
the  fact  that  it  is  based  on  the  sound,  not 
the  shape,  of  the  letters,  arid  oblivious  of  the 
Euclidean  axiom  that  things  equal  to  the 
same  thing  are  equal  to  each  other.  They 
use  an  before  "euphony,"  "ewe,"  "  use,"  and 
every  other  word  with  the  like  beginning — 
which  I  cannot  affirm  to  be  incorrect,  the 
syllables  eu,  ew,  and  u  being  certainly  not 
consonantal,  for  no  consonant  or  conjunction 
of  consonants  is  a  syllable.  But  why  do  they 
use  a  before  words  beginning  with  ?/,  which 
also  is  not  a  consonant,  but  leading  partner 
in  an  association  of  vowels  1  If  it  is  for 
euphony  that  they  write  "  a  youth  "  and  "  a 
yew,"  the  same  reason  has  force  in  the  cases 
of  "use,"  which  differs  phonetically  from 
"youth"  only  in  the  consonantal  ending, 
and  of  "ewe,  which  is  absolutely  identical 


.  x.  AUG.  2,  1002. 

in  sound  with  "  yew. "  Let  these  instances 
suffice.  The  late  Mr.  Gladstone  always  wrote 
"an  European,"  "an  universal,"  "an  one," 
&c. ;  and  Mr.  Andrew  Lang  does  likewise — 
at  which  I  marvel  not,  for  it  was  in  a  book 
written  by  a  clerical  "  brither  Scot "  that  I 
met  some  time  ago  with  the  horrific  combina- 
tion "a  habitual."  The  question  of  an  before 
h  has  already  been  fully  discussed  in  'N.  &  Q.' 
(8th  S.  i.  89).  F.  ADAMS. 

ix.  368,  495).— If  "fierce"  was  New  York's 
latest  slang  phrase  in  1900,  it  has  been  a  long 
time  travelling  from  England  !  Fourteen  or 
fifteen  years  ago  it  was  a  very  common 
schoolboy  adjective,  applied  in  exactly  the 
same  manner  as  your  correspondent  reports 
it  at  the  latter  reference.  CHAS.  WELSH. 

Boston,  Mass.,  U.S. 

With  regard  to  this  matter,  I  recently 
heard  in  a  high-class  hotel  a  remarkably 
well-dressed  lady,  when  ordering  luncheon 
for  herself  and  husband,  say  :  "  Have  you 
any  beer  ? "  On  receiving  a  reply  in  the 
affirmative, she  added,  "Then  let  me  have  some 
beer  right  away."  HENRY  GERALD  HOPE. 

119,  Elms  Road,  S.W. 

BOON  FOR  BOOKWORMS  (9th  S.  ix.  406,  453 ; 
x.  17). — Ribbon-markers  are  no  boon  for,  but 
a  nuisance  to  me,  an  old  bookworm  from 
boyhood.  I  have  always  regarded  them  with 
horror,  as  doing  more  harm  to  books  than 
conferring  a  boon  on  the  reader.  At  least  I, 
for  one,  have  absolutely  set  my  face  against 
them,  and  instantly  remove  them  if  found  in 
books  I  purchase.  They  (such  is  my  experi- 
ence) fray  the  edges  of  the  leaves  and  pre- 
vent the  book  from  properly  closing,  besides 
oftentimes  unduly  causing  a  crack  either  in 
the  back  or  binding.  I  regard  them  as  amongst 
the  worst  enemies  of  books. 

J.  B.  McGovERN. 

St.  Stephen's  Rectory,  C-on-M.,  Manchester. 

I  have  a  copy  of  the  choice  "  Bayard 
Series  "  of  companionable  books,  commencing 
with  '  The  Story  of  the  Chevalier  Bayard,' 
published  in  1868,  &c.,  by  Sampson  Low  & 
Co.,  London.  Four  of  the  volumes  have  a 
silk  ribbon-marker  each,  and  eleven  volumes 
have  not  been  so  furnished. 


119,  Elms  Road,  S.W. 

467  ;  x.  35).— He  died  in  1560  ;  his  will  was 
proved  in  P.C.C.  in  1561.  As  correctly  stated 
by  MR.  WILLIAMS,  he  was  M.P.  for  Carmar- 
then borough,  1547-52  ;  for  that  of  Cardigan 
in  the  last  two  Parliaments  of  Mary,  Octc-ber 

to  December,  1555,  and  January  to  Novem- 
ber, 1558  ;  and  also  in  the  first  Parliament  of 
Elizabeth,  January  to  May,  1559.  If  D.  M.  R. 
will  refer  to  the  Parliamentary  Returns  he 
will  find  that  there  was  no  Parliament 
between  May,  1559,  and  January,  1562/3. 

W.  D.  PINK. 

GRACE  BEFORE  MEAT  (9th  S.  x.  7).  — 
Very  many  articles  have  already  appeared 
in  'N.  &  Q.'  on  the  custom  and  form  of 
saying  grace  both  before  and  after  meals,  for 
which  see  5th  S.  viii.,  xi.  ;  7th  S.  i.,  ii.,iii.,  viii., 

71,  Brecknock  Road. 

"Box  HARRY"  (9th  S.  ix.  449  ;  x.  13).— May  I 
point  out  that  in  1893  (8th  S.  iii.  128)  1  asked 
for  the  derivation  of  this  phrase?  Replies  as 
to  the  meaning  came  at  pp.  237  and  275  of 
that  volume,  but  no  light  was  thrown  on  the 
derivation.  The  subject  is  indexed  under 
'  Proverbs  and  Phrases,'  s.v.  (  Harry.' 



HOBBINS  FAMILY  (9th  S.  x.  28).— Twenty 
years  ago  I  was  acquainted  with  three  maiden 
ladies,  sisters,  who  all  lived  to  a  great  age, 
and  were  connected  with  Worcester  and 
Warwick.  They  lent  me  a  family  Bible 
(1632-3-4),  from  the  fly-leaf  of  which  I  copied 
these  notes  : — 

Oliuer  Hobbins  his  Bible,  26  Apr.  1674. 

Stephen  Hobbins  his  Book,  1763. 

Oliuer  Hobbins  was  baptized  the  19  day  of 
January,  1658  [1658/9]. 

William  Hobbins  was  baptized  the  28  of  Novem- 
ber, 1660. 

Oliuer  Hobbins  was  born  the  26  of  December  in 
the  year  of  our  Lord  God  1668  [?  error  for  1658]. 

William  Hobbins  the  brother  of  Oliuer  Hobbins 
was  born  the  first  day  of  Nouember  in  the  year  of 
our  Lord  1670  [?  error  for  1660]. 

Alice  Hobbins  widdow  died  the  first  day  of 
June  1699  about  fowr  of  the  clock  in  the  after- 

For  "Redmarsley,"  "Herefordshire,"  read 
Redmarley,  Worcestershire.  W.  C.  B. 

There  are  still  remaining  in  Warwick- 
shire a  few  members  of  a  Catholic  yeoman 
family  of  Hobbins,  who  for  generations  were 
free  tenants  of  the  Throckmortons.  If  your 
correspondent  cares  to  have  particulars  of 
them,  I  can  put  him  in  the  way  of  obtaining 
the  information. 


Town  Hall,  Cardiff. 

TIB'S  EVE  (9th  S.  ix.  109,  238,  335  ;  x.  33).— I 
would  ask  to  be  allowed  to  tender  my  hearty 
thanks  to  all  the  kind  friends  who  have 
written  under  this  heading.  I  have  just 
come  across  the  following  in  Lytton's 

g«>  s.x.  AUG.  2, 



'  Harold,'  which,  I  think,  might  fitly  be  added 
to  the  Tib  bibliography  : — 

"  'Ye  are  still  in  your  leading-strings,  Norman,' 
replied  the  Saxon,  waxing  good-humoured  in  his 
contempt.  '  We  have  an  old  saying  and  a  wise  one — 
All  came  from  Adam  except  Tib  the  ploughman  ; 
but  when  Tib  grows  rich  all  men  call  him  "  dear 
brother."  ' " — Chap.  vi.  Book  vi. 

West  Haddon,  Northamptonshire. 


Antonio  Stradivari :  his  Life  and  Work,  1644-11 '37. 

By  W.  Henry  Hill,  Arthur  F.  Hill,  F.S.A.,  and 

Alfred  E.  Hill.  (Hill  &  Sons.) 
As  the  man  who  perfected  the  violin,  Antonio 
Stradivari  deserves  and  has  found  biographers. 
These  belong  to  recent  years.  Until  the  last 
century  was  well  advanced  the  idea  that  a 
craftsman  could  merit  such  attention  as  has  been 
bestowed  upon  Stradivari  had  not  entered  the 
minds  of  men,  and  the  honours  of  a  full  biography 
were  reserved  for  the  monarch,  the  statesman,  the 
warrior,  the  writer,  and  the  artist.  Recognition  of 
the  merits  of  Stradivari  was,  moreover,  slow  in 
growth.  In  England,  and  in  France  also,  it  was 
not.  until  late  in  the  eighteenth  century  that  the 
violins  of  Stradivari  triumphed  in  general  estima- 
tion over  those  of  his  master  Nicolo  Amati  and 
other  members  of  the  same  family,  and  of  Jacob 
Stainer,  the  great  German  violin-maker.  In  the 
penultimate  decade  of  the  last  century  Signer 
Mandelli,  of  Cremona,  collected  materials  for  a  life 
of  Antonio  Stradivari  in  special  honour  of  his  native 
city.  These  materials  were  placed  in  the  hands  of 
Messrs.  Hill,  who  are  experts  as  well  as  enthusiasts, 
and  whose  researches  have  extended  over  a  further 
ten  years.  The  result  is  seen  in  the  handsome,  well- 
written,  and  brilliantly  illustrated  volume  before 
us.  The  main  facts  of  the  life  of  Antonio  Stradivari 
are  as  well  known  as  they  are  likely  to  be,  and  com- 
paratively little  has  been  added  in  this  respect  to 
the  information  which  has  been  for  a  score  years 
accessible  to  the  public.  Zealously  conducted 
researches  have  been  made  into  the  origin  and 
pedigree  of  Stradivari,  but  have  been  attended 
with  no  very  conspicuous  success.  So  far  back  as 
the  twelfth  and  thirteenth  centuries  the  name, 
variously  spelt,  was  borne  by  more  or  less  dis- 
tinguished citizens  of  Cremona.  Between  these, 
•  however,  and  the  subject  of  the  biography  no  con- 
nexion is  to  be  traced,  and  the  genealogical  table 
which  has  been  compiled  for  the  volume  begins 
with  Alessandro  Stradivari,  born  15  January,  1602, 
the  father  of  Antonio.  On  the  other  hand,  direct 
descendants  of  the  great  Cremona  violin-maker 
still  exist,  the  birth  01  one  being  chronicled  under 
the  date  1883,  and  a  second  having  died  last 
year.  The  name,  we  are  told  by  Mr.  E.  J. 
Payne,  is  a  plural  form  of  stradivare,  a  Lombard 
variety  of  stratiere  (stratiaritis),  a  doiianier  or  toll- 
collector.  A  different  origin  seems  favoured  by 
Signer  Mandelli.  No  record  of  the  birth  of  Antonio 
has  been  traced  in  Cremona,  which  his  parents  are 
supposed  to  have  quitted  on  account  of  the  ravages 
of  the  plague.  Upon  his  two  marriages  there  is 
little  temptation  to  dwell.  Stradivari  s  provision 

of  a  tomb  for  himself  and  his  children  was  unavail- 
ing. On  his  death,  on  19  December,  1737,  at  the 
reputed  age  of  ninety-five'  (Messrs.  Hill  make  it  a 
year  or  two  less),  Antonio  was  buried  in  the  tomb 
which  he  had  bought  in  a  small  chapel,  named 
after  the  yirgin  of  the  Rosary,  in  the  church  of 
St.  Domenico.  This  edifice  already  contained  the 
remains  of  his  second  wife,  and  subsequently  re- 
ceived those  of  various  descendants.  In  1869  this 
church,  having  fallen  into  decay  and  reached  a 
stage  that  was  judged  dangerous,  was  pulled  down, 
anal  its  site  was  converted  into  a  public  garden. 
During  the  process  of  demolition  little  attention 
seems  to  have  been  paid  to  the  human  remains, 
and  the  bones  of  Antonio  Stradivari  and  certain  of 
his  family  appear  to  have  been  shuffled  into  an 
obscure  grave.  When  the  basilica  was  destroyed, 
however,  the  stone  which  marked  the  resting-place 
of  the  Stradivari  was  respected.  It  is  still,  with 
its  motto,  "  Di  Antoni  Stradivari  e  suoi  eredi 
Anno  1729,"  to  be  seen  in  Cremona,  in  the  vaults  of 
the  Palazzo  dei  Tribunali.  Of  the  stone,  of  what 
remains,  or  remained,  of  the  church  of  St.  Domenico, 
and  of  the  residence  occupied  by  Antonio  and  his 
progeny  illustrations  are  given.  It  is  with  the 
technical  details,  supplied  in  abundance,  that  the 
musical  reader  will  bVmost  concerned.  Rightly  to 
pronounce  on  these  requires  the  skill  and  know- 
ledge of  an  expert.  The  opinion  generally  held, 
that  the  best  work  of  Stradivari  was  done  in  1710 
and  shortly  afterwards,  seems  shared  by  Messrs. 
Hill.  Singular  value  attaches  to  the  illustrations, 
which  form  an  important  contribution  to  the  his- 
tory of  musical  instruments.  In  an  introductory 
note  by  Lady  Huggins,  who  has  taken  an  earnest 
and  friendly  interest  in  the  work,  it  is  said  that 
"  the  strange  beauty  ofriolins,  which  has,delighted 
so  many,  has  never  oeen  so  well  represented."  This 
is  strictly  true.  We  know  of  no  designs  of  a  similar 
class  approaching  in  beauty  the  coloured  repre- 
sentations of  the  violins  and  violas  in  the  possession 
of  Mr.  Oldham  and  other  amateurs  and  col- 
lectors. The  illustrations  in  the  text  are  also 
excellent  in  all  respects.  From  Lady  Huggins  we 
also  learn  that  the  present  volume  is  the  last  of  a 
trilogy,  the  first  of  which  in  order  of  appearance, 
issued,  in  1892,  consisted  of  the  life  of  Giovanni 
Paolo  Maggini  (more  frequently  spelt  Magini). 
The  second  will  deal  with  Gasparo  da  (or  di) 
Salo,  and  the  third  is  the  present  work.  Di 
Salo  is  held  to  represent  the  beginning,  Magini  the 
early  development,  and  Stradivari  the  perfecting 
of  violins,  the  space  occupied  by  the  three  pro- 
cesses covering  roughly  a  century  and  a  half.  The 
augmented  prices  realized  by  Stradivari  violins 
act,  we  are  told,  unfavourably  on  amateurs,  and 
there  are  now  only  three  known  possessors  of  a 
quartet  of  Stradivari's  instruments.  These  are  Mr. 
C.  Oldham,  F.R.C.S.  (of  Brighton),  Mr.  R.  E. 
Brandt,  and  Baron  Knoop.  The  book  is  dedicated 
to  Mr.  William  Ebsworth  Hill,  the  father  of  the 
writers,  of  whom  an  excellent  likeness  is  given. 
The  elder  Mr.  Hill  was  what  is  known  as  "a 
character,"  and  was  an  admirable  judge  of  violins. 
In  this  respect  he  must  yield,  however,  to  Mr. 
Alfred  Hill,  whose  knowledge  is  unsurpassed.  No 
work  equally  handsome  and  authoritative  has  been 
written  on  the  fascinating  subject.  Writers  such 
as  Engel,  Fleming,  Sibere,  and  others  have  dealt 
with  violins  and  their  makers.  The  subject  is  now 
treated  with  a  thoroughness  previously  unpre- 
cedented. We  are  obliged  reluctantly  to  take  our 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        [9«>  s.  x.  AUG.  2, 1902. 

leave  of  a  book  admirable  in  all  respects,  into  the 
attractions  of  which  we  furnish  but  the  barest 

The  Yorkshire  Archaeological  Journal.   Parts  63  and 

64.  (Leeds,  Whitehead  &  Son.) 
St.  Peter  and  St.  Paul's,  Marlborough,  Prebendary 
of  Lincoln,  contributes  an  admirable  paper  on  cer- 
tain pardons  or  indulgences  preserved  in  Yorkshire, 
issued  in  the  fifteenth  and  sixteenth  centuries. 
Documents  of  this  kind  have  ever  since  the  time  of 
Luther  been  subjects  of  controversy,  and  there  is  a 
widely  extended  literature  relating  to  them.  They 
have,  however,  rarely  been  treated  from  a  purely 
historical  standpoint.  Canon  Wordsworth  has  done 
this,  and  in  consequence  we  owe  him  a  great 
debt  of  gratitude.  He  points  out  that  the  word 
indulgentia  has  come  down  from  the  days  of  the 
imperial  jurists,  with  whom  it  had  a  civil  meaning. 
To  them  it  signified  remission  of  punishment,  im- 
munity from  taxation,  or  amnesty  granted  by  the 
authority  of  the  emperor.  Like  so  many  other 
legal  terms,  it  became  absorbed  by  the  Church,  and 
it  is  of  its  ecclesiastical  senses  that  the  Canon  offers 
an  interpretation.  The  objects  for  which  indul- 
gences were  granted  varied  in  different  places.  The 
author  has  carefully  examined  the  register  of  Walter 
Grey,  Archbishop  of  York,  and  finds  that  many 
indulgences  were  issued  in  his  time  for  building 
churches  and  chapels,  for  hospitals,  and  also  for 
making  roads  and  bridges.  At  times  they  were 
issued  for  the  purpose  of  raising  money  to  redeem 
Christian  captives  who  were  in  slavery  to  the 
Moslem.  A  long  list  of  indulgences  relating  to 
this  kingdom  is  given,  ranging  from  the  reign  of 
Henry  II.  to  that  of  Henry  VIII.  This,  though 
incomplete,  will  be  found  very  useful. 

The  Visitations  of  certain  monasteries  in  the 
diocese  of  York  in  1534-5  are  contributed  by  the 
same  learned  writer,  who  suggests  that  they  were 
ordered  by  Archbishop  Lee  for  the  purpose  of 
saving,  if  that  were  possible,  the  religious  houses 
for  which  he  was  indirectly  responsible  from  sup- 

Eression.  The  king  probably  was  aware  of  this, 
>r  before  they  were  complete  he  ordered  the 
inquiry  to  cease.  So  far  as  they  go  they  witness  to 
a  certain  amount  of  laxity — there  are  two  flagrant 
cases — but,  as  Canon  Wordsworth  says,  their  state 
"was  by  no  means  so  bad  as  popular  report  made 

Mr.  M.  H.  Peacock  contributes  some  certificates 
of  alleged  cures  of  lunacy  by  a  certain  John  Smith, 
of  Wakefield,  in  1615.  The  original  document  is  in 
the  possession  of  the  governors  of  the  Wakefield 
Grammar  School.  Most  of  the  persons  named  in 
these  certificates  seem  to  have  been  of  the  lower 
order,  whom  it  may  be  impossible  at  this  distance 
of  time  to  identify;  but  there  are  two,  John  Went- 
worth  and  Henry  Nevile,  who  were  most  probably 
members  of  well-known  families  in  the  neighbour- 
hood. Was  John  Smith  a  quack  ?  Whether  he  was 
or  not,  we  should  like  to  know  something  of  his 
mode  of  treating  his  patients. 

Mr.  Hamilton  Hall  writes  on  the  well-worn  sub- 
ject of  Gundrada  de  Warenne ;  and  much  hitherto 
unknown  concerning  the  priory  of  Kirklees,  so 
celebrated  in  the  tale  of  Robin  Hood,  is  supplied 
by  Mr.  S.  J.  Chadwick.  Engravings  of  the  Nun- 
burnholme  cross  have  been  given  as  illustrations  to 
a  paper  on  certain  Yorkshire  churches  by  Mr. 
A.  D.  H.  Leadman.  For  some  reason— probably 

the  weathering  of  the  stone— they  are  very  difficult 
to  make  out.  The  design  of  the  sculpture  is  of  the 
kind  which  the  older  antiquaries  called  runic.  The 
cross  is  now  imperfect,  but  some  hope  is  held  out 
that  the  missing  parts  may  be  brought  to  light. 
The  author  describes  the  carvings,  but  does  not 
endeavour  to  interpret  the  hidden  meaning  of  their 

THE  most  interesting  article  in  the  new  number 
of  the  English  Historical  Revieiu  is  that  by  Mr. 
C.  H.  Firth  on  '  Cromwell  and  the  Crown.'  Among 
the  '  Notes  and  Documents '  those  of  especial  value 
are  one  by  Miss  Mary  Bateson,  '  A  London  Muni- 
cipal Collection  of  the  Reign  of  John,'  and  one  by 
Mr.  J.  C.  Black,  '  Edward  I.  and  Gascony  in  1300.' 
Mr.  Rose  also  sends  a  communication  on  the  vexed 
question  of  the  '  Ice  Accident  at  the  Battle  of 
Austerlitz.'  Among  the  reviews  we  note  a  severe, 
but  not  undeserved  criticism  of  Mr.  Lilly's  '  Re- 
naissance Types'  by  Mr.  Armstrong,  an  interesting 
estimate  of  Canon  Dixon's  posthumous  volumes  by 
Mr.  Hume  Brown,  and  a  very  short  and  inadequate 
notice  of  Mr.  Bryce's  '  Studies  in  History  and  Juris- 
prudence '  by  Mr.  Pogson  Smith. 

We  must  call  special  attention  to  the  following 
notices : — 

ON  all  communications  must  be  written  the  name 
and  address  of  the  sender,  not  necessarily  for  pub- 
lication, but  as  a  guarantee  of  good  faith. 

WE  cannot  undertake  to  answer  queries  privately. 

To  secure  insertion  of  communications  corre- 
spondents must  observe  the  following  rules.  Let 
each  note,  query,  or  reply  be  written  on  a  separate 
slip  of  paper,  with  the  signature  of  the  writer  and 
such  address  as  he  wishes  to  appear.  When  answer- 
ing queries,  or  making  notes  with  regard  to  previous 
entries  in  the  paper,  contributors  are  requested  to 

Eut  in  parentheses,  immediately  after  the  exact 
eading,  the  series,  volume,  and  page  or  pages  to 
which    they   refer.      Correspondents    who    repeat 
queries    are    requested  to  head  the  second  com- 
munication "  Duplicate." 

TEMPLE  ("If  there  were  no  God,"  &c.).— This 
sentiment  is  best  known  as  Voltafre's  in  the  form, 
",Si  Dieu  n'existait  pas,  il  faudrait  1'inventer" 
(Epitre  k  1'Auteur  du  Nouveau  Livre  des  Trois 
Imposteurs,'  1769,  verse  22) ;  but  Buchmann,  '  Ge- 
fliigelte  Worte,'  twentieth  ed.,  says  Voltaire  made 
it  out  of  the  ninety-third  sermon  of  Archbishop 
Tillotson  ('Works,'  1712,  vol.  i  p.  696):  "The 
Being  of  God  is  so  comfortable  so  convenient,  so 
necessary  to  the  felicity  of  Mankind,  that  (as  Tully 
admirably  says)  Dii  immortales  ad  usum  hominum 
fabricati  pene  videantur,  if  God  were  not  a  neces- 
sary Being  of  himself,  he  might  almost  seem  to  be 
made  on  purpose  for  the  use  and  benefit  of  Men." 

Editorial  communications  should  be  addressed 
to  "  The  Editor  of  'Notes  and  Queries'" — Adver- 
tisements and  Business  Letters  to  "  The  Pub- 
lisher"— at  the  Office,  Bream's  Buildings,  Chancery 
Lane,  E.C. 

We  beg  leave  to  state  that  we  decline  to  return 
communications  which,  for  any  reason,  we  do  not 
print ;  and  to  this  rule  we  can  make  no  exception. 

9*  s.x.  AUG.  9, 1902.]         NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. -No.  241. 

NOTES  :— Coronation— Danteiana,  101— Church  of  England 
Sixty  Years  Ago,  104  — Premierships  of  Victorian  Era— 
"Reapered"  —  Old  Glasgow  House,  105  —  Ferdinando— 
Wellington's  Spanish  Prayer  Book,  106—"  Man  in  the 
street" — "  Coburg"— "  Arising  out  of,"  107. 

QUERIES  :— Longfellow  —  "Faith,  Hope,  and  Love  were 
questioned "  — Cardinal  Allen  — Lines  in  Purcell.  107— 
School  in  Scotland— Fox— '  Caste ':  Prototypes— M'Quil- 
lans  of  Dunluce— Pepys  and  Sanderson  Families— English- 
men Buried  Abroad— Nominal  Burden,  108— Knights  of 
the  Garter  —  Family  Crests— "Billy  "=Tin  Can  — '  Pur- 
chas  his  Pilgrimes,'  1625—' '  Loophole  "—Lines  on  Withered 
Wild  Flower— PolygraphicrHall-Whitefield's  'Hymns': 
First  Edition— Rutter— Eighteenth-Century  Indexes,  109. 

REPLIES  :— Heraldry  before  the  Conquest  —  References 
Wanted,  110— Many  Religions  and  One  Sauce— Old  Songs 
—Knurr  and  Spell,  111— Great  Frost  of  1683-4— Coronation 
Dress  of  Bishops — "Muffineer"  —  Gorman,  Russian  Ad- 
miral—Birmingham: "Brumagem,"  112  —  Proverbs  in 
1  Jacula  Prudentum ' — Knighthood — "  Leaps  and  bounds  " 
— Arms  of  Eton  and  Winchester  Colleges,  113  — Merry 
England  and  the  Mass— Coleridge— Governors  of  Public 
Schools— "Ye  gods  and  little  fishes  !  "—Disappearance  of 
Banking  Firm,  114 — Downie's  Slaughter— Schaw  of  Gos- 
petry —  "Corn-bote,"  115  —  Horse  with  Four  White 
Stockings— Flint-Glass  Trade— Baxter,  of  Australia— Chi- 
Rho  Monogram — Statistical  Data— King's  Champion,  1 16 
—Alison's  Rectorial  Addresses— Boudicca— Capt.  Morris's 
Wife,  117— The  National  Flag  — Capt.  Arnold— Serjeant 
Edward  Dendy,  118. 

NOTES  ON  BOOKS  :— Rouse's  '  Greek  Votive  Offerings ' 
— "  Chiswick  Shakespeare"  —  Sladen's  'London  and  its 
Leaders ' — Reviews  and  Magazines. 

Notices  to  Correspondents. 

IT  may  not  be  supposed  that  a  single  reader 
of  'N.  &  Q.'  has  been  misled  by  the  notice, 
necessarily  premature,  of  the  Coronation  of 
King  Edward  VII.  which  appeared  in  its 
pages.  Though  its  principal  appeal  is  to  the 
present  generation,  the  collective  erudition 
of  which  it  claims  to  some  extent  to  incor- 
porate and  calendar,  the  responsibilities  of 
'N.  &  Q.'  extend  to  coming  times,  and  ages 
yet  unborn  will  profit  by  its  stores.  It  is 
fitting,  then,  that  the  postponed  Coronation 
should  be  duly  announced,  and  that  the  prayers 
breathed  in  view  of  the  earlier  ceremony 
should  be  renewed  now  that  the  celebration 
is  at  hand.  In  offering  afresh  congratulations 
to  a  country  so  blessed  in  its  recent  rulers, 
and  a  monarch  surrounded  by  such  loyalty, 
regard,  and  affection  as  early  records  do  not 
chronicle,  the  Editor  will  use,  with  the 
alteration  of  a  single  word,  a  line  from 
Milton's  Ode  '  On  the  Morning  of  Christ's 
Nativity,'  written  two  hundred  and  seventy- 
three  years  ago  : — 

Have  thou  the  honour  first  thy  King  to  greet. 
Since  our  first  words  appeared  King  Edward 
has  waged  a  strenuous,  gallant,  and  in  the 

end  successful  fight  against  Death,  who, 
though  no  respecter  of  persons,  and  glad,  it 
might  be  thought,  to  show  the  equality 
between  "  sceptre  and  crown  "  and  "  the  poor 
crooked  scythe  and  spade,"  has  for  once,  as 
it  seems,  sympathized  with  a  people's  aspira 
tions  and  listened  to  an  empire's  prayer. 
That  struggle  (one  of  the  most  eventful  to 
be  recalled,  and  fraught  with  highest  issues) 
has  served  the  purpose  of  cementing  bonds 
already  close,  and  linking  together  monarch 
and  people  in  a  way  for  which  there  is  no 
precedent.  Englishmen  feel  that  the  dominant 
traits  of  their  race  are  exemplified  in  their 
king  •  that  endurance,  resolution,  and  courage 
are  the  badges  of  both  ;  and  that  the  spirit 
which  refuses  to  accept  defeat  or  surrender 
is  common  to  the  two.  On  his  issue  from 
the  long  struggle  His  Majesty  knows  that 
not  only  does  he  continue  his  beneficent 
rule  over  the  largest  empire  that  the  world 
has  known,  but  that  also  he  is  inheritor 
and  transmitter  of  affection  and  loyalty 
which  have  been  reserved  to  his  imme- 
diate ancestor  and  her  race.  Once  more, 
then,  we  plead  for  blessings  upon  King 
Edward  and  his  Consort,  and  echo  the  words 
that  have  passed  from  a  national  sentiment 
into  a  universal  prayer — God  save  the  King. 

1.  'lNF.,'xiii.  115-17.— 

Ed  ecco  duo  dalla  sinistra  costa, 
Nudi  e  graffiatji,  fuggendo  si  forte, 
Che  defla  selva  rompieno  ogni  rosta. 

The  MS.  variants  of  this  passage  are 
curious.  Thus  alia  sinistra  is  found  in  two 
in  the  Bodleian,  in  one  at  Cambridge,  and  in 
one  in  the  Vatican  ;  due  venire  delta  occurs 
in  the  Bodleian  L  ;  correndo  si  in  Q  Cam- 
bridge ;  and  ogni  costa  in  K  Bodleian.  This 
latter  reading,  of  course,  makes  rank  non- 
sense of  Dante's  meaning.  Its  presence  in 
the  MS.  (dated  1445)  can  only  be  explained 
by  Dr.  Moore's  deservedly  severe  judgment : 

"  This  is  (with' the  exception  of  L)  incomparably 
the  worst  MS.  in  the  Canonici  collection,  in  respect 
of  barbarous  spelling  and  of  the  frequency  and  reck- 
lessness of  its  alterations." 

It  is  just  possible,  however,  that  the  careless 
scribe,  using  a  palimpsest,  may  have  sub- 
stituted c  for  r  with  costa  fresh  in  eye  or  ear. 
But  "  coast "  (or  "  space,"  as  Plumptre  renders 
it)  is  not  "  bough  "—or  whatever  may  be  the 
meaning  of  rosta.  At  all  events,  costa  is  not 
rosta  by  any  philological  conjuring.  Though 
it  is  generally  englished  by  "  branch "  or 
"  bough,"  Gary  takes  it  to  signify  "  fan  o' 
th'  wood,"  and  ingeniously  glosses  his  view 
with:  "Hence  perhaps  Milton — 



[9th  S.  X.  AUG.  9, 1902. 

Leaves  and  fuming  rills,  Aurora's  fan. 
The  Delia  Crusca  favours  this  explanation  : — 
"Rosta.  Strumento  noto  da  farsi  yento." 
Branches  certainly  resemble  fans  in  this 
sense,  or  as  screens  from  the  sun-rays,  but 
the  notion,  if  poetic,  is  far-fetched.  Dante 
simply  means  by  rosta  an  obstacle — which 
may  be  boughs  or  any  other  impediment— 
which  the  duo  nudi  demolished  in  their  head- 
long flight.  Perazzini  (quoted  by  Lombardi) 
confirms  this.  He  says  the  Veronese 
"  pueri  apud  nos  quando  aquae  rivulum  luto 
coercent,  ne  excurrat,  dicunt  se  fecisse  la  rosta. 
Igitur  quodvis  est  impedimentum  excurrentibus 
per  silvam  objectum,  quod  tamen  impetu  ipso 
superari  possit." 

Observe  also  rompieno  for  rompevano,  as 
('  Par.,'  iii.  59  ;  x.  81)  movieno  for  movevano, 
and  (Boccaccio)  even  in  prose,  facieno  for 
facevano.  The  story  of  the  two  spendthrifts 
alluded  to  as  the  duo  nudi  is  too  well  known 
to  justify  anything  further  than  a  mere 
2.  Ibid.,  143-4. 

lo  fui  della  citta  che  nel  Batista 

Mut6  il  primo  patrone. 

Who  was  this  suicide  who  found  himself  in 
the  "  Dolorosa  Selva  "  1  Conjecture  is  almost 
idle,  seeing  that  the  crime  was  so  common 
in  Florence  in  the  fourteenth  century.  This 
practically  puts  all  attemps  at  investigation 
out  of  court.  Even  Plumptre's  remark  that 
this  passage  depends  for  its  significance  on 
a  knowledge  of  the  early  history  of  Florence 
is  of  slight  help  in  this  light.  Dante  (as 
Benvenuto  observes)  probably  left  the  appli- 
cation open,  though  Benvenuto  suggests  Lotto 
degli  Agli,  a  judge  "  qui,  data  una  sententia 
falsa,  ivit  dpmum,  et  statim  se  suspendit." 
Others  identify  him  with  a  certain  Rocco  de' 
Mozzi,  whose  debaucheries  brought  him  so 
low  that  "egli  stesso  s' impicco  per  la  gola 
nella  sua  casa." 

This  is,  of  course,  pure  conjecture,  but  the 
open  application  will  necessarily  render  it 
permissible  up  to  the  Greek  Kalends.  Witte's 
text,  I  note,  has  "  mut6  '1  primo  patrone  " ; 
and,  according  to  Dr.  Moore,  four  MSS.  only 
give  "  patrone,"  whereas  seventeen  have 
"  padrone."  Lombardi  and  Bianchi  follow  the 
latter  in  their  texts,  with  the  substitution 
"  cangi6  "  for  "  mut6." 

3.  Ibid.,  149.— 

Sovra  il  cener  che  d'  Attila  rimase. 

Is  Dante  caught  tripping  in  his  history 
here1?  Possibly,  just  as  greater  than  he  have 
been  so  found  more  than  once.  Was  it  not 
rather  Totila  who  besieged  Florence1?  Dean 
Plumptre  roundly  charges  the  poet  with  con- 
fusing the  two  barbarian  chiefs  : — 

"  When  the  city  was  laid  waste  by  Totila  (whom 
Dante  confuses  with  Attila)  in  450,  it  [the  statue  of 
Mars]  was  thrown  into  the  Arno." 

But  the  Dean's  chronology  entirely  vitiates 
tiis  charge.  Totila  reigned  from  AD.  541  to 
552,  whereas  Attila's  ravages  of  Lombardy 
occurred  between  A.D.  434  and  453.  Clearly, 
therefore,  if  the  statue  of  Mars  first  found  a 
watery  bed  in  the  Arno  in  450,  it  must  have 
been  under  Attila  and  not  under  Totila — 
that  is,  if  the  date  be  correct.  It  is  just 
possible  that  450  is  a  misprint  for  550,  which 
would  place  the  event  in  the  reign  of  Totila. 

The  Rev.  H.  F.  Tozer  (lAn  English  Com- 
mentary,' 1901,  p.  74)  echoes  the  Dean's 
indictment,  and  further  implies  that  the  poet 
had  "mixed  up  a  number  of  [other]  tradi- 

"Dante  has  here  confused  Attila  with  Totila. 
King  of  the  Ostrogoths — a  mistake  which  is  found 
in  some  other  writers  of  his  time.  Attila  never 
came  near  Florence  ;  Totila  besieged  that  city,  and 
according  to  the  common  tradition  destroyed  it, 
though  in  reality  he  did  not  do  so." 

Of  course  he  did  not,  owing  to  the  generalship 
of  Belisarius,  so  Dante  was  in  double  error. 
Attila  never  crossed  the  Apennines,  and  con- 
sequently could  not  have  reduced  Florence  to 
a  heap  of  ashes.  The  line  is  bad  history  ;  but 
the  canto  is  not  ruined  therebj7.  Besides,  the 
anachronism  is  pardonable. 

"E  un  fatto,"  says  Bianchi,  who  holds  that 
Dante  only  voiced  the  erroneous  opinion  of 
his  time  in  confusing  Totila  with  Attila, 

"  che  anche  in  qualche  antica  iscrizione  si  trova 
sbagliato  il  nome  di  Totila  in  quello  di  Attila.  A 
Poppi,  per  esempio,  nel  Casentino,  vi  &  una  pietra 
dove  leggesi  che  le  mura  di  quella  terra  furono 
distrutte  da  Attila." 

Evidently  there  was  confusion  of  names  all 
round  ;  out  the  mistake  in  nowise  impairs 
the  delicate  sarcasm  of  the  whole  reference  to 
the  statue  of  Mars — "il  primo  patrone "- 
which  both  Plumptre  and  Bianchi  point  out, 
though  on  slightly  differing  lines.  The  irony 
of  fate  is  no  less  remarkable  in  that  Mars 
effigy  was  thrice  immersed,  according  to 
tradition,  in  the  Arno  (A.D.  450,  1078,  and 
1333  or  1337),  and  that  his  temple  afterwards 
formed  the  substructure  of  the  Baptistery,  in 
addition  to  the  city  having  been  later  dedi- 
cated to  the  Baptist. 

4.  Ibid.,  xiv.  30.— 

Come  di  neve  in  alpe  senza  vento. 

"  Another  trace  of  distant  wanderings,  probably 
on  the  journey  to  Aries,  implied  in  C.  ix.  112,  or  to 
Paris  ('Par.,' x.  136).  The  word  'Alp'  is  probably 
to  be  taken  in  its  widest  sense,  of  any  lofty  moun- 

Thus  Plumptre  ;  but  the  second  half  of  this 
gloss  materially  qualifies,  if  it  does  not  alto- 

9th  S.  X.  AUG.  9,  1902.] 



gether  contradict,  the  first  half.  If  "alpe" 
means  any  "lofty  mountain,"  how  does  it 
supply  "another  trace  of  distant  wander- 
ings "  ?  But,  apart  from  this  looseness  of 
language,  I  submit  that  the  tendency  to 
interpret  all  Dante's  references  to  places  as 
personal  visits  reaches  positive  bathos.  The 
evidence  of  his  journeys  to  Paris  and  Oxford 
is,  in  my  judgment,  fairly  conclusive,  but  it 
is  surely  ultra  crepidam  to  regard  all 
allusions  to  localities  as  traces  of  his  ''distant 
wanderings."  "  Alpe  "  probably  signifies  here 
(as  elsewhere,  'Purg.,'  xvii.  1,  and  xxxiii.  11) 
nothing  more  than,  as  Lombardi  suggests, 
"per  quasivoglia  montagna  general  men  te." 
Mr.  Tozer  notes  that  "  whether  used  for  '  the 
Alps,'  or,  as  here,  for  '  mountains  '  generally, 
'alpe'  is  always  singular  in  the  '  Div.  Com.'  " 

As  a  matter  of  minor  criticism  I  am  led  to 
join  issue  here  on  the  instance  adduced  from 
'  Purg.,'  xvii.  1,  where  alpe  rimes  with  talpe, 
which  is  certainly  not  singular,  though,  as 
Lombardi  points  out,  frequently  used  as 
such  in  its  plural  form.  It  may,  of  course, 
be  argued  that  talpe  was  made  subservient 
for  riming  purposes  to  alpe.  Nevertheless,  I 
think  the  instance  establishes  my  contention. 

5.  Ibid.,  31-2.— 

Quali  Alessandro  in  quelle  parti  calde 
D'  India  vide. 

Here  again  Dante  supplies  a  butt  for  the 
shafts  of  a  not  unreasoning  criticism.  But 
it  was  not  altogether  his  fault.  He  had  got 
hold  of  the  wrong  version— or  presentment — 
of  the  fabled  letter  of  Alexander  to  Aristotle, 
that  was  all.  The  real  culprit  was  appa- 
rently Albertus  Magnus.  The  letter  afore- 
said did  not  state  that  "  Nubes  ignitse  de  aere 
cadebant,  quas  ipse  militibus  calcare  prce- 
cepit"  but  that  "  visseque  nubes  de  cselo 
ardentes  tanquam  faces  decidere,  jussi  autem 
milites  suas  veste*  opponere  ignibus."  The 
italicized  words  establish  an  antithesis  and 
locate  Dante's  mistake.  The  soldiers  tram- 
pled upon  the  snow,  but  used  their  clothes 
as  a  protection  against  the  fiery  flames. 
"Dante  apparently  mixes  up  the  two  facts  in 
his  memory,"  observes  Plumptre.  The  same 
author  is  less  happy,  because  misleading,  in 
rendering  "scalpitar'  by  "  to  plough."  The 
word  means,  as  Tomlinson  correctly  has  it, 
"  to  trample  'neath  the  feet " — a  somewhat 
different  operation.  But  can  Dante  be 
honestly  charged  with  "confusion  of  facts" 
after  all?  The  Nuovo  Editore  of  Lom- 
bardi's  notes  evidently  thinks  not.  He 
says  : — 

"  Ci  pare  che  Alessandro  dicesse  a'  soldati  '  di 
mano  in  mano  che  cadoao  in  terra  le  fiamme,  cal- 
pestatele  e  soffocatele,  affinch^  le  altre  che  ne  pio- 

vano  appresso,  non  si  uniscano  a  quelle  ancor  salde 
e  vive,  e  non  facciano  un  mare  di  fuoco.'  "  ~- 

The  verdict  either  way  depends  upon  the 
accuracy  or  otherwise  of  the  versions  of  the 
letter  supplied  by  Albertus  Magnus  and  Ben- 
venuto  da  Imola,  while  as  to  the  facts 
implied  one  story  is  as  good  as  the  other. 
To  trample  on  falling  flakes  of  fire  would  be 
pretty  much  on  a  par  to  the  soldiers  with 
treading  down  those  of  snow.  Dante's 
alleged  mixing  or  confusion  of  facts  is  then 
both  explainable  and  defensible.  Nor  is  the 
alleged  spuriousness  of  the  fact,  if  not  of 
the  letter,  altogether  beyond  question.  "  II 
comentatore  della  Nidobeatina,"  says  Lom- 
bardi's  Nuovo  Editore, 

"attesta  leggersi  cotal  fatto  nella  vita  di  Ales- 
sandro :  chi  sa  da  chi  scritta  Quinto  Curzio  cer- 
tamente,  come  avverte  anche  il  Landino,  nulla  ha 
di  cio,  come  n6  Giustino,  n&  Plutarco.  Nella  let- 
tera  di  Alessandro  ad  Aristotele  (qualunque  abbiala 
scritta)  fassi  mentzione,"  &c. 

Mr.  Tozer  remarks  on  "  quelle  parti  calde 
d' India,"  "that  hot  region  of  the  world, 
India":  "This  seems  better  than  'that  hot 
district  of  India  through  which  Alexander's 
march  lay,'  for  the  mediae vals  regarded  the 
whole  of  India  as  a  hot  region."  This  sugges- 
tion, I  submit,  implies  both  a  censure  on 
Dante's  geography  and  a  tampering  with  (in 
translation)  the  text>  Verily,  the  '  D.  C.'  will 
soon  come  to  be  regarded  as  one  connected 
mass  of  errors,  theological,  astronomical,  his- 
torical, and  geographical,  with  an  emended 
text  (!)  and  both  sense  and  spirit  eliminated. 
By  all  means  let  us  have  elucidatory  notes, 
but  not  perversion  of  meaning.  If  Dante 
says  "hot  parts  of  India,"  let  the  phrase 
remain  as  written,  and  be  translated  as  such 
without  a  distortion  implying  what  he  never 
wrote.  Fidelity  to  sense,  if  not  to  literalness,  is 
the  prime  canon  of  all  honest  translation.  I 
do  not  know  who  the  author  of  "that  hot 
district  of  India"  may  be,  but  to  me  it  is, 
because  more  accurate,  preferable  to  the  alter- 
native suggested.  Plumptre  renders  the  line 
in  question  as'"  India's  torrid  climes  ";  Gary, 
"  in  the  torrid  Indian  clime  ";  Tomlinson  as 
"where  those  parts  acquire  great  heat  in 
Inde";  and  Ford  by  "sultry  Ind." 

For  the  beauty  and  force  of  the  illustration 
there  can  be  nothing  but  admiration,  be  it 
true  or  false  or  confused.  But  there  could 
only  be,  at  the  worst,  "  confusion  "  or  falsity 
of  facts,  not  of  application— which  is  im- 
material. It  is  a  permissible  and  laudable 
poetic  licence,  even  though  it  be  a  conscious 
distortion  of  either  probability  or  history. 
All  myths  are  such,  and  as  such  are  lawful 
prey  for  the  poet. 

I  trust    the    above    remarks  will  not  be 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.         [9*  s.  x.  AUG.  9, 1902. 

regarded  as  hypercritical,  since  I  have  the 
highest  esteem  for  Mr.  Tozer's  labours  in 
the  Danteian  field.  I  am  only  jealous  for 
the  preservation  of  the  letter  and  spirit  of 
the  text. 

6.  I  note  two  slips  in  Dr.  Moore's  '  Textual 
Criticism.'  The  first  is  at  p.  xviii  of  the 
Prolegomena.  The  date  there  given  as  that 
of  the  decree  of  the  Spanish  Inquisition  con- 
demning three  passages  of  the  '  D.  C.'  is  1612, 
whereas  on  the  opposite  page  it  is  stated  the 
decree  will  be  found  in  the  '  Index  Librorum 
Prohibitorum  et  Expurgatorum,'  Geneva, 
1519  (reprinted  from  that  published  at  Madrid, 
1514).  This  is,  of  course,  a  chronological  im- 

The  second  occurs  at  p.  677,  and  is  couched 
thus : — 

"This  [119  (Bat.  411)]  is  a  very  beautiful  and 
well-preserved  MS.  on  vellum  in  the  Biblioteca 
Nazionale  at  Palermo.  It  is  late  fourteenth 
century,  I  should  say  about  1480-90." 
These  errors  may  be  slight,  but  one  furthers 
the  perfection  of  so  estimable  a  work  by 
pointing  them  out  for  future  editions.  As 
a  small  contribution  towards  its  attainment, 
I  called  Dr.  Moore's  attention  to  them  last 
August,  and  received  the  subjoined  reply  :— 

"  On  p.  677  clearly  '  fourteenth  century '  should 
be  fifteenth,  but  these  mistakes  I  am  afraid  are 
due,  now  and  then,  to  the  Italian  way  of  reckoning 
centuries.  On  p.  xviii  I  have  no  time  to  go  to  a 
library  to  see  the  correct  date  of  the  'Index  Libr.,' 
&c.,  but  you  could,  no  doubt,  find  it  in  some 
Bibliographical  Manual." 

A  brief  search  in  our  Rylands  Library  resulted 
in  the  discovery  that  "1519"  and  (i  1514  "should 
be  respectively  1619  and  1614.  The  Index  was 
not  in  existence  until  some  fifty  years  later 
than  the  former  dates,  and  the  two  editions 
referred  to  belong  to  the  latter.  I  observed 
in  the  list  of  the  Pius  IV.  edition  of  1564, 
"Dantis  Monarchia."  Persecution  of  Dante 
seems  to  have  been  as  relentless  after  as 
before  the  grave.  But  the  universal  homage 
and  more  liberal  policy  meted  to  his  memory 
during  the  last  two  centuries  have  more  than 
made  amends  for  both.  J.  B.  McGovERN. 

St.  Stephen's  Rectory,  C.-on-M.,  Manchester. 


WERE  it  not  for  fear  of  making  the  heading 
too  long,  I  would  add  "  viewed  through  a 
pair  of  American  spectacles."  In  the  year 
1842  the  Rev.  Stephen  H.  Tyng,  D.D.,  then 
of  Philadelphia,  visited  England,  being  forti- 
fied with  introductory  letters.  He  was  a 
protagonist  of  the  powerful  Evangelical 
party,  and  became  the  rector  of  St.  George's 

New  York.  He  was  amazed  at  the  condition 
of  the  churches  in  England  :— 

'  It  is  not  the  habit  or  taste  of  England  to  keep 
their  churches  in  an  attractive  or  a  comfortable 
londition  at  any  time.  I  did  not  see  a  single  church 
in  England  which  would  be  allowed  by  the  poorest 
congregation  in  Philadelphia  to  remain  in  its  present 
condition.  Even  their  new  churches  they  try  to 
build  as  much  as  possible  like  the  old  ones  ;  and 
they  are  all,  to  our  eyes,  cheerless  and  uncomfort- 
able, from  the  want  of  that  provision  for  the  ease 
of  the  occupants  to  which  we  are  accustomed." 

He  visited  Watton,  Herts  : — 

'  How  shall  I  describe  the  odd  little  church,  com- 
posed of  pieces  of  many  shapes  and  sizes,  jutting 
out  with  corners  in  all  directions,  filled  with  many 
various  monumental  stones,  having  a  little  oak 
pulpit  and  desk  fastened  against  a  corner  of  the 
wall,  hardly  big  enough  to  hold  a  man  of  even 
moderate  size  with  comfort  ?  But,  in  church  build- 
ing, our  taste  and  the  English  differ  widely." 

He  found  Holy  Trinity,  Cambridge,  "  a  very 
old,  cruciform  edifice,  most  inconvenient  and 
uncomfortable  ;  but  in  these  respects  it  [had] 
been  much  improved  by  the  efforts  of  Mr. 
Carus."  St.  Jude's,  Glasgow,  had  a  very 
"  awkward  and  unchurchlike  arrangement." 
This  consisted  of 

"  a  pulpit  in  the  centre  against  the  wall,  beneath 
which,  oetween  its  two  staircases,  [was]  the  com- 
munion table  ;  and  then  two  other  pulpits,  which 
[were]  used  for  reading-desks,  on  the  sides,  of  equal 
height  with  the  centre  one.  They  [were]  all  three 
round  tubs  of  similar  construction,  with  separate 
winding  stairs  for  each." 

Old  St.  Giles's,  Edinburgh,  on  the  contrary, 
had  been  "  modernized  and,  improved,  and 
divided  for  several  places  of  worship." 

The  great  preachers  of  the  day  were  Henry 
Melville,  Baptist  Noel,  Hugh  Stowell,  and 
Mr.  McNeile,  of  St.  Jude's,  Liverpool.  Mr. 
Melville,  however,  was  disappointing  : — 

"  The  sermon  was  very  deficient,  intellectually 
and  evangelically,  and  delivered  in  a  very  rapid, 
hurried  manner,  with  great  apparent  carelessness, 
and  without  the  least  appearance  of  feeling." 

Mr.  Noel,  though  "  less  deep  and  instructive 
in  doctrine "  than  Dr.  Tyng  had  expected, 
was  characterized  by  great  beauty  of  appear- 
ance, a  soft,  gentle,  and  musical  voice,  and 
dignity  of  manner.  When  Hugh  Stowell 

"  rose  sometimes  in  his  forcible  appeals,  with  his 
amazing  command  of  language,  and  his  accumulating 
energy  of  voice,  the  whole  multitude  seemed  moved 
as  the  heart  of  one  man." 

McNeile  was  an  impressive  reader,  and  "  the 
first  of  preachers."  An  odd  custom  obtained 
in  his  church  : — 

"Every  one  was  searching  the  Scriptures,  as  he 
referred  to  them,  to  see  if  these  things  were  so. 
Even  the  people  who  filled  the  aisles  were  all  hold- 
ing little  Bibles  in  their  hands,  in  the  same 

9»B.x.Atro.9,i902.]         NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


McNeile  was  "  tall,  dignified,  elegant  in  form, 
with  a  full  head  of  hair,  nearly  white." 

Samuel  Wilberforce  had  just  been  made 
Archdeacon  of  Surrey.  "  He  [was]  very  small 
in  stature,  and  with  an  extremely  youthful 
countenance  ;  and,  dressed  in  the  peculiar 
costume  of  an  archdeacon,  he  engaged  "  Dr. 
Tyng's  careful  attention.  He  says  : — 

"He  is  a  man  of  increasing  influence  and  very 
rising  popularity,  much  sought  for  as  a  preacher ; 
and  though  he  has  been  supposed  to  favour  the  new 
vanities  of  Oxford,  as  his  brother  Robert  certainly 
does,  he  is  understood  of  late  to  have  very  publicly 
and  repeatedly  declared  his  opposition  to  them." 

Mr.  Noel  felt  "the  vast  dangers"  of  the 
Oxford  movement,  and  so  did  many.  In  fact, 
says  Dr.  Tyng,  "  the  noxious  influence  of  the 
Tractarian  party  seems  now  »o  well  under- 
stood, and  so  generally  acknowledged,  that  I 
hope  we  may  be  relieved  from  the  necessity 
of  speaking  or  writing  much  more  about  it." 
Hugh  Stowell,  addressing  a  meeting  presided 
over  by  Lord  Kenyon,  made  a  punning  allu- 
sion as  follows  :  "  I  believe  that  the  con- 
spiracy at  Oxford  has  not  its  origin  there ;  I 
have  no  doubt  that  there  is  some  wise  man  in 
the  background,  wise  as  a  serpent,  though 
not  harmless  as  a  dove." 

Dr.  Tyng  was  in  London  in  May,  1842,  and 
attended  the  May  meetings,  among  them 
that  of  the  Wesleyan  Missionary  Society. 
He  says  of  the  Wesleyan  ministers  :  "  Truly 
I  never  saw  a  more  robust  and  able-bodied 
company  in  my  life."  From  all  that  he  heard 
and  saw  he  became  convinced  that  there  was 
"  a  real  and  perhaps  a  very  rapid  approach 
among  the  Wesleyans  to  entire  reunion  with 
the  Church." 

Family  prayer  was  much  cultivated.  Dr. 
Tyng  visited  at  Oxford  "the  good  old  Dr. 
Hill,"  vice-principal  of  St.  Edmund's  Hall  :— 

"  When  the  evening's  conversation  closed,  which 
had  been  much  enlivened  by  the  vocal  and  instru- 
mental music  of  the  ladies  of  the  family,  the  Bibles 
and  hymn-books  were  brought  forward,  and  I  was 
invited  to  lead  them  in  their  worship  with  prayer 
and  exposition  of  the  word.  This  is  the  uniform 
distinctive  habit  of  pious  families  whom  I  met  in 

These  extracts  are  taken  from  Dr.  Tyng's 
letters  to  his  Philadelphia  parishioners,  re- 
printed by  Bagsters  in  1847.  Among  other 
distinguished  persons  he  met  Lords  Ashley, 
Bexley,  Glenelg,  Harrowby,  and  Teign  mouth, 
Sir  T.  D.  Acland,  the  Chevalier  Bunsen,  and 
about  a  score  of  bishops.  I  conclude  with  his 
remarks  on  the  custom  of  drinking  port  and 
sherry.  At  the  great  religious  anniversaries 
"  it  is  the  general  custom  to  have  decanters  of  wine 
in  the  Committee- rooms  and  on  the  jtable  of  the 
Secretary  on  the  platform.  I  can  hardly  say  what 
Societies  were  exceptions  to  this  rule,  or  whether 

any  were.  But  the  American  clergyman  must  get 
habituated  to  this,  for  even  in  many  of  the  vestry- 
rooms  of  the  churches  and  chapels  the  sexton  will 
offer  him  a  glass  of  wine  as  a  needful  refreshment 
after  preaching." 

This  practice,  indeed,  prevailed  much  later 
than  1842.  EICHARD  H.  THORNTON. 

Portland,  Oregon. 

See  'Long  Administrations'  (9th  S.  vi.  245, 
310)  for  a  controversy  :  "  Lord  Salisbury  has 
now  been  Prime  Minister  longer  than  any 
other  statesman  since  the  passing  of  the 
Reform  Bill."  The  following  appeared  in  the 
Sheffield  Daily  Telegraph  dated  Monday, 
14  July,  and  may  be  given  : — 


It  is  worthy  of  note  that  Lord  Salisbury  has  been 
at  the  head  of  the  State  longer  than  any  other  man 

of  our  time and,  confining  ourselves  to  what  we 

usually  speak  of  as  "  modern  times,"  we  find  that 
Lord  Salisbury  easily-  holds  the  record If  the 

Eremierships  of  the  Victorian  era  in  days  be  tabu- 
ited,  and  the  length  of  Lord  Salisbury's  service  be 
brought  up  to  Friday  last,  the  list  stands  thus  :— 


Lord  Salisbury  5,009 

Lord  Melbourne    ...2,492 

Sir  Robert  Peel 1,876 

Lord  John  Russell.. 2,303 
Lord  Derby 1,3£2 


Lord  Aberdeen  774 

Lord  Palmerston  ...3,434 
Lord  Beaconsfield... 2,528 

Mr.  Gladstone    4,498 

Lord  Rosebery 486 

H.  J.  B. 

"REAPERED." — The  use  of  machinery  in 
agriculture  is  affecting  the  language  of  the 
country  by  the  introduction  of  new  and 
strange  verbs.  A  man  told  me  the  other 
day  that  he  should  not  mow  his  grass,  but 
"  reaper  "  it ;  and  Mr.  Howells,  in  his  recently 
published  novel  'The  Kentons,'  speaks  of  a 
garden  as  having  been  well  "  lawn-mowered 
and  garden-hosed."  Mr.  Howells  ought  to 
know  better;  but,  for  some  perverse  reason, 
he  loves  to  set  his  readers'  teeth  on  edge  by 
an  occasional  ugly  phrase  of  this  sort. 

AN  OLD  GLASGOW  HOUSE.— Near  Glasgow 
Cathedral  there  is  an  ancient  dwelling, 
variously  known  as  "  Black  Land,"  "  Provan's 
Lordship,"  and  the  "Stable-Green  Port." 
This  building  has  for  long  exercised  archaeo- 
logists, who  are  not  unanimous  regarding  the 
date  of  its  erection,  while  agreed  as  to  its 
very  considerable  age.  An  attractive  theory, 
urged  by  a  writer  in  the  Glasgow  Evening 
News  of  25  July,  assigns  it  to  the  fifteenth 
century,  and  makes  it  the  residence  of 
James  IV.  in  his  character  of  cathedral  pre- 
bendary and  of  Mary,  Queen  of  Scots,  just 
before  she  removed  Darnley  to  the  Kirk  o' 
Field.  The  latter  contention  is  supported  by 



s.  x.  AUG.  9,  1902. 

a  tradition  to  the  effect  that  the  north  attic 
of  the  house  used  to  be  known  as  "Queen 
Mary's  garret."  The  venerable  structure  has 
an  aspect  that  creditably  supports  the  claims 
thus  made  for  it.  Historic  dignity  and 
haunting  legend  are  suggested  by  its  style 
and  its  manifest  familiarity  with  the  move- 
ment of  centuries.  The  journalist  already 
mentioned  considers  it  as  "certainly  the 
oldest  dwelling-house  in  the  city." 


FERDINANDO.  (See  .ante,  p.  60.) — In  your 
review  of  the  '  Registers  of  the  Parish  Church 
of  Wigan '  note  is  made  of  the  infrequency 
of  the  use  of  the  name  Ferdinando,  and  the 
second  Lord  Fairfax,  born  1584,  is  mentioned 
as  an  example.  It  must  have  escaped  the 
memory  of  the  reviewer  that  the  name  of 
the  fifth  Earl  of  Derby  was  Ferdinando.  The 
occurrence  of  the  name  at  Wigan  would  very 
probably  be  due  to  the  proximity  of  the 
powerful  owner  of  the  uncommon  Christian 
name.  In  none  of  my  books  of  reference  is 
it  stated  exactly  when  Ferdinando,  Earl  of 
Derby,  was  born,  but  it  is  said  that  he  died 
16  April,  1594,  leaving  behind  him,  from  his 
wife  Alice,  third  daughter  of  Sir  John  Spencer, 
Knt.,  of  Althorpe,  three  daughters.  Hence 
he  was  born  some  considerable  time  before 
1584,  the  date  of  the  birth  of  Lord  Fairfax. 

In  Baines's  'History  of  Lancashire,' vol.  iv. 
17-18,  is  given  an  extract  from  Harl.  MS. 
247,  fos.  204a,  205,  containing  an  account  of 
the  death  of  Ferdinando,  which  is  therein 
attributed  to  witchcraft,  though  others  have 
suspected  that  the  death  was  due  to  poison 
administered  by  his  master  of  the  horse. 

The  three  daughters  were  : — 

(1)  Anne,  married  first  Grey  Brydges,  Lord 
Chandos ;  secondly,  Mervin,  Earl  of  Castle- 

(2)  Frances,  married  John  Egerton,  Earl  of 
Bridge  water. 

(3)  Elizabeth,    married    Henry    Hastings, 
fifth  Earl  of  Huntingdon.  J.  H.  K. 

PRAYER  BOOK.— In  Wadham  College  Library 
there  may  be  found  in  a  separate  room  a 
valuable  collection  of  Spanish  books,  pre- 
sented to  the  college  by  the  representatives 
of  the  late  Mr.  B.  B.  Wiffen.  The  collection 
has  been  catalogued  by  the  skilful  and 
scholarly  hand  of  Mr.  George  Parker,  M.A., 
Senior  Assistant  in  the  Bodleian  Library. 
Among  the  books  which  have  thus  found  in 
Wadham  a  safe  and  quiet  retreat  are  rare 
copies  of  translations  of  the  Bible  into 
Spanish,  translations  of  the  Book  of  Com- 
mon Prayer,  and  many  commentaries  and 

works  on  controversial  divinity  by  famous 
Spanish  Reformers,  for  the  most  part 
printed  in  the  Netherlands.  Among  the 
Prayer  Books  there  is  a  Common  Prayer 
entitled  "La  Liturgia  Ynglesa  o  El  Libro 
de  la  Oracion  Comun.  Hispanizado  por  D. 
Felix  de  Alvaradp,  Ministro  de  la  Yglesia 
Anglicana.  Edicion  Segunda  Corregida  y 
Augmentada.  Londres,  MDCCXV."  This  copy 
contains  some  pages  of  MS.  notes  in  the 
hand  of  Mr.  Wiffen,  a  portion  of  which 
are  copied  from  memoranda  in  a  copy 
of  the  same  book  in  the  sale  of  the 
library  of  Dr.  Bliss,  Registrar  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  Oxford,  which  took  place  in  July, 
1858.  The  first  extract  in  Mr.  Wiffen's  copy 
is  a  letter  from  the  Duke  of  Wellington  to 
"The  Rev'1  P.  Bliss,  Registrar  of  the  Uni- 
versity, Oxford.  Free.  Wellington."  Besides 
the  letter  in  Mr.  Wiffen's  handwriting  there 
is  a  tracery  of  the  Duke's  letter  and  of  the 
address  in  facsimile.  I  give  the  letter  as  it 
appears  in  the  facsimile : — 

London  May  31  1837. 


I  am  much  obliged  to  you  for  the  account  of  the 
Prayer  Book. 

It  was  given  me  by  Lady  Elinor  Butler  &  Miss 
Ponsonby  two  Irish  Ladies  of  whom  you  may 
have  heard  who  resided  at  Llangollen  in  North 
Wales.  It  probably  descended  to  Lady  Elinor  from 
Her  Ancestor  the  Duke  of  Ormond  who  I  bel[i]eve 
resided  in  Spain  after  His  Attainder. 

Has  it  ever  been  printed  by  the  University.  The 
translation  is  so  good  that  I  am  astonished  that 
you  should  not  print  an  Edition  of  it. 

I  beg  you  will  keep  it  till  you  will  have  satisfied 
yourself  that  you  have  obtained  all  the  information 
that  can  be  got. 

Beleeve  me  Ever  Yours  most  faithfully, 

The  Revd  Dr  Bliss.  WELLINGTON. 

Here  follows  Dr.  Bliss's  note,  which  Mr. 
Wiffen  says  was  written  on  the  fly-leaf  : — 

"  When  the  Duke  of  Wellington  first  went  to 
Spain  he  had  from  adverse  winds,  a  much  longer 
passage  than  usual,  during  which  with  a  copy  of 
this  Liturgy  and  a  common  Spanish  Grammar  he 
niade  himself  master  of  the  Language,  so  much  so 
indeed  that  as  his  Grace  himself  told  me,  he  was 
surprised  to  find  that  he  could  make  out  nearly  the 
whole  of  a  speech  addressed  to  him  on  landing  by 
the  principal  officer  of  the  Port  at  which  he  and  the 
troops  under  his  command  disembarked. 

"  The  Duke  being  anxious  to  know  something  of 
the  Book  and  the  translator  sent  it  to  me  in  1837, 
when  1  made  out  the  best  account  I  could  and  for- 
warded it  with  the  volume  which  his  Grace  had 
given  to  a  Lady." 

Mr.  Wiffen  notes  that  the  first  edition  of 
the  '  Liturgia '  appeared  in  1707,  and  that  the 
translator,  Don  Felix  de  Alvarado,  is  also 
known  for  his  translation  of  Barclay's  '.Apo- 
logy,' 1710,  of  which  a  thousand  copies  were 
printed  by  the  Society  of  Friends. 

9th  S.  X.  AUG.  9, 1902.] 



Mr.  Wiffen  lias  also  a  note  on  Lady  Elinor 
Butler  and  Miss  Ponsonby,  who,  as  Words- 
worth well  expressed  it,  "had  retired  into 
notoriety."  But  I  need  not  transcribe  it,  as 
their  romantic  friendship  and  life  in  the  Vale 
of  Llangollen  are  known  to  every  tourist  in 
North  Wales.  See  Wordsworth's  '  Miscel- 
laneous Sonnets,'  ix. 


"  THE  MAN  IN  THE  STREET."  —  A  corre- 
spondent of  the  Spectator  of  26  July  gives  a 
quotation  from  the  '  Greville  Memoirs '  which 
snows  that  Greville  uses  the  phrase  "the 
man  in  the  street "  in  his  account  of  the 
Reform  agitation  of  1831.  The  correspondent 
says  : — 

"  It  should  be  noted  that  Greville  a.;d  Mr.  Balfour 
when  speaking  of  '  the  man  in  the  street '  regard 
that  shadowy  personality  from  different  points  of 
view.  Mr.  Balfour  cited  him  as  a  type  of  mere 
ignorance,  Greville  as  a  type  of  ignorance  laying 
claim  to  omniscience." 

Is  any  earlier  instance  of  the  use  of  this 
phrase  known  ] 

[Quoted  from  Emerson  (1860)  at  9th  S.  ii.  131.] 

"  COBURG."  —  This  word  appears  in  the 
'H.E.D.'  as  the  name  of  a  dress  material  for 
ladies,  once  so  popular  that  1  have  known  a 
draper  to  style  his  shop  "Coburg  House,"  but 
now,  I  think,  out  of  commerce.  It  denotes 
also  a  bun-shaped  loaf  with  a  crosswise  de- 
pression on  the  convex  surface,  to  be  seen  in 
nearly  all  bakers'  shops,  and  has  done  so  for 
perhaps  sixty  years  or  more ;  but  Dr.  Murray 
ignores  this  use  of  the  word,  although  he 
notices  another  pistorial  term  for  a  loaf  of  a 
different  shape — a  "cottage  loaf,"  or,  shortly, 
a  "  cottage."  F.  ADAMS. 

"ARISING  OUT  OF." — Those  who  attend  the 
Strangers'  Gallery  of  the  House  of  Commons 
are  aware  that  in  very  recent  times  indeed 
the  practice  has  arisen,  and  has  now  become 
almost  invariable,  even  among  those  who 
ought  to  know  better,  of  prefacing  supple- 
mentary questions  by  the  un-English  and 
ridiculous  words,  "Arising  out  of  that  ques- 
tion, I  wish  to  ask."  An  excellent  and  amus- 
ing article  by  Mr.  Michael  Macdonagh  on  the 
Prime  Minister  in  a  strong  number  of  the 
Fortnightly  Review  introduces  the  phrase  to 
literature :  "  Forty  years  later  the  Times, 
arising  out  of  the  resignation  of  Pitt  in  1801, 
ridiculed  a  contemporary."  This  quotation 
shows  that  not  only  does  the  practice  of  one 
member  of  the  House  "come  off"  on  to 
another,  but  that  the  usual,  though  absurd 
practice  of  the  House  itself  affects  "  the 
Gallery."  There  is,  by  the  way,  another  error 

in  this  entertaining  article  —  namely,  the  mis- 
spelling ("  Packingham  ")  of  the  name  -.of  the 
brothers-in-law  of  the  Duke  of  Wellington. 
The  general  who  was  one  of  them  met  with 
mishap  in  the  United  States  when  command- 
ing the  best  troops  of  the  army  from  the 
Peninsula,  which  even  Waterloo  did  not  cause 
bo  be  forgotten,  and  the  name  of  Pakenham 
is  unfortunately  still  notorious  in  English 
history.  A.  O.  O. 

WE  must  request  correspondents  desiring  infor- 
mation on  family  matters  of  only  private  interest 
to  affix  their  names  and  addresses  to  their  queries, 
in  order  that  the  answers  may  be  addressed  to  them 

LONGFELLOW.—  In  1868  H.  W.  Longfellow 
and  his  family  visited  this  country  and  the 
Lake  District  of  Cumberland  and  Westmor- 
land. Can  you  or  any  of  your  readers  tell  me 
the  name  of  the  vessel  in  which  they  came 
over  from  America  ?  I  am  anxious  to  know 
as  I  have  a  small  plan  in  pencil  of  the  berths 
of  the  vessel  occupied  by  the  poet  and  his 
family,  drawn  by  himself.  It  was  given  by 
Longfellow  to  Richard  Chorley,  who  was  then 
clerk  at  the  Crown  Hotel,  Bowness,  where 
the  great  American  stayed  for  some  days,  and 
by  Richard  Chorley  given  to  the  writer. 


TIONED." —  The  following  lines  I  once  met 
with  in  a  sermon  by  Wilberforce,  and  now 
quote  from  memory,  perhaps  imperfectly  :  — 

Faith,  Hope,  and  Love  were  questioned 
Of  future  glory  which  religion  taught. 
Now  Faith  believed  it  firmly  to  be  true, 
And  Hope  expected  so  to  find  it,  too. 
Love  answered  with  a  conscious  glow  : 
"Believe  !  expect  !    I  know  it  to  be  so." 

I  shall  be  glad  to  have  my  version  corrected 
and  to  know  the  name  of  the  author. 

W.  F.  G.  S. 

CARDINAL  ALLEN.—  Any  reference  to  the 
above  will  oblige.  He  is  said  to  have  been 
related  to  Wartons  of  Warton  Hall,  Lanes, 
1598.  Were  they  connected  with  Anthony 
Warton,  born  1581  at  Walton,  Lanes  ? 

A.  C.  H. 

[The  life  of  Cardinal  Allen  in  the'D.N.B.'  ex- 
tends to  nearly  fifteen  columns.  There  is  a  shorter 
account  in  '  Chambers's  Encyclopaedia.'] 

LINES  IN  PURCELL.  —  Can  any  reader  identify 
the  following  verses  and  the  play  from  which 
they  are  taken  ?  They  occur  in  a  late  seven- 
teenth-century MS.  headed  "  The  Musick  in 
the  Play,"  ana  the  initials  H.  P.  (presumably 



s.  x.  A™.  9,  iwa 

Henry  Purcell)  are  given  as  those  of  the 
composer,  though  I  have  not  found  them  in 
any  other  collection  of  Purcell's  music  : — 

When  Night  her  purple  vail  had  softly  spread 
And  busie  men  assembled  with  the  dead, 
When  all  was  hush'd  but  Zephire's  gentle  breath 
Which  cools  the  Aire,  perfuming  all  the  earth  ; 
With  silken  wings  thro'  murmuring  forests  flyes 
Spreading  the   sweets  which  from  the  Woodbine 


With  hasty  steps  and  a  wild  [mild  ?]  thoughtf ull  aire 
Heedless  of  danger,  guided  by  dispair 
The  lovely  Damon  strives   in   thickest  shades  to 

On  whom  all  Graces  do  and  all  desires  would  fix. 

Under  a  mossy  oake  he  thus  begun 

Which  bending  seem'd  to  listen  as  he  sung : 

"  Ah  Silvia,  ah  unkind,  ah  cruell  faire 

To  him  so  gentle,  to  me  too  severe, 

Sweeter  then  the  flow'ry  Spring 

Then  the  dews  which  bees  do  bring 

From  opening  budds  with  carefull  wing 

Which  when  I  strive  to  taste,  like  them  you  sting. 

Great  God  of  Love,  to  thee  I  cry, 

Ah  pitty,  pitty,  for  I  dye. 
While  Silvia  to  a  monster  yeilds  her  every  joy." 
His  trembling  lips  stopt  here,  nor  cou'd  he  more, 
But  like  a  shipwreck  thrown  upon  the  shore 
Dashed  with  his  tears  all  o'er  extended  lay 
Then  starting  up  and  with  a  mien  that  shew'd 
Disdainfull  joy,  he  smiling  thus  pursu'd  : 

"Dispair,  thou  bane  to  my  heart, 

For  ever  we  '11  part, 

Begone,  tormenting  care, 

Her  beast  let  her  have, 
I  '11  ne'er  be  a  slave  to  a  barbarous  faire." 


SCHOOL  IN  SCOTLAND.  —  I  shall  be  much 
obliged  to  any  correspondent  who  will  tell 
me  in  what  town  of  Scotland  was,  at  the 
beginning  of  the  last  century,  "  Mr.  Andrew's 
School,  Drummond  Street,"  of  which  I  have 
a  book-plate.  JULIAN  MARSHALL. 

Fox.— On  a  document  relating  to  an  Ex- 
chequer annuity,  date  1705,  I  observe  the 
name  of  Charles  Fox,  who  is  described  as 
"  Paymaster  of  Her  Majesty's  Forces  abroad," 
and  in  one  of  1706  he  is  called  "late  Pay- 
master." Will  any  one  kindly  tell  me  if  this 
was  the  son  of  Sir  Stephen  Fox  (and  half- 
brother  of  the  first  Lord  Holland),  who, 
according  to  the  'Dictionary  of  National 
Biography,'  was  named  after  his  godfather, 
Charles  II.,  and  died  childless  in  September, 
1713,  being  buried  at  Farley  ? 


45,  Evelyn  Gardens,  South  Kensington. 

—In  my  schoolboy  days  in  Dublin  a 
charming  actress  named  Miss  Emily  Sanders 
was  engaged  in  the  Queen's  Theatre,  under 
Mr.  Henry  Webb,  and  in  1857  married  Sir 

W.  H.  Don,  Bart.  Sir  William,  after  his 
marriage,  retired  from  the  (I  think)  3rd 
Dragoon  Guards,  and  became  a  successful 
actor.  May  it  be  surmised  that  Sir  W.  H. 
Don  and  his  wife,  nee  Sanders,  were  the  pro- 
totypes of  the  Hon.  George  D'Alroy  and  his 
wife,  ne'e  Eccles,  the  hero  and  heroine  in 
Robertson's  '  Caste '  ?  '  Caste '  was  first  pro- 
duced in  the  old  Prince  of  Wales's  Theatre 
off  Tottenham  Court  Road,  and  recently  re- 
vived, with  great  success,  by  Messrs.  Harri- 
son and  Maude  in  "  the  little  theatre  in  the 
Haymarket."  HENRY  GERALD  HOPE. 

119,  Elms  Road,  Clapham,  S.W. 

M'QUILLANS  OF  DUNLUCE.— Could  any  one 
give  me,  or  tell  me  where  I  could  fina,  the 
coat  of  arms  and  crest  of  the  M'Quillans  of 
Dunluce,  co.  Antrim?  I  have  access  to 
Edmondson's  'Heraldry,'  Burke's  'Peerage,' 
'  Landed  Gentry,'  '  Family  Crests  of  Great 
Britain  and  Ireland,'  &c.,  but  I  have  not 
succeeded  in  finding  either  the  coat  of  arms 
or  crest.  B.  L.  M'QuiLLAN. 

14  June,  1642,  were  married,  by  licence,  at 
St.  Dunstan's,  Stepney,  "  Richard  Pepis  of 
St.  Bartholomews  neare  the  Royall  Exchange, 
Upholder,  and  Anne  Saunderson,  daughter 
of  Robert  Saunderson,  of  the  Citty  of  London, 
Innholder";  while  on  6  April,  1766,  at  St. 
Helen's,  Bishopsgate,  a  marriage  was  solem- 
nized between  Richard  Pepys,  widower,  and 
Mary  Sanderson,  spinster,  both  of  the  parish 
of  St.  Helen's.  I  should  be  obliged  for  any 
information  in  respect  of  their  ancestors  and 
descendants.  Particulars,  no  matter  how 
small,  would  be  very  thankfully  received, 
and  duly  acknowledged. 

Nightingale  Lane,  Wanstead. 

reader  of  'N.  &  Q.'  tell  me  of  any  book 
containing  descriptions  and  illustrations  of 
the  graves  of  distinguished  Englishmen 
buried  abroad  ?  I  refer  to  such  instances  as 
Keats  and  Shelley  at  Rome,  Smollett  at  Leg- 
horn, and  Landor  at  Florence,  and  not  to 
persons  of  merely  official  or  diplomatic 
importance  in  their  day.  CHARLES  HIATT. 

A  NOMINAL  BURDEN. — The  Crown  Prince 
of  Portugal  has  no  fewer  than  sixteen  Christian 
names.  Did  ever  anybody  have  more  ?  His 
Royal  Highness  is  Louis  Philippe  Marie 
Charles  Atnelio  Ferdinand  Victor  Manuel 
Antoine  Laurent  Miguel  Raphael  Gabriel 
Gonzague  Xavier  Francis.  Well  was  it  for 
him  that  circumstances  defended  his  infant 
days  from  the  inquiries  of  the  Church 

9th  S.  X.  Auo.  9, 1902.] 



Catechism  !  For  him  even  the  first  answer, 
so  easy  for  most  of  us,  would  have  called  for 
the  exercise  of  a  real  feat  of  memory. 


KNIGHTS  OF  THE  GARTER. — Has  any  com- 
moner in  Great  Britain  received  the  Garter? 
If  so,  please  give  names.  I  know,  if  bio- 
graphies are  to  be  relied  on,  two  com- 
moners who  were  offered,  but  refused  this 
distinction — viz.,  William  Pitt  and  Sir  Robert 
Peel.  An  exhaustive  communication  on 
this  subject  will  be,  no  doubt,  of  great 
interest  to  many.  E.  A. 


FAMILY  CRESTS. — Is  there  any  book  on  the 
above  on  the  same  plan  as  Pa"p  worth's  '  Ordi- 
nary of  British  Armorials/  by  which,  on 
referring  to  a  crest,  one  is  enabled  at  a 
glance  to  see  what  family  bears  it?  I  am 
acquainted  with  Fairbairn's  and  other 
similar  works ;  but  I  want  the  antithesis  to 
these,  if  such  a  work  exists. 


"  BILLY  "= TIN  CAN.— Mr.  Samuel  Butler, 
in  'Erewhon  Revisited,'  p.  18,  informs  his 
readers  that  this  word  is  doubtless  of  French- 
Canadian  origin,  and  is  derived  from  faire 
bouillir.  The  '  H.E.D."  ignores  this  ety- 
mology. Is  there  anything  in  it  ?  C.  C.  B. 

'  PURCHAS  HIS  PILGRIMES,'  1625.— I  shall  be 
glad  to  hear  of  the  whereabouts  of  copies  of 
this  book,  of  their  condition,  and  of  their 
history.  RONALD  DIXON. 

46,  Marlborough  Avenue,  Hull. 

"LOOPHOLE." — Is  it  possible  to  explain 
loop  in  loophole  by  any  of  the  senses  of  loop 
as  recorded  in  the  old  Dutch  dictionaries  ? 
In  the  'Nuevo  Tesoro  de  las  dos  Lenguas 
Espafiola,  y  Flamenca,'  printed  "En  Amberes 
en  casa  de  leronymo  y  Juan  Baptista  Ver- 
dussen.  M.DC.LIX.,"  the  expression  "loopdes 
roers  " — i.e.,  "  the  tube  or  barrel  of  the  cannon  " 
— is  translated  "cafion  de  vn  arcabuz,  o, 
escopeta."  It  may  be  therefore  that  "  loop- 
hole "  came  into  our  English  tongue  from  the 
Dutch,  in  the  sense  of  a  gun  or  cannon  hole 
in  the  wall  of  a  fortified  building. 


[One  of  the  suggestions  as  to  the  derivation  of 
loophole  offered  by  PALAMEDES  at  9th  S.  iv.  347  was 
that;  it  might  be  from  loop— the  barrel  of  a  gun.] 

LlNES     WRITTEN     ON     A     WITHERED     WlLD 

FLOWER.  —  May  I  make  inquiry,  through 
the  columns  of  '  N.  &  Q.,'  for  the  name  of  the 
author  of  the  exquisitely  beautiful  poem 
reprinted  in  the  Sfar  (San  Francisco)  of 
5  March,  1892  ?  It  originally  appeared  about 

thirty  years  ago  anonymously  in  Chambers^ 
Journal,  and  has  been,  repeatedly  published 
since  that  time  in  the  newspapers  of  the 
United  States.  It  seems  to  me  to  be  a  strain 
of  pure  poetry,  and  begins  as  follows  : — 

Relic  of  early  days  !    My  casual  hand 
Hath  made  discovery  of  thy  long  retreat, 
As  carelessly  I  turned  the  time-worn  page 
Unconscious  of  its  import,  for  my  thoughts 
Were  idly  roving — not  on  learned  lore, 
Or  marked  and  measured  task.     I  look  on  theo, 
Poor  withered  thing,  and  memory's  current  flows 
Back,  back  upon  the  past. 

Mills  Building,  San  Francisco. 

PoLYGRAPHic  HALL.— Am  I  correct  in  the 
supposition  that  a  place  of  entertainment  so 
named  stood  on  the  site  of  the  Folly,  after- 
wards Toole's  Theatre  ?  I  have  a  handbill  of 
a  performance  given  there  by  Mr.  W.  S. 
Woodin,  without  date,  but  presumably  about 
1845-50.  .  ALECK  ABRAHAMS. 

have  been  informed  that  there  are  variations 
in  the  title-page  of  the  first  edition  of  White- 
field's  '  Hymqs,'  1753.  I  shall  be  glad  if  any 
hymnologist  who  is  possessed  of  a  copy  of 
the  above  edition  will  communicate  a  tran- 
script of  the  title-page.  H.  E.  H.  J. 

Swansea  Public  Librltry. 

DOROTHEA  RUTTER.  —  Can  .one  of  your 
readers  learned  in  genealogy  tell  me  any- 
thing further  concerning  this  lady  ?  I  know 
an  old  print,  which  I  may  describe  as  follows. 
In  an  oval  a  female  head  and  bust,  three- 
quarter  face,  with  the  characteristic  low 
neck  and  curls  of  the  period.  Without  the 
oval  are  four  shields  :  at  the  top  the  dexter 
shield  frames  the  inscription  "  Dominse 
Dorothea  Rutter";  the  sinister  is  filled  by 
a  coat  of  arms,  Quarterly,  1  and  4,  Rutter 
of  Kingsley  (Gu.,  three  garbs  or ;  on  a  chief 
az.  a  lion  pass,  ar.) ;  2  and  3,  three  arrows 
armed  and  feathered  ;  at  the  bottom  the 
dexter  shield  contains  the  words  "  Martij 
21mo  Vera  Effigies  166£";  the  sinister,  "Anno 
J^tatis  suse  ult.  et  31mo."  Beneath  the  whole 
appear  .the  lines  : — 

Life  more  abundant  in  her  lookes  you  see : 
Picture  her  Soule  ;  a  Heav'nly  Saint  is  Shee  ! 

A.  R.  BAYLEY. 

births,  deaths,  marriages,  promotions,  bank- 
ruptcies, &c.,  noticed  in  the  'Historical 
Register'  (1714  to  1738)  and  the  'Political 
State  of  Great  Britain '  (1711  to  1740)  ever 
been  indexed  ;  and,  if  so,  by  whom  ? 



NOTES  AND  QUERIES.         [9*  s.  x.  A™.  9, 1902. 

(9th  S.  ix.  124,  290.) 

I  AM  sure  that  I  am  not  the  only  reader 
of  '  N.  &  Q.'  who  would  appreciate  further 
quotations  from  that  singular  document  dis- 
covered by  CHEVRON  and  set  forth  at  the 
second  reference. 

Doubtless  it  was  the  hilarity  of  the  occasion 
which  induced  Henry  I.  of  Germany  to  date 
this  precious  record  "938,"  being  just  two 
years  after  his  death.  The  same  motive,  no 
doubt,  induced  him  to,  for  the  moment,  adopt 
officially  his  nickname,  "  the  Fowler."  Docu- 
ments might  be  produced  in  which  "  Charles 
the  Fat  "or  "Louis  the  Debonnaire,"  "John 
Lackland"  or  "Edward  Longshanks,"  &c., 
appear  as  the  official  title  or  style  of  royalty. 
Such  may  be  rare,  but  not  more  so  than  that 
CHEVRON  is  the  happy  possessor  of.  Then, 
again,  how  did  Henry  I.  happen  to  make  that 
singular  error  in  his  title?  He  was  never 
crowned  JSmperor ;  the  title  was  in  abeyance 
from  the  death  of  the  Emperor  Arnoulf,  899, 
to  the  crowning  of  Otto  I.  by  Pope  John  XII., 
2  February,  962. 

I  am  in  the  woods,  and  have  only  some 
slight  notes  to  refer  to,  so  all  this  is  subject 
to  correction ;  but  I  would  humbly  suggest 
to  CHEVRON  three  points  which  might  be 
worth  looking  up  : — 

1.  Was  the   title   "  Imperatoris   Augusti " 
used    at    the    time    in    question,    even    by 
emperors  ? 

2.  To   make    sure    of    the    antiquity    of 

3.  The  extremely  early  occurrence  of  the 
tournaments  mentioned.    I  laboured  under 
the  impression— shared  in,  I  think,  by  Wood- 
ward and  others— that  the  first  tournament 
of  which  we  have  a  definite  record  was  held 
at  Nuremberg,  1127,  under  Lothaire  II. 

Might  I  also  make  so  bold  as  to  suggest 
that  before  accusing  poor  America— presum- 
ing CHEVRON  means  the  United  States— of 
heraldic  thefts,  it  might  be  well  for  him  to 
glance  over  some  of  the  articles  in  the  Satur- 
day Review  of  a  few  years  ago,  in  which  Mr. 
Fox-Davies,  an  authority  dangerous  to  con- 
tradict, sets  forth  how  peers,  prelates,  and 
commoners,  who  certainly  could  not  plead 
ignorance,  stole  similar  articles  with  a  bare- 
faced coolness  never  before  equalled  1 

CHEVRON  asks,  "What  can  the  upholders 
of  the  bald  statement  have  to  say  after  this 
dated  document  1 " 

The  (mis)dated  document  will  not,  I  greatly 
fear,  influence  very  markedly  the  prevailing 

belief  regarding  the  beginnings  of  heraldry  ; 
especially  will  it  not  influence  those  who  have 
the  misfortune  to  be  obliged  to  study  similar 

It  seems  to  me  that  a  better  argument 
would  be  to  produce  an  example,  even  a 
solitary  one,  of  a  fairly  well-authenticated 
armorial  bearing  on  a  contemporaneous  seal, 
carving,  shield,  illumination,  &c.,  earlier  than 
1150.  Personally  I  know  of  no  genuine  one 
prior  to  1164,  always  excepting  the  very 
curious  marks  and  figures  on  the  pennons, 
and  those  on  the  shields  (which  latter  are 
different  from  those  on  the  pennons),  depicted 
in  that  undated  document,  the  so-called 
"  Bayeux  tapestry,"  which  marks,  Wace 
assures  us,  enabled  one  Norman  to  know 

I  take  this  opportunity  to  offer  a  suggestion 
which  seems  to  me  possibly  of  some  slight 
weight,  in  case  I  happen  to  be  in  the  right. 
I  have  examined,  as  no  doubt  many  others 
have,  numerous  series  of  family  seals,  prin- 
cipally French.  Previous  to,  say,  1160-1180 
the  knightly  bearer  of  the  shield  never,  or 
most  rarely,  shows  the  front  of  his  shield. 
After  the  epoch  mentioned  the  front  of  the 
shield  is  always  shown,  and  it  always  bears 
a  true  heraldic  device,  which  device  is,  with 
the  rarest  exception,  the  present  known 
bearing  of  the  rider's  descendants. 

C.  E.  D. 

Dublin,  N.H. 

There  is  a  slight  question  of  chronology  here 
which  does  somewhat  affect  the  argument. 
We  are  referred  to  a  document  temp.  "  Hen- 
rici  I.  Aucupis,"  dated  DCCCCXXXVIII.,  at  Got- 
tingen, in  Saxony  ;  but  Henry  the  Fowler 
died  in  936,  two  years  previously,  and  Got- 
tingen town  is  first  named  by  Otho  I.,  son  of 
Henry.  If,  therefore,  Gottingen  was  till  then 
unknown,  there  could  have  been  no  tourna- 
ment there  under  Henry.  Two  years  is  a  small 
discrepancy,  but  what  other  evidence  is  there 
of  the  tournament  and  the  date  of  the  laws  ? 
while  "  insignia  "  means  banners  in  form  and 
shape,  not  coats  of  armour.  ABSENS. 

REFERENCES  WANTED  (9th  S.  x.  67).— 1.  A 
wily  abbot. — It  is,  of  course,  difficult  to  say 
whether  the  author  had  any  particular  abbot 
in  his  mind  or  not ;  but  probably  the  follow- 
ing story  of  Pope  Sixtus  V.  is  the  origin  of 
the  reference.  It  rests  upon  the  authority 
of  Gregorio  Leti,  the  historian,  but  has  been 
discredited.  When  cardinal  he  suddenly  led 
a  retired  life,  and  seemed  (although  in  his 
)rime)  to  succumb  to  the  weight  and  in- 
irmities  of  age,  always  used  a  crutch,  &c. 

a*  S.X.AUO.  8,1903.]         NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


Scarcely,  however,  had  he  been  elected  Pope 
before  he  threw  away  his  crutch  and  sang  the 
"  Te  Deum  "  with  a  powerful  voice.  A  few 
days  after,  being  complimented  on  this  re- 
markable change,  he  replied  that  before  his 
election  he  stooped  to  look  for  the  keys  of 
Paradise,  but,  having  found  them,  he  only 
looked  up  to  heaven,  no  longer  having  need 
of  earthly  things.  He  was  Pope  for  upwards 
of  five  years.  Allusion  is  often  made  in 
literature  both  to  the  crutch  of  Sixtus  V. 
and  to  stooping  to  look  for  the  keys  of 

4.  A  saw,  &c. — I  have  only  been  able  to 
ind  a  variant — 

He  that  is  down  can  fall  no  lower— 
which  occurs  in  Butler's  'Hudibras,'  part  i. 
canto  iii.  1.  877.     The  first  part  appeared  in 

He  that  is  down  needs  fear  no  fall, 
in  Bunyan's  '  Pilgrim's  Progress,'  dates  from 
1684  (i.e.,  the  second  part).    The  line  attri- 
buted to  Sir  Walter  Raleigh — 

Fain  would  I  climb,  but  that  I  fear  to  fall- 
is  older  than  either,  and  may  have  been  the 
origin  of  both  Bunyan's  and  Butler's  lines. 
I  find  also  that 
Fain  would  I,  but  I  dare  not ;   I  dare,  and  yet  I 

may  not, 

is  the  "first  line  of  a  lyric  by  Sir  Walter 
Raleigh."  EDWARD  LATHAM. 

61,  Friends  Road,  E.  Croydon. 

SAUCE  (9th  S.  ix.  407,  472). — It  was  a  curious 
coincidence,  seeing  that  I  had  no  recollection 
of  having  heard  this  saying  before,  that  the 
same  post  which  brought  me  '  N.  &  Q.'  of 
24  May  should  have  also  brought  me  a  Ceylon 
paper  (the  Ceylon  Observer  of  14  June)  con- 
taining another  version  of  it.  Here,  in  a  letter 
from  the  Archdeacon  of  Kansas,  it  is  applied 
to  that  part  of  Western  America.  He  says  : 

"  Western  America  is  swamped  with  every  con- 
ceivable type  of  schism  ever  heard  or  dreamt,  and 
one  is  forcibly  reminded  at  every  turn  of  the  young 
Englishman  who,  in  describing  the  country  in  a 
letter  home,  remarked,  'It's  all  right;  but  one 
strange  feature  is  that  there  are  150  different  kinds 
of  religions  and  only  one  kind  of  soup — "  noodle." ' 

J.  P.  L. 


OLD  SONGS  (9th  S.  ix.  388,  492 ;  x.  38).— 
'  The  Lincolnshire  Poacher '  has  been  claimed 
by  many  counties,  and  has  been  printed  as 
'  The  Nottinghamshire  Poacher,' '  The  Somer- 
setshire Poacher,'  and,  at  a  later  period,  as 
'  The  Lincolnshire  Poacher.'  Messrs.  Chappell 
published  it  under  the  last-named  title.  It 
was  arranged  by  Mr.  Hodson,  and  was  "  s.ung 

with  great  applause  by  Mr.  Brough."  In 
Boosey's  collection  of  '  Old  English  Songs '  it 
appears  under  what  was  probably  its  original 
title,  '  The  Poacher.'  As  a  regimental  quick- 
step it  has  long  been  popular  with  the  10th 
Foot  (North  Lincolnshire),  and  with  the  old 
69th  (Welsh)  Regiment,  formerly  known  as 
the  South  Lincolnshire,  now  better  known 
as  the  2nd  Battalion  10th  Lincolnshire  Regi- 
ment. The  present  "official"  arrangement 
of  the  melody  is  attributed  to  a  former  10th 
bandmaster,  Mr.  Young.  The  introduction 
to  the  quickstep  is  the  regimental  bugle-call 
of  the  1st  Battalion  10th  Regiment.  The 
wording  of  the  song  varies  slightly,  but  the 
following  is  probably  the  most  accurate  : — 

When  I  was  bound  apprentice  in  famous  Lincoln- 
Full  well  I  served  my  master  for  more  than  seven 

'Till  I  took  up  to  polching,  as  you  shall  quickly 

O  'tis  my  delight  on  a  shining  night,  in  the  season 

of  the  year. 

As  me  and  my  comarade  was  setting  of  a  snare, 
'Twas  then  we  spied  the  gamekeeper— for  him  we 

did  not  care. 
For  we  can  wrestle  and  fight,  my  boys,  and  jump 

o'er  anywhere. 
O  'tis  my  delight  on  a  shining  night,  in  the  season 

of  the  year.  ** 

As  me  and  my  comarade  were  setting  four  or  five. 
And  taking  on  them  up  again,  we  caught  the  hare 

We  caught  the  hare  alive,  my  boys,  and  through  the 

woods  did  steer. 
O  'tis  my  delight  on  a  shining  night,  in  the  season 

of  the  year. 

We  throdun  him  over  our  shoulder,  and  then  we 

trudged  home, 
We  took  him  to  a  neighbour's  house,  and  sold  him 

for  a  crown. 
We  sold  him  for  a  crown,  my  boys,  but  I  did  not 

tell  you  where. 
O  'tis  my  delight  on  a  shining  night,  in  the  season 

of  the  year. 

Success  to  every  gentleman  that  lives  in  Lincoln- 

Success  to  every  polcher  that  wants  to  sell  a  hare, 
Bad  luck  to  every  gamekeeper  that  will  not  sell  his 

0  'tis  my  delight  on  a  shining  night,  in  the  season 

of  the  year. 

A.  R.  C. 

KNURR  AND  SPELL  (9th  S.  ix.  385, 452,  511).— 
Your  correspondents  B.  (who  alludes  to  this 
game  being  played  fifty  years  ago  by  hun- 
dreds) and  W.  C.  B.  (who  says  "it  was  known 
as  dab  and  trigger"  and  that  he  "played  at  it 
many  times  about  1855-60")  have  evidently 
obtained  the  impression  that  it  is  a  game  of 
the  past.  Such,  however,  is  not  the  case,  as 
witness  the  following  from  the  Leeds  and 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.         [9*  s.  x.  AUG.  9, 1002. 

Yorkshire  Mercury  for  so  recent  a  date  as 
7  July  :— 

"  Nearly  600  people  assembled  at  the  Queen's 
Grounds,  Barnsley,  to  witness  a  contest  to  deter- 
mine the  longest  knock  in  twenty  rises,  with  wood- 
heads  and  pot  knurs,  for  50/.,  between  Charles 
Langley,  Penistone,  and  C.  Galloway,  of  Broomhill. 
Betting  ruled  at  25s.  to  20-*.  on  Langley.  At  the  close 
it  was  round  that  Langley,  who  won  in  his  sixth  rise, 
sent  9  score  44  feet  ana  10^  inches.  At  the  Hare 
and  Hounds  Grounds,  Todmorden,  there  was  a  good 
company  on  Saturday,  when  E.  Whipp,  of  Todmor- 
den, and  M.  Greenwood,  of  Hebden  Bridge,  met  in 
a  knur  and  spell  match  to  decide  the  longest  knock 
in  thirty  rises  each,  for  3W.  Betting :  22  to  20  on 
Whipp.  Scores:  —  Whipp  9  score  12  yards,  to 
Greenwood  9  score  3  yards." 

48,  Hanover  Square,  Bradford. 

As  a  second  meaning  to  "  knur,"  Wright 
(quoting  North)  gives  "a  round  piece  of 
wood  used  in  a  game  called  knurspell."  The 
game  as  described  by  B.  is  not,  to  my  know- 
ledge, in  vogue  in  this  county.  When  quite 
a  young  child  I  remember,  however,  receiving 
as  a  present  from  my  uncle  a  set  of  the 
necessary  requisites.  These  consisted  of  a 
small  bat,  a  hard  wooden  ball,  and  a  trap. 
The  game  was  simply  called  "  bat  and  trap," 
but  it  failed  to  excite  much  enthusiasm 
amongst  my  playmates,  and  was  soon 
dropped.  JOHN  T.  PAGE. 

West  Haddon,  Northamptonshire. 

THE  GREAT  FROST  OF  1683-4  (5th  S.  xi.  145). 
— This  circumstance  is  commemorated  by  the 
Rev.  Benjamin  Camfield,  rector  of  Aileston, 
near  Leicester,  in  a  sermon  entitled  '  Of  God 
Almighty's  Providence  Both  in  the  Sending 
and  Dissolving  Great  Snows  and  Frosts,  And 
the  Improvement,  we  ought  to  make,  of  it. 
A  Sermon,  Occasioned  by  the  Late  Extreme 
Cold  Weather,  Preached  in  It  to  his  Neigh- 
bours, &c.'  (London,  1684).  The  preacher 
quotes  passages  from  Ovid,  Horace,  and 
Virgil ;  from  Buchanan  and  Vatablus  and 
Calvin  and  Munster  and  Scultetus  (sic)  and 
Hammond  and  Patrick,  among  the  moderns. 
He  evidently  had  a  well-stored  commonplace 
book.  The  citation  from  Ovid  is  particularly 
apt: — 

Quaque  rates  ierant,  pedibus  nunc  itur,  et  undas 
Frigore  concretas  ungula  pulsat  equi ; 

Perque  novos  pontes,  subter  labentibus  undis 
Ducunt  Sarmatici  barbara  plaustra  boves. 

Portland,  Oregon. 

ix.  506 ;  x.  34).— It  seems  to  me  that  the 
scarlet  satin  chimere  worn  as  the  Convocation 
dress  by  bishops  would  be  more  appropriate 
at  the  Coronation  than  anything  else,  and 

would  be  in  harmony.  This  is,  of  course, 
worn  over  the  rochet,  while  the  Bishop  of 
Winchester  might  wear  the  dress  as  prelate, 
and  the  Bishop  of  Oxford  as  Chancellor 
of  the  Order  of  the  Garter.  It  is  said  that 
Hooper,  Bishop  of  Gloucester,  objected  to 
the  chimere  being  made  of  scarlet,  and  con- 
sequently the  present  episcopal  "  magpie 
dress,"  as  it  is  styled,  was  adopted.  The 
cope  once  worn  at  Durham  Cathedral  fell 
long  ago  into  disuse,  but  several  specimens 
are  still  preserved  in  the  library  at  Durham 
Cathedral.  There  is  an  engraving  of  Dr.  Ire- 
land, then  Dean  of  Westminster,  wearing  a 
cope  and  carrying  the  crown  on  a  cushion  at 
the  coronation  of  George  IV.  in  1821.  He 
wears  a  surplice  underneath. 

Newbourne  Rectory,  Woodbridge. 

"  MUFFINEER"  (9th  S.  x.  28).— Charles  Annan- 
dale  in  his  'Imperial  Dictionary  '  and  'Nut- 
tail's  Standard  Dictionary '  both  give  the 
meaning  of  this  word,  "A  dish  for  keeping 
toasted  muffins  hot." 

71,  Brecknock  Road. 

(9th  S.  x.  27).— My  authority  for  the  statement 
is  to  be  found  in  the  preface  to  the  '  Diary  of 
General  Patrick  Gordon,'  printed  for  the 
Spalding  Club  in  1859.  The  concluding  para- 
graph in  that  preface  is  as  follows  : — 

"Thomas  Gordon,  a  nephew  of  Patrick  Iwano- 
witsch,  distinguished  himself  in  the  sea  service  of 
Russia,  which  he  entered  in  1717.  He  was  made 
Admiral  in  1727,  and  died  in  1741  at  Cronstadt,  of 
which  he  had  been  governor  for  nearly  twenty 

w.  s. 

In  1697  General  Gordon  at  the  head  of 
four  regiments  subdued  an  insurrection  near 
Moscow  ;  see  the  particulars  in  Tho.  Consett's 
'  Present  State  of  Russia,'  1729,  p.  xxxvi,  n. 

W.  C.  B. 

BIRMINGHAM  :  "  BRUMAGEM  "  (9th  S.  x.  22). 
— I  entirely  agree  with  MR.  DUIGNAN  that  the 
latter  is  no  vulgarism,  as  commonly  supposed, 
but  that  it  is  the  true  survival  of  the  archaic 
form.  I  can  testify  that  over  sixty  years 
ago,  long  before  "Brumagem"  had  become 
an  expressive  common  adjective,  it  was  so 
pronounced  by  people  who  had  never  heard 
of  "  Brumagem  jewellery."  The  old  con- 
servative peasantry  of  the  West  used  always 
to  speak  of  "up  to  Brumagem,  wher'  they 
maks  the  boourd  naails."  This  pronunciation 
by  a  people  whose  natural  tendency  is  to 
transpose  r  followed  by  a  vowel  (arid  who 
would  be  expected  to  say  Burm— )  seems  to 

9th  S.  X.  AUG.  9, 1902.] 



me  conclusive  of  MR.  DUIGNAN'S  contention. 
I  was  not  aware  of  the  early  instances  of  the 
present  polite  form  cited  by  him,  and  had 
always  rather  unquestioningly  accepted  the 
original  name  to  nave  been  Bromwichham. 
The  earliest  quotation  under  Brumagem  in 
4  H.E.D.'  is  Bromicham  ;  and  it  appears  that 
so  early  as  the  seventeenth  century  the  town 
had  acquired  an  evil  reputation  by  the  manu- 
facture of  counterfeit  coins,  hence  we  can 
readily  trace  the  development  of  the  place- 
name  into  a  term  for  sham  generally,  applied 
to  persons,  manners,  and  things.  The  term 
is  only  now  beginning  to  establish  its  place 
in  literature,  spelt  still  with  a  capital,  though 
the  inverted  commas  are  already  gone,  but 
will  not  have  become  a  household  word  like 
boycott  until  it  appears  in  the  Times  as 
brumagem.  F.  T.  ELWORTHY. 

TUM  '  (9th  S.  v.  108, 177,  382).—"  The  German's 
wit  is  in  his  fingers "  may  be  illustrated  by 
the  following  passage  from  Burton's  'Anatomy 
of  Melancholy '  ('  Democritus  to  the  Reader,' 
vol.  i.  pp.  101,  102,  in  Mr.  A.  R.  Shilleto's 
edition) : — 

"Nuremberg  in  Germany  is  sited  in  a  most 
barren  soil,  yet  a  noble  Imperial  city,  by  the  sole 
industry  of  artificers,  and  cunning  trades ;  they 
draw  the  riches  of  most  countries  to  them,  so  expert 
in  manufactures,  that,  as  Sallust  long  since  gave 
out  of  the  like,  sedem  animae  in  extremis  digitis 
habent,  their  soul,  or  intellectus  agens,  was  placed 
in  theii  fingers'  ends ;  &  so  we  may  say  of  Basil, 
Spires,  Camoray,  Frankfurt,  &c" 

Mr.  Shilleto  compares  the  German  proverb. 
"Nurnberger  Witz  und  kiinstliche  Hand 
finden  Wege  durch  alle  Land,"  and  notes  that 
"this  the  Latin]  quotation  is  certainly  not 
in  Sallust.  It  is  not  in  Dietsch's  very  com- 
plete index,  nor  could  a  writer  in  Notes  and 
Queries,  [1st  S.]  ii.  464,  find  it." 

The  University,  Adelaide,  South  Australia. 

KNIGHTHOOD  (9th  S.  x.  28).— Many  gentle- 
men paid  a  heavy  fine  to  be  excused  from 
attending  to  receive  knighthood  at  the  hands 
of  King  James  I.;  among  them  was  John 
Stephens  of  St.  Ives,  Cornwall.  See  the 
'  History  of  the  Borough  of  Saint  Ives ' 
(Elliot  Stock,  1892).  No  doubt  this  action 
was  taken  on  the  writ  referred  to. 


Town  Hall,  Cardiff. 

''LEAPS  AND  BOUNDS"  (6th  S.  iii.  229,  395; 
iv.  278  ;  7th  S.  i.  69,  153,  216,  296  ;  8th  S.  i.  86  ; 
v.  32 ;  ix.  427).— In  '  H.E.D.'  the  Illustrated 
London  Neios  of  8  August,  1885,  is  given  as 
the  only  authority  for  the  phrase  indicating 

an  advancement  "by  leaps  and  bounds," 
though  at  the  references  above  given  there 
are  various  earlier  and  more  classical  autho- 
rities adduced.  But,  as  far  as  the  present 
generation  of  Englishmen  is  concerned,  the 
phrase  is  best  known  as  having  been  used  by 
Gladstone — I  believe  in  the  seventies.  When 
and  where  did  that  statesman  employ  it? 


(9th  S.  ix.  241,  330  ;  x.  29).— I  ought  perhaps 
to  rest  content  with  having  written  upon  this 
subject  twice.  But  I  should  like  now  to 
offer  some  remarks  upon  MR.  A.  II.  BAYLEY'S 
note  at  the  second  reference,  and  his  state- 
ment that  William  of  Wykeham  "  is  supposed 
to  have  been  the  son  of  a  carpenter." 

I  cannot  find  anything  in  Lowth's  'Life  of 
William  of  Wykeham  '  (1758),  or  in  any  other 
trustworthy  account  of  the  bishop,  which 
justifies  the  supposition.  But  the  pleasant 
fiction  is  gaining -ground.  Thus  readers  of 
the  Ex-Libris  Journal  were  told  last  June 
(vol.  xii.  pt.  vi.  p.  69;  that  Wykeham 

"  was  the  first  of  his  family  to  bear  the  well-known 
coat  of  arms,  and  it  is  said  that  the  chevrons 
bear  witness  to  the  fact  that  he  was  the  son  of  a 
carpenter."  • 

This  reference  to  chevrons  suggests  the  origin 
of  the  fiction.  Nicholas  Upton,  a  Wyke- 
hamist, who  died  in  1457  ('  D.N.B.,'  Iviii.  39), 
in  his  '  De  Militari  Officio,'  lib.  iv.  (p.  246  in 
Bysshe's  edition  of  1654),  said,  speaking  of 
chevrons : — 

"Quo  quidem  signa  de  facto  primo  per  carpen- 
tarios  &  domorum  factores  portabantur.  Et  in 
latino  sermone  vocantur  tigna,  &  Gallice  vocantur 
Gheverons,  quia  domus  nunquam  perficitur,  quo- 
usque,  ad  modum  capitis,  ilia  tigna  super  ponan- 

Upton's  symbolical  interpretation  of  the 
chevron  was  accepted  and  applied  by  Robert 
Glover,  Somerset  herald,  when  he  sent  to 
Lord  Burghley  a  report  (dated  March,  1572) 
upon  the  dispute  between  Sir  Richard  Fiennes 
and  Humphrey  Wickham,  of  Swalcliffe,  which 
arose  out  of  the  latter 's  claim  to  be  of  foun- 
der's kin  at  Winchester  College.  This  report 
contained  the  following  passage  : — 

"Arid  agayne,  behouldinge  the  Armes  sometyme 
with  one  and  then  after  with  two  cheverons,  quae 
quidem  signa  per  Carpentarios  &  domorum  factores 
olim  portabantur,  as  Nicholas  Upton  wryteth, 
and  comparing  them  to  the  quality  of  the  berar, 
who  is  sayd  to  have  had  his  chiefe  preferment  for 

his  skill  in  Architecture, I  was  also  induced  to 

thinke  per  conjecturam  Heraldicam,  that  the 
Bishop  himself  was  the  first  berar  of  them." — 
Lowth,  'Life  of  Wykeham,'  p.  12,  n. 

This  passage  has  nothing  whatever  to  do 
with  the  bishop's  father,  but  the  modern 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.         [9*  s.  x.  AUG.  9, 1902. 

idea  that  he  was  a  carpenter  has  probably 
been  evolved  from  it. 

ME.  BAYLEY  apparently  rejects  Glover's 
conjecture  as  to  the  origin  of  the  bishop's 
arras,  because  a  writer  in  Archceologia  Ox- 
oniensis  has  stated  that  the  Wickhams  of 
Oxfordshire  "  are  found  bearing  the  present 
arms  of  New  College  with  red  chevronels," 
and  that  William  of  Wykeham  "adopted" 
these  arms,  "  with  black  ordinaries  for  a  dis- 
tinction," for  both  his  colleges.  I  should  be 
grateful  for  further  "information  about  this 
discovery  of  the  red  chevronels.  When  and 
where  was  the  discovery  made  1  And  what 
is  the  evidence,  if  any,  that  red  chevronels 
were  borne  by  Wickhams  of  Oxfordshire  in 
the  fourteenth  century,  when  the  two  colleges 
were  founded  1  In  support  of  his  unsuccessful 
claim  to  be  founder's  kin,  Humphrey  Wick- 
ham  relied  (inter  alia)  upon  the  fact  that  his 
own  arms  (which  had  been  allowed  to  him  by 
heralds)  were  absolutely  identical  with  those 
borne  by  the  bishop  and  his  colleges.  A 
collection  of  documents  relating  to  this  claim 
was  printed  in  Collectanea  Top.  et  Gen., 
vols.  ii.  225,  368,  and  iii.  178,  345  (1836-7). 

H.  C. 

MERRY  ENGLAND  AND  THE  MASS  (9th  S.  ix. 
508  ;  x.  55). — I  have  for  some  time  past  been 
making  notes  for  a  short  account  of  the  folk- 
lore and  minor  antiquities  of  the  Mass,  and 
was  struck,  at  an.  early  stage  in  my  research, 
with  the  great  importance  anciently  attached 
to  a  sight  of  the  elevated  Host.  The  hearing 
of  Mass  is  often  spoken  of  as  "  seeing  God," 
both  in  Welsh  and  English  manuscripts  of 
pre-Reformation  date ;  and  in  probably  every 
country  of  Christendom  there  was  a  popular 
belief  that  if  one  missed  Mass  on  a  Sunday  he 
ought  not  to  smile  until  the  Sunday  following. 
Joyousness  was  certainly  associated  with  the 
Mass  in  the  popular  mind. 


Town  Hall,  Cardiff. 

SAMUEL  TAYLOR  COLERIDGE  (9th  S.  x.  29).— 
'Christ's  Hospital,'  by  R.  Brimley  Johnson, 
1896,  contains  a  reduced  facsimile  of  the 
petition  of  Ann  Coleridge,  widow  of  the  Rev. 
John  Coleridge,  of  the  parish  of  Ottery 
St.  Mary  in  the  county  of  Devon,  who  died 
in  the  month  of  October,  1781,  leaving  her 
with  a  family  of  eleven  children.  This 
petition,  which  was  dated  1  May,  1782,  prayed 
that  her  son  Samuel  Coleridge,  aged  nine 
years  and  six  months,  might  be  admitted 
into  Christ's  Hospital.  It  required  the  signa- 
tures of  the  minister,  churchwardens,  and 
three  householders.  One  of  the  latter  was  a 
Samuel  Taylor.  It  is,  therefore,  probable 

that  he  was  either  a  relative,  intimate  friend, 
or  maybe  godfather  after  whom  the  boy  was 
named.  This  is  only  a  suggestion. 

71,  Brecknock  Road. 

In  a  letter  from  S.  T.  Coleridge  to  Thomas 
Poole,  Sunday,  March,  1797,  occurs  the  fol- 
lowing :  "  Christened  Samuel  Taylor  Cole- 
ridge— my  godfather's  name  being  Samuel 
Taylor,  Esq."  R.  A.  POTTS. 

ENGLISH  PUBLIC  SCHOOLS  (9th  S.  x.  67).— In 
reply  to  PERTINAX,  the  governing  bodies  of 
most  of  our  public  schools  are  composed  of 
distinguished  public  men,  some  of  whom  are 
alumni  of  the  school,  while  others  are  terri- 
torial magnates  of  the  district  or  educational 
authorities,  the  chairman  usually  being  the 
most  distinguished  or  influential.  Many  of 
the  heads  of  colleges  at  Oxford  and  Cam- 
bridge are,  ex  officio,  on  the  governing  body 
or  council  of  one  or  other  of  the  large  public 
schools.  I  know  of  no  instance  where  the 
head  master  has  a  seat  on  the  governing 
body.  He  is  appointed  by  it,  his  reports  are 
made  to  it,  and  probably  he  is  often  called 
in  to  assist  at  its  deliberations.  PERTINAX 
will  find  particulars  of  the  governing  bodies 
in  the  various  histories  which  have  been 
published  of  most  of  the  large  public  schools. 
I  shall  be  happy  to  send  a  list,  and  to  give 
further  information  if  needed. 


Alperton  Park,  Wembley. 

"  YE   GODS  AND  LITTLE  FISHES  ! "  (9th  S.  ix. 

369  ;  x.  77.)— I  beg  that  I  may  be  allowed  to 
correct  a  slight  mistake  in  my  reply  on  this 
subject.  The  word  "were"  was  printed  instead 
of  was  in  my  communication.  I  believe  I 
stated  that  Charles  Lever,  the  creator  of 
Charles  O'Malley  and  the  inimitable  Micky 
Free,  was  (not  were)  very  fond  of  amateur 
theatricals  in  Dublin. 

119,  Elms  Road,  Clapham,  S.W. 

[If  "  creator "  had  been  written,  the  mistake 
would  have  been  saved,  but  "  author"  is  the  word 
in  our  contributor's  MS.  Loose  writing  is  difficult 
to  correct,  yet  can  hardly  be  left  as  it  is.] 

BANKING  FIRM  (9th  S.  x.  27). — It  may  be  noted 
in  connexion  with  MR.  HARLAND-OXLEY'S 
communication  that  in  1874  a  cast-iron  slab, 
probably  an  old  Sussex  iron  fireback,  repre- 
senting a  cock  and  a  snake,  was  found  during 
alterations  made  on  the  premises  of  Messrs. 
Smith,  Payne  &  Smith's  bank,  then  No.  1, 
Lombard  Street.  It  bore  the  date  1652.  It 

9<*  s.  x.  ATTO  9, 1902.]         NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


may  be  further  noted  that  the  bank  occupied 
the  site  of  the  premises  of  Messrs.  Harley  & 
Co.,  bankers,  the  latter  bank  having  become 
extinct  in  1789.  There  was  a  house  here 
with  the  sign  of  the  "  Cock  "  in  1734,  in  the 
occupation  of  Thomas  Stevenson.  Possibly 
the  iron  slab  appertained  to  tbis  date,  when 
street  signs  had  not  yet  been  abolished,  as 
well  as  to  the  date  it  bore,  namely,  1652.  The 
relic  was,  I  believe,  preserved  on  the  premises. 
Possibly  it  was  of  ^Esculapian  origin,  for  the 
cock  and  serpent  were  sacred  to  the  god  of 
healing,  and  I  believe  there  was,  and  still  is, 
a  similar  representation  of  the  "  Cock  and 
Serpents  "  to  be  seen  let  into  the  front  wall  of 
a  house  in  Lower  Church  Street,  Chelsea. 


ME.  W.  E.  HARLAND-OXLEY'S  note  is  ob- 
viously derived  from  the  long  re'sume'  of 
the  history  of  Messrs.  Smith  &  Payne's  bank 
published  in  the  Daily  Telegrapli,  17  June. 
This,  in  due  order,  is  "inspired"  by  that 
familiar  work  'The  Handbook  of  London 
Bankers,'  by  Mr.  F.  G.  Hilton  Price,  who 
quotes  from  Mr.  F.  Martin's  '  Stories  of  Banks 
and  Bankers.'  This  evolution  is  interesting, 
but  it  is  to  be  regretted  that  the  con- 
tributor of  the  note  to  these  pages  did  not 
think  it  necessary  to  refer  to  original  autho- 

DOWNIE'S  SLAUGHTER  (9th  S.  ix.  367,  474).— 
Instances  of  death  due  to  fear  were  legendary 
even  in  the  sixteenth  century.  In  his  essay 
'Of  the  Force  of  Imagination'  Montaigne, 
as  translated  by  Cotton,  writes  thus  :— 

"  Some  there  are  who  through  fear  prevent  the 
hangman ;  like  him  whose  eyes  being  unbound  to 
have  his  pardon  read  to  him,  was  found  stark  dead 
upon  the  scaffold,  by  the  stroak  of  imagination." 


SCHAW  OF  GOSPETRY  (9th  S.  x.  8).— Is  MR. 
CRAWFORD  acquainted  with  what  has  already 
appeared  in  '  N.  &  Q.'  respecting  the  Schaws 
of  Ganoway,  c».  Down,  about  the  years 
1033-41?  See  7th  S.  i.  169. 

"  CORN-BOTE  "  IN  BARBOUR's  '  BRUCE  '  (9th  S. 

x.  61). —  I  thank  MR.  NEILSON  for  his  sug- 
gestion, viz.,  that  the  right  reading  in  'Bruce,' 
ii.  438,  is  corn-hut,  where  but  is  the  mod.  E. 
boot,  a  recompense.  Cf.  fut  for  "foot"  (iii. 

I  was  rather  sorry  than  otherwise  to  see 
Mrs.  Banks's  edition  of  the  'Morte  Arthure.' 
It  tells  us  little  that  is  new,  and  stands  in  the 
way  of  a  much  better  edition,  such  as  might 
otherwise  have  been  offered.  I  have  myself 
noticed  many  possible  improvements,  and  I 

know  there  are  others  who  have  done  the 
same.  At  any  rate,  Mr.  Gollancz  drew  my 
attention  to  corn-bote  long  ago.  We  do  not 
believe  that  corne  has  anything  to  do  with 
the  E.  corn,  or  is  an  English  word  at  all. 
Surely  it  is  the  French  corne,  a  horn,  used 
metaphorically  as  the  symbol  of  pride,  and  is 
closely  related  to  escomer,  which  meant  to  dis- 
horn, or  to  take  a  man  down.  As  Cotgrave 
says,  corne  prendre  meant  "  to  wax  proud," 
and  escomer  is  "to  dishorn,  to  disgrace." 
Corn  -  bote  is  requital  for  pride,  a  taking 
down.  MR.  NEILSON  should  have  quoted 
just  two  more  lines  from  the  'Morte  Arthure,' 
viz.,  11.  1840-1,  which  throw  a  strong  light  on 
the  context : — 

Thow  skornede  us  lang  ere  with  thi  slcornefidl  wordez, 
And  nowe  hast  thow  cheuede  soo  ;  it  is  thyn  awen 

i.e.,  "You  scorned,  us  formerly,  and  now  you 
have  been  repaid  in  kind ;  it  is  your  own  turn 
to  suffer  now." 

I  was  careful  to  say  in  my  glossary  to  the 
'Bruce,'  s.v.  'But,'  "The  reading  is  perhaps 
corrupt."  My  explanation  was  merely  a  forced 
explanation  of  a  reading  which  I  distrusted. 
I  should  now  explain  the  line  by  "  we  shall, 
in  some  measure,  requite  them  with  a  recom- 
pense for  their  pride,"  though  corne  is,  more 
strictly,  the  outwaraL/md  visible  expression  of 
pride,  very  evident  in  the  scornful  cry  of  Sir 
Philip  de  Mowbray  in  1.  416,  "  Help  !  help  !  1 
have  the  new-maid  king." 

We  live  and  learn.  Here  are  three  examples 
of  a  word  not  in  the  great  '  English  Diction- 
ary.' WALTER  W.  SKEAT. 

It  does  not  seem  unlikely  that  this  may  be 
a  satirical  reference  to  the  ancient  custom  of 
"acervation,"  in'which  the  amount  of  com- 
pensation was  estimated  by  pouring  "clean 
wheat "  upon  the  body  of  the  slain  until  it 
was  completely  hidden.  See  9th  S.  viii.  70,  &c. 

W.  C.  B. 

In  such  a  case  as  this  one  regrets  to  see  no 
reference  to  any  light  the  '  N.E.D.'may  throw 
on  the  passage  in  question,  for  it  seems  to  me 
that  this  invaluable  lexicon  affords  a  solution 
to  the.  corn-bote  enigma.  Under  'Choose' 
(A  6)  the  past  participle  corn  is  registered, 
and  a  couple  of  columns  are  devoted  to  boot, 
sb.  1.  of  which  bote  is  but  a  variant.  The 
general  sense  of  this  latter  word  is  "advan- 
tage, profit,  avail,  remedy,  compensation": 
but  the  "  especial "  meaning  of  "  a  medicinal 
cure  or  remedy"  appears  to  be  appropriate 
here.  Sir  Cador  ironically  vows  the  king 
shall  have  a  choice  remedy  for  homicidal 
brag,  and,  after  administering  it  personally, 
indulges  in  further  satire  at  the  expense  of 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.         [9*  s.  x.  At™.  9, 1002. 

the  mortified  recipient.     Mediaeval  humour 
was  apt  to  be  somewhat  poignant  on  occasion. 


FREE  (9th  S.  vi.  507;  vii.  Ill,  193).— See 
further,  as  to  this  odd  exemption,  L'lnter- 
mddiaire.  xxvi.  601  :  xxvii.  173  :  xliv.  241. 

O.  O.  H. 

FLINT-GLASS  TRADE  (9th  S.  ix.  365,  473).— 
Those  who  have  witnessed  the  operation  of 
glass-blowing  can  have  no  difficulty  about 
the  word  "  chair,"  as  they  will  remember  that 
the  operator  sits  on  a  chair  of  special  con- 
struction, using  the  arms  as  supports  for  the 
pontil  as  he  rolls  it  backwards  and  forwards. 
By  a  very  natural  extension  the  word 
"chair"  came  to  mean  the  gang  of  men  who 
work  in  and  about  a  chair.  The  "chair- 
system  "  of  working  is  thoroughly  explained 
in  Apsley  Pellatt's  'Curiosities  of  Glass- 
making,'  pp.  83,  86-9.  R.  B.  P. 

486  ;  x.  38).— At  the  kind  suggestion  of  MR. 
C.  MASON  I  wrote  to  the  secretary  of  Lloyd's, 
and  I  have  had  a  reply  to  the  effect  that  the 
ship  England,  Capt.  Thomson,  is  reported  to 
have  sailed  from  Liverpool  for  Port  Phillip 
on  4  April,  1841,  and  is  also  reported  in 
'  Lloyd's  List '  of  7  December,  1841,  as  having 
arrived  at  her  destination,  but  without  date 
of  arrival.  William  Baxter  no  doubt  landed 
at  Port  Phillip  or  in  the  neighbourhood,  and 
if  any  of  the  Australian  readers  of  '  N.  &  Q.' 
can  give  me  any  information  about  him  or 
his  descendants  (if  any)  I  shall  be  much 
obliged.  RONALD  DIXON. 

46,  Maryborough  Avenue,  Hull. 


CHI-RHO  MONOGRAM  (9th  S.  x.  49).— There 
is  a  most  elaborate  article  on  this  subject, 
4  L'  Origine  del  la  Leggenda  del  Monogramma 
e  del  Labaro,'  by  Prof.  Amadeo  Crivellucci,  in 
vol.  ii.  of  'Studi  Storici '  (Pisa,  1893),  pp.  88- 
104,  222-60.  See  also  the  article  by  Bratke 
noticed  at  p.  275.  Whether  these  would  add 
to  MR.  McGoyERN's  information  on  the 
special  point  raised  by  him  I  do  not  know  ; 
but  the  articles  are  well  worth  study. 

Q.  V. 

I  am  able  in  part  to  reply  to  my  own 
query  on  this  monogram.  Shortly  after  it  was 
penned  I  received  the  May  number  of  the 
Journal  of  the  Isle  of  Man  Antiquarian 
Society,  containing  a  very  interesting  article 
by  Mr.  P.  M.  C.  Kermode  on  some  recent 
archaeological  discoveries  in  the  island,  one  of 
which  presented  distinct  evidence  of  the 
presence  of  the  monogram  in  Man.  This  is 

the  information  I  sought,  but  in  part  only. 
I  have,  so  far,  discovered  no  trace  of  the 
monogram  in  Ireland.  When  found  my  quest 
will  be  complete.  J.  B.  McGovERN. 

St.  Stephen's  Rectory,  C.-on-M.,  Manchester. 

STATISTICAL  DATA  (9th  S.  x.  29).— A  book 
in  my  possession  bears  the  following  explicit 
title  :— 

"  Popular  Statistics  |  and  |  Universal  Geography, 
|  %,  perpetual  companion  to  all  the  Almanacs  ;  | 
containing  the  |  length,  breadth,  population,  chief 
cities,  produce,  government,  |  revenue,  military  and 
naval  strength,  arts,  religion,  &c.  |  of  every  state  in 
the  world  ;  |  a  Distance  Table  |  of  England,  Scot- 
land, Ireland  and  Wales,  |  With  the  Principal 
Travelling  Stations  of  France  and  the  Netherlands  ; 
|  together  with  |  Distinct  Distance  Tables  |  of  Scot- 
land, Ireland  and  Wales ;  |  Chronological  Tables  of 
Ancient  and  Modern  History,  Biography  and  Geo- 

Saphical  |  Discovery,  Names  and  Value  in  British 
oney  of  all  Foreign  Coins,  Height  of  the  |  prin- 
cipal Mountains,  and  Length  of  the  principal 
Rivers,  Bridges,  Piers,  &c.  |  Tables  |  Showing  any 
Day  of  the  Week  in  any  Month  in  any  Year  of  the 
Nineteenth  Century,  |  and  the  Expectation  of  Life 
according  to  the  Law  of  Mortality  at  Carlisle.  | 
Also  |  a  general  introduction  to  a  knowledge  of  Geo- 

?-aphy  and  |  Statistics,  illustrated  with  Tables  of 
opulation  for  the  |  Great  Divisions  of  the  Globe,  | 
many  other  curious  and  useful  tables,  and  an  En- 
graved |  Chart  of  the  World,  |  after  Mercator's 
Projection.  |  London :  |  Joseph  Thomas,  1,  Finch 
Lane.  |  M.DCCC.XXXV." 

I  have  often  found  this  little  book  of  100  pp. 
very  useful,  and  were  it  brought  up  to  date 
I  imagine  it  would  exactly  suit  the  require- 
ments of  SIGMA.  JOHN  T.  PAGE. 

West  Haddon,  Northamptonshire. 

Some  of  the  measurements  asked  for  are 

given    in   "London  Exhibited    in   1851 

Edited  and  published  by  John  Weale.  Lon- 
don"— e. g.,  on  p.  181  are  "sections  through 
the  transept  and  dome  of  St.  Peter's,  Florence 
Cathedral,  London  ditto,  and  St.  Genevieve, 
Paris,  showing  their  comparative  widths  and 
heights,"  according  to  scales  in  English  feet 
and  Roman  palms.  This  book  has,  I  think, 
been  repubhshed  by  Messrs.  Bell  &  Sons 
under  the  title  of  'Pictorial  Handbook  of 
London,'  being  one  of  "Bohn's  Illustrated 
Library."  See  also  Peter  Cunningham's 
'  Handbook  of  London '  (John  Murray). 


KING'S  CHAMPION  (9th  S.  ix.  507  ^  x.  58).— 
Though  the  account  given  by  Sir  Walter 
Scott  in  '  Redgauntlet '  of  Lilias,  the  niece 
of  Hugh  Redgauntlet,  called  in  the  novel 
"  Green  Mantle,"  taking  up  the  Champion's 
gauntlet,  and  replacing  it  by  another,  is 
purely  fictitious,  yet  some  part  of  the  account 
of  the  coronation  of  George  III.  in  1761  is 
accurate  enough.  Lord  Errol,  the  High  Con- 

9">s.x.Aca9,i902.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


stable  of  Scotland,  who  was  present,  as  Sir 
Walter  records,  is  mentioned  by  Horace  Wai- 
pole  as  "  the  noblest  figure  I  ever  saw  " ;  he 
was  6  ft.  4  in.  in  height,  and  towered  over  all 
the  others.  In  1773  Dr.  Johnson  and  Boswell 
visited  him  at  Slains  Castle  in  Aberdeen- 
shire,  and  went  to  see  the  Bullers  o'  Buchan, 
not  far  distant.  His  father,  Lord  Kilmar- 
nock,  had  been,  after  trial  in  Westminster 
Hall,  beheaded  for  his  share  in  the  rebellion 
of  1745.  At  the  coronation  of  George  III.  a 
valuable  jewel  fell  from  the  crown,  but  was 
afterwards  recovered.  It  was  said  to  foretell 
the  loss  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

An  old  friend  of  mine,  who  died  some  dozen 
years  ago  at  the  great  age  of  ninety,  told  me 
that  he  remembered,  when  second  master  of 
Westminster  School,  Queen  Caroline  trying 
to  force  an  entrance  into  the  Abbey  at  the 
coronation  of  George  IV.,  19  July,  1821,  and 
attempting  to  enter  at  the  great  west  door, 
and  again  from  the  entrance  to  the  cloisters, 
but,  of  course,  in  vain.  Only  some  six  weeks 
afterwards  she  died,  and  the  populace  re- 
sisted the  attempt  to  smuggle  the  corpse 
quietly  away.  The  same  friend  witnessed 
the  burial  of  Mrs.  Garrick,  in  1822,  in  the 
same  grave  with  her  husband  in  Poets' 

The  Rev.  John  Dymoke  claimed  to  be 
styled  the  Honourable  the  Champion,  but 
there  was  always  a  strong  doubt  as  to  whether 
the  office  could  be  held  by  a  clergyman.  He 
died  at  Florence,  and  was  cremated  on  the 
same  day.  It  does  not  seem  to  be  recorded 
whether  the  Champion's  steed  was  "  barbed," 
heraldically  speaking,  and  it  would  also  seem 
that  the  office  conferred  the  honour  of  knight- 
hood, or  ought  so  to  have  done.  The  Cham- 
pion ought  to  have  worn  the  gilt  spurs  as 
"  eques  auratus."  JOHN  PICKFOKD,  M.  A. 

Newbourne  Rectory,  Woodbridge. 

I  observe  that  Canon  Lodge,  in  his 
'  Scrivelsby,  the  -Home  of  the  Champions,' 
1894,  p.  110,  says  that,  "as  a  matter  or  fact, 
the  challenge  never  has  been  accepted,  al- 
though there  have  been  occasions  when  the 
sovereign's  title  might  have  been  fairly  ques- 
tioned." That  the  Champions  were  never 
really  intended  to  be  anything  more  than 
faineants  is  probably  true,  but  Mr.  Cuming 
reminds  me  that  at  the  coronation  of 
George  III:  the  Champion's  gauntlet  was 
picked  up,  apparently  by  an  old  woman,  who 
made  her  escape  without  detection.  Jesse, 
in  his  '  Memoirs  of  the  Pretenders  and  their 
Adherents,'  ed.  1860,  p.  356,  makes  allusion 
to  the  event,  and  the  story  is  worked  up  into 
a  powerful  scene  in  Scott's  '  Redgauntlet.' 

Mr.  Cuming  remembers  -a  long  conversation 
he  had  with  Prince  John  Sobieski  Stuart 
respecting  the  challenge,  and  the  prince 
assured  him  that  they  had  no  record  in  their 
family  as  to  who  the  person  was  who  picked 
up  the  gauntlet,  but  they  were  positive  it 
was  a  man  in  female  guise. 


DRESSES AT  ABERDEEN  (9th  S.  ix.  427).— Since 
I  sent  a  query  on  this  subject  I  have  found  in 
Alison's  '  Autobiography '  an  even  more  inex- 
plicable statement.  On  p.  35  of  vol.  ii.  he 
writes  of  his  election  as  Rector  by  the  Glas- 
gow students : — 

"  The  installation  took  place  in  the  University 

Hall  on  the  15th  January,  1852 The  speech  which 

I  delivered  on  the  occasion,  and  which  is  printed  in 
the  volumes  of  these -University  orations,  was  very 
well  received." 

Will  it  be  credited  that  his  installation  took 
place  not  on  15  January,  1852,  but  on  27  Feb- 
ruary, 1851,  and  that  not  merely  was  his 
address  not  printed  "  in  the  volumes  of  these 
University  orations,"  but  that  there  were  no 
such  volumes  in  which  it  could  have  appeared, 
the  latest  collection  of  Glasgow  rectorial  ad- 
dresses having  been  issued  in  1848,  three  years 
before  Alison  spoke  ij^  Glasgow?  The  "calm 
conviction  of  his  own  merits"  which  Mr. 
Leslie  Stephen  attributes  to  the  historian  of 
Europe  is  amusingly  in  evidence  on  almost 
every  page  of  his  'Autobiography.'  If  his 
Aberdeen  and  Glasgow  rectorial  addresses 
were  not  really  reprinted,  it  is  abundantly 
obvious  that  Sir  Archibald  thought  they  de- 
served to  be.  P.  J.  ANDERSON. 
University  Library,  Aberdeen. 

64).— If  the  "new  orthography  of  an  old 
friend"  is  to  be  pronounced  as  if  in  Portu- 
guese, as  MR.  PLATT  says,  I  must  remind  him 
that  there  are  no  diphthongs  in  Portuguese 
(vide  Wall's  'Grammar'),  and  that  both  vowels 
are  pronounced,  though  the  stress  is  laid  more 
on  one  than  the  other,  generally  on  the  first. 
The  second  one  is  something  like  a  chateph 
vowel  in.  Hebrew.  Thus,  to  express  it  typo- 
graphically, the  river  is  pronounced  Douro, 
and  though  the  pronunciation  may  be  so 
slurred  as  to  sound  like  Dooro,  the  u  is  dis- 
tinctly audible  in  the  speech  of  educated 
persons.  E.  E.  STREET. 

CAPT.  MORRIS'S  WIPE  (9th  S.  x.  67).— Sir 
William  Stanhope  had  three  wives — first,  Mar- 
garet, daughter  of  John  Rudge,  of  Wheatfield, 
co.  Oxon,  and  had  issue  a  daughter  Elizabeth, 
who  was  the  first  wife  of  Welbore  Ellis,  Lord 
Mendip;  secondly,  Mary,  daughter  of  John 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.         [9th  s.  x.  AUG.  9, 1902. 

Crowley  or  Crawley,  Alderman  of  London; 
thirdly,  Anne  Hussey,  daughter  of  Francis 
Blake  Delaval,  of  Seaton  Delaval,  co.  North- 
umberland. By  the  last  two  he  had  no  issue 
(Collins's  '  Peerage,'  1812,  vol.  iii.  p.  426).  For 
the  Delaval  pedigree  consult  Lodge's  '  Peerage 
of  Ireland'  (enlarged  by  Archdall),  1789,  vol.  vii. 
p.  225.  As  to  the  marriage,  an  entry  might 
be  found  in  the  registers  at  Earsdon. 


THE  NATIONAL  FLAG  (9th  S.  ix.  485  ;  x.  31, 
94). — It  is  altogether  wrong  for  a  church  or 
other  public  building  or  private  person  to 
display  the  white  ensign.  This  flag  belongs 
exclusively  to  His  Majesty's  navy,  until  1864 
the  navy  was  divided  into  the  white,  the 
blue,  and  the  red  squadrons ;  but,  as  Mr. 
Edward  Hulme  relates  in  his  'Flags  of  the 
World,'  the  three  sets  of  colours  caused  much 
inconvenience,  and  Nelson  at  Trafalgar 
ordered  the  whole  of  his  fleet  to  hoist  the 
white  ensign.  An  Order  of  Council  dated 
18th  October,  1864,  put  an  end  to  the  use  of 
different  flags  by  tne  navy,  and  the  white 
ensign  alone  was  declared  to  be  its  flag.  By 
very  exceptional  privilege  it  is  allowed  to  be 
flown  by  the  Royal  Yacht  Squadron,  but,  by 
a  special  minute  issued  by  the  Admiralty,  no 
other  club  is  allowed  to  use  it.  I  cannot  at 
all  agree  with  MR.  NUTTALL  that  we  should 
use  flags  to  which  we  are  not  entitled  for 
"  the  sake  of  a  little  variety  in  our  decora- 
tions." If  we  did  this  we  might  as  well  hang 
from  our  flagstaffs  silks  of  diverse  colours. 
If  variety  is  required  (and  I  quite  agree  with 
MR.  NUTTALL  as  to  the  advantage  of  this)  I 
would  suggest  that  the  plan  of  a  friend  of 
mine  should  be  followed.  He  comes  from 
East  Anglia,  and  on  the  occasion  of  public 
festivities  he  displays  the  East  Anglian  flag. 
If  citizens  displayed  the  flags  of  the  cities  or 
districts  associated  with  their  families  this 
would  give  variety  and  add  much  historical 
interest  to  the  display.  During  the  present 
Coronation  festivities  His  Majesty  has 
granted  special  permission  for  the  Royal 
Standard  to  be  displayed  by  his  subjects. 

A.  Q. 

CAPT.  ARNOLD  (9th  S.  ix.  447).  —  The 
'Biographical  Dictionary,' published  by  the 
Society  for  the  Diffusion  of  Useful  Knowledge, 
1844,  says  Benedict  Arnold  was  twice  married. 
By  his  first  wife,  whose  name  was  Mansfield, 
he  had  three  sons,  one  of  whom  held  a  com- 
mission in  the  British  army ;  the  others 
received  grants  of  land  in  Canada,  and  were 
men  of  property  there  in  1829.  His  second 
wife,  Miss  Shippen,  a  Philadelphia  lady  of 
great  accomplishments,  and  a  friend  and 

correspondent  of  Andre,  was  married  to  him 
at  the  age  of  eighteen,  just  before  he  obtained 
the  command  of  West  Point.  She  died 
in  London  in  1803.  The  church  at  which 
Benedict  Arnold  was  buried  still  remains  a 
mystery.  See  9th  S.  iii.  152. 

71,  Brecknock  Road. 

SERJEANT  EDWARD  DENDY  (9th  S.  ix.  508).— 
This  worthy  was  so  appointed  in  1621,  vice 
Hamilton,  under  the  Crown.  In  1648  his 
services  were  transferred  to  Parliament,  and 
so  continued  till  10  August,  1659,  when  he 
acted  for  the  Privy  Council  only.  In  1660  he 
petitioned  for  an  appointment  under  the 
Customs  at  Bristol,  but  being  prosecuted  at 
the  Restoration  he  escaped  to  Lausanne, 
where  he  appears  to  have  been  living  till 
1666.  He  had  a  father  of  the  same  name 
Jiving  at  Wigan  in  1659 ;  and  apparently  a 
son  named  John,  a  sub-official  at  trie  Mint  in 
1648.  This  connexion  with  Wigan  points  to 
a  Northern  origin,  and  there  was  a  family 
named  Dande  from  Cheshire,  who  settled  in 
Derbyshire  and  Notts  from  1575  to  1670,  from 
whom  some  Dendys  of  Sussex  and  Surrey 
claim  descent.  ABSENS. 


Greek  Votive  Offerings.   By  William  Henry  Denhain 

Rouse,  M.A.  (Cambridge,  University  Press.) 
MR.  ROUSE  has  been  astute  enough  to  discover  in 
the  history  of  Greek  religion  a  province  all  but 
unoccupied,  and  diligent  enough  to  write  a  work 
concerning  it  which  supplies  all  accessible  informa- 
tion. His  volume  is,  accordingly,  a  solid  con- 
tribution to  scholarship,  and,  indirectly,  to  our 
knowledge  of  primitive  culture.  Materials  for  a 
task  such  as  he  has  accomplished  are  superabundant, 
and  may  be  gleaned  from  all  sources.  Pausanias 
alone  is  a  mine  of  information,  not  only  of  per- 
sonal observation,  but  of  historical  and  mythical 
recollection  and  survival.  Athenseus  and  the 
Greek  Anthology  yield  a  full  store,  and  there  is 
scarcely  a  writer  of  antiquity,  from  Hesiod  and 
Homer  to  Theocritus,  Horace,  and  Lucian,  from 
whom  something  cannot  be  gleaned.  The  various 
museums  abound  with  specimens  of  votive  objects, 
and  the  Transactions  of  various  learned  societies 
give  numerous  articles  on  the  subject.  Up  to  now, 
however,  no  attempt  to  deal  thoroughly  with 
Greek  votive  offerings  seems  to  have  been  made. 
Jacopo  Filippo  Thomasini  (1597-1654),  Bishop 
of  Citta-Nuova,  wrote  a  book,  'De  Donariis  ac 
Labellis  Votivis'  (1654),  which  reposes  on  the 
shelves  of  most  large  libraries.  Much  information 
is  found  in  Mr.  FarnelPs  '  Cults  of  the  Greek  States' 
(see  8th  S.  ix.  519),  for  the  third  volume  of  which 
we  wait.  Mr.  Rouse  is  the  first  to  deal  with  the 
subject  on  a  scale  commensurate  with  its  import- 
ance, though  his  work  is  in  some  respects  tentative, 

9^s.x.AuG.9,i902.]         NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


and  his  explanations  are  often,  necessarily,  con- 

Not  easy  is  the  matter  to  deal  with,  on  account  of 
its  range  and  extent  and  the  manner  in  which  it 
links  itself  to  all  phases  of  early  belief.  The  notion 
that  deities  are  to  be  propitiated,  or  even  coerced, 
is  found  in  all  primitive  and  most  existing  religions, 
and  prevails  after  nineteen  centuries  of  Christianity. 
Anathemata,  or  permanent  memorials  of  a  special 
benefit  to  the  deity  whom  gifts  are  supposed  to 
please  or  propitiate,  date  back  to  the  earliest  times 
of  Greek  religion.  They  were  most  frequently  an 
acknowledgment  of  favours  conferred,  but  were 
also  intended  to  disarm  wrath  or  obtain  benefits. 
In  later  days  they  often  took  the  shape  of  works  of 
art  or  value,  but  they  were  given  by  rich  and  poor 
alike.  Few  gifts  were  more  common  m  the  early  days 
than  locks  of  hair,  and  the  custom  survived  until 
later  days.  The  youthful  bride  si.ore  or  cut  off  a 
portion  of  her  tresses  and  dedicated  it  to  some 
deity.  We  believe,  though  we  speak  without  exact 
information,  that  it  is,  or  was,  common  for  Hebrew 
brides  to  denude  their  heads.  Costly  garments  and 
gifts  of  gold  were  accepted  forms  of  propitiation  in 
Homeric  times.  Mistaking  Odysseus  for  a  god, 
Telemachus  implores  him,  "Be  gracious,  that  we 
may  give  thee  sacrifices  to  please  thee— aye,  gifts  of 
wrought  gold."  The  crew  of  Odysseus,  when  about 
to  steal  the  Sun's  oxen,  vow  to  build  a  temple  to 
the  Sun  and  fill  it  with  fine  offerings.  Many  a 
crime  in  mediaeval  days  has  been  expiated  in  similar 
fashion,  and  many  a  Christian  fane  owes  its  erection 
to  an  enforced  penance  and  may  be  regarded  as  a 
votive  offering.  We  are  everywhere  met  by  modern 
analogy  to  ancient  pagan  practice.  What  is  the 
custom  of  hanging  up  in  our  cathedrals  flags  cap- 
tured in  combat  but  a  survival  of  votive  offerings  ? 
So  large  is  the  entire  subject  that  one  is  dismayed  and 
knows  not  where  to  begin.  Sometimes,  after  the 
successful  execution  of  a  task,  a  workman  dedicates 
at  some  shrine  the  tools  with  which  the  labour  was 
accomplished.  Horace  tells  of  hanging  his 
Dank  and  dropping  weeds 
To  the  stern  god  of  sea, 

and  Theocritus  devotes  to  Aphrodite  the  garments 
of  which  the  shepherdess  is  deprived. 

Among  more  luxurious  offerings  were  richly  orna- 
mented craters  from  which  the  guests  at  Greek 
banquets  were  supplied  with  mixed  wine  and 
water.  The  shields  of  enemies  and  the  dress 
pierced  by  the  spear  were  hung  up  in  temples,  and 
Heracles  dedicated  at  Delphi  the  spoils  of  the 
Amazons.  Most  interesting  of  the  things  dedicated 
to  the  heroes  and  the  Chthonian  deities  are  the 
reliefs,  always  numerous,  and  largely  increased  by 
recent  discoveries.  At  times  the  hero  is  repre- 
sented by  customary  attributes,  as  Heracles  by  the 
club  and  the  lion  skin.  Ordinarily  he  is  a  hand- 
some young  man,  seated  or  recumbent,  and  accom- 
panied by  other  figures,  masculine  or  feminine.  In 
the  case  of  deities,  although,  as  might  be  supposed, 
special  gifts  are  assigned  to  certain  gods,  it  is 
curious  to  see  how  large  a  variety  of  gifts  might  be 
dedicated  to  the  same  being,  from  whom  also  an 
undefined  number  of  blessings  might  be  expected. 

We  have  but  dipped  into  a  book  of  exceptional 
interest,  and  have  selected  from  it  almost  at 
haphazard.  There  is  not  a  page  of  the  four  hundred 
and  more  which  constitute  the  work  that  does  not 
supply  matter  interesting  and  often  discutable. 
Mr.  Rouse  is  commendably  free  from  dogmatism, 

and  is,  indeed,  singularly  pioderate  in  statement. 
He  is  careful  to  assert  that  his  main  purpose  is 
less  to  deal  with  tithes  and  firstfruits,  important 
and  interesting  as  these  are,  than  to  collect  and 
classify  the  offerings  which  are  not  immediately 
perishable,  and  to  trace  so  far  as  is  possible  the 
motives  of  the  dedicator  and  the  meaning  of  the 
votive  act.  The  illustrations,  which  are  numerous, 
add  to  the  value  of  a  book  which  scholars  are 
bound  to  welcome. 

All's  Well  that  End*  Well:  King  Henry  VIII. 
With  Introductions  and  Notes  by  John  Dennis 
and  Illustrations  by  Byam  Shaw.  (Bell  &  Sons. ) 
Two  further  volumes  have  been  added  to  the  dainty 
"  Chiswick  Shakespeare"  of  Messrs.  Bell  &  Sons. 
Both  keep  up  the  merits  and  attractions  of  this 
prettiest  and  most  convenient  of  editions.  In  the 
case  of  the  earlier  play  Mr.  Dennis  shows  himself 
stricter  than  Hazlitt  and  Lamb,  and  declares  that 
"  this  beautiful  girl's  design  and  its  accomplish- 
ment are  incompatible  with  womanly  modesty," 
which  is  judging  yesterday  by  the  standard  of 
to-day.  We  do  not  agree  with  Mr.  Dennis  that 
Fletcher,  Shakespeare's  associate  in  'King  Henry 
VIII. ,'  is  in  that  play  a*bove  his  best ;  but  these  are 
matters  on  which  differences  of  opinion  will  always 
exist.  The  notes  remain  short  and  useful,  and  the, 
illustrations  are -full  of  character. 

SLADEN'S  London  and  its  Leaders  (Sands  &  Co. )  is 
a  guide-book  serving  a  purpose  similar  to  that  of 
'Who's  Who,'  of  which  Mr.  Douglas  Sladen  was 
formerly  editor.  It  supplies  portraits  of  leading 
ladies  of  the  Court,  a  list  of  hostesses,  alpha- 
betical lists  of  the  tftbility  and  the  House  of 
Commons,  and,  in  fact,  is  a  guide-book'  to  most 
that  concerns  the  existence  of  the  day. 

M.  MAURICE  MAETERLINCK,  the  mistrusted  of 
authority,  sends  to  the  fortnightly  '  The  Foretelling 
of  the  Future,'  an  article  in  which  he  shows  the 
consequences  of  an  application  to  modern  sibyls, 
prophets,  and  seers.  Tne  results  that  attended  his 
investigations  are  precisely  those  which  are  to  be 
expected  in  all  cases  of  so-called  spiritualism.  There 
is  revelation  only  of  what  lurks  within  the  mind 
of  some  one  partaking  in  the  ceremony.  In  the 
instance  in  which,  through  the  agency  of  a  "  seer," 
a  mislaid  and  half -forgotten  object  is  recovered, 
the  diviner  is  naturally  supposed  to  have  found  and 
awakened  "  the  latent  and  almost  animal  memory 
and  brought  it  to  the  human  light,  which  it  had 
vainly  tried  to  reach."  We  are  a  little  puzzled  to 
find  M.  Maeterjinck  declaring  it  "almost  incredible 
that  we  should  not  know  the  future."  '  With  the 
Eyes  of  Youth,'  by  the  late  William  Black,  describes 
boy  life  in  an  insignificant  Scotch  village.  It  shows 
the  pow.ers  of  observation  with  which  that  writer 
has  always  been  credited,  and  is  informed  by  the 
very  spirit  of  boyhood.  Dr.  Karl  Blind  tells  why 
Alsace-Lorraine  is  to  remain  German.  In  'Some 
Phases  in  Fiction*  Mr.  Walter  Sichel  shows  how 
great  is  the  change  from  the  novels  of  Fielding, 
Scott,  Jane  Austen,  and  Trollope  to  those  of  Miss 
Marie  Corelli,  Ouida;  and  other  modern  novelists. 
Many  things  said  are  sensible  and  just,  but  the 
complaint  becomes  a  little  monotonous.  The  same 
may  be  said  of  the  second  part  of  '  An  Author  at 
Grass,'  edited  by  Mr.  George  Gissing.  One  side  of 
a  question  is  seen  very  clearly,  and  is  not  badly 
put.  Mr.  Gissing  does  not,  however,  cover  the 
whole  question  at  issue.  He  marvels  at  those 



x.  AUG.  9.  MOB. 

who  dwell  in  cities  when  they  might  live  in 
the  country,  and  condemns  the  mingling  with  the 
"  well  millinered  and  tailored  herd,"  and  yet  seems 
unaware  that  there  is  another  view  which  is  as  de- 
fensible as  that  he  adopts.— In  the  Nineteenth  Cen- 
tury Mr.  Walter  Frewen  Lord  undertakes  the 
defence  of  his  bigoted  utterances  concerning  '  Monna 
Vanna.'  He  tells  us,  whether  in  explanation  or 
apology,  that  he  is  a  provincial,  and  spends  a  good 
deal  of  the  year  at  Newcastle.  His  provenance 
does  not  seem  to  have  much  to  do  with  the  matter, 
and  we  must  leave  the  Tynesider  to  declare 
how  far  a  residence  in  Newcastle  constitutes  an 
apology  for  ignorance,  bad  .taste,  and  presumption. 
Mr.  ^Hamilton  Fyfe  deals  with  the  blunder  of 
the  licenser,  of  plays  from  another  point  of  view. 
An  essay  on  '  The  Folk  -  lore  of  Horseshoes 
and  Horse  -  shoeing,'  by  the  late  Dr.  George 
Fleming,  will  have  remarkable  interest  for  our 
readers.  Horseshoe  folk  -  lore  is  more  or  less 
familiar  to  every  resident  in  the  country.  The 
mediaeval  legends  concerning  St.  Eloy  will  be  new 
to  most,  and  are  very  interesting.  Concerning  the 
luck  supposed  to  be  involved  in  finding  a  horseshoe 
we  will  only  add  to  what  is  given  a  form  of  com- 
plaint concerning  bad  fortune  current  in  the  West 
Hiding :  "  Lucky  devil,  lost  a  shilling  and  found  a 
horsesnoe  !  '  is  the  wail  of  a  man  discontented  with 
or  derisive  of  the  awards  of  Fate.  Sir  Robert 
Hunter  writes  on  '  The  Reconstruction  of  Hainault 
Forest.'  Hove  slowly  wisdom  and  foresight  reach 
us  is  shown  in  the  fact  that  the  land  it  is  now 
sought  to  reclaim  was  only  disafforested  half  a 
century  Ago.  In  '  Old  Masters  and  Modern  Critics ' 
Mr.  Charles  L.  Eastlake  describes  the  futility  of 
much  of  what  is  called  "  art  criticism."  '  The  Last 
Resting- Place  of  our  Angevin  Kings,'  by  Mr.  Cecil 
Hallett,  describes  the  vicissitudes  that  have  befallen 
the  royal  tombs  at  Fontevrault.— Mr.  George  D. 
Abraham  depicts  in  the  Pall  Mall  '  The  Most 
Difficult  Climbs  in  Britain.'  To  one  who  is  himself 
no  climber  these  seem  to  be  sufficiently  appalling 
to  satisfy  the  wildest  aspirations  after  danger. 
The  Great  Gable,  Cader  Idris,  Snowdpn,  and 
Glencoe  appear  to  be  the  spots  of  extreme  difficulty. 
Mr.  Howard  Cunnington's  'Our  Forgotten  An- 
cestors '  deals  with  the  question  of  flint  implements 
and  the  method  of  using  them.  Special  attention 
is  paid  to  the  weapons,  &c.,  found  in  the  plateau 
gravels,  which  are,  supposedly,  of  earlier  date  than 
those  of  the  valley  gravels.  'Marconi's  Ambition,' 
by  Mr.  P.  McGrath,  is,  of  course,  the  linking 
together  by  wireless  telegraphy  of  the  component 
parts  of  Greater  Britain.  'Nature  Study  in  Lon- 
don '  describes  the  holiday  pursuits  of  entomologists. 
'In  Tierra  del  Fuegan  Waters,'  by  Mr.  W.  S  Bar- 
clay, is  admirably  illustrated.  Other  papers  of 
interest  are  '  The  Centenary  of  Alexandre  Dumas,' 
'  First  Impressions  of  Parliament,'  and  '  The  Round 
Table.' — '  Lapland  in  Summer,'  contributed  to  the 
Cornhill,  shows  great  familiarity  with  the  subject, 
and  depicts  very  vividly  a  life  which  is  likely  before 
long  to  be  a  thing  of  the  past.  What  is  said  con- 
cerning the  mosquito  seems  to  us  exaggerated,  but 
our  experiences  do  not  extend  to  Lapland  proper. 
'Four  Tarpauling  Captains'  describes  the  heroic 
adventures  of  Sir  Christopher  Myngs,  Clowdisley 
Shovell,  John  Narborough,  and  John  Benbow,  all 
of  them  Norfolk  men.  The  use  of  the  term  "  tar- 
paulin "  to  characterize  genuine  sailors  seems  out 
of  date  so  far  as  the  general  public  is  concerned. 
The  record  of  the  venality  of  our  commanders  in 

Stuart  days  is  appalling.  That  of  heroism  is,  fortu- 
nately, not  less  remarkable.  'A  Page  from  the 
Past '  consists  of  selections  from  the  pages  of  Jane 
Porter,  the  author  of  '  Scottish  Chiefs.  It  gives 
pleasant  sketches  of  Charles  Kemble,  with  whom 
Miss  Porter  seems  to  have  been  in  love,  Thomas 
Campbell,  John  Braham,  Sir  Sidney  Smith,  and 
other  celebrities.  The  cricketers'  classic  is  '  The 
Young  Cricketers'  Tutor '  of  John  Nyren.  '  Pro- 
vincial Letters,'  viii.,  from  St.  Albans,  brings  up  the 
Shakespeare-Bacon  question,  which  it  treats  with 
what  seems  intended  to  be  banter. — 'Guernsey 
Folk-lore'  in  the  Gentleman's  is  interesting.  Many 
of  the  fairy  stories  told  have  elements  of  novelty. 
4  A  Last  Century  [but  one]  Tourist '  is  John  Humf  rey, 
barrister-at-law,  of  Killerrig,  County  Carlow.  '  The 
Strange  Story  of  Viscountess  Beaconsfield,'  by  Mr. 
James  Sykes,  is  an  elaborate  and  very  careful  sum- 
ming-up of  all  that  is  known  concerning  the  origin 
and  character  of  that  lady,  who  is  presented  to  us 
under  many  aspects.— Mr.  Charles  L.  Eastlake  sup- 
plies to  Longman's,  from  family  papers,  an  account 
of  ' St.  Sebastian  after  the  Siege  of  1813.'  'A 
Sussex  Marsh,'  by  Mr.  H.  A.  Bryden,  is  good  in  its 
way.  There  is,  however,  more  than  a  little  incon- 
sistency in  the  writer,  who,  after  saying,  concern- 
ing the  snowy  spoonbill,  that  a  specimen  was 
"  shot,  I  regret  to  say,  a  few  years  since,"  calmly 
informs  us  that  he  himself  shot  equally  rare  visitors 
to  our  shores.  Not  an  attractive  creature  is  the 
self-styled  "  naturalist."  In  '  At  the  Sign  of  the 
Ship'  Mr.  Lang  begins  with  studies  in  natural 
history,  then  turns  to  the  more  familiar  subjects  of 
ethnology  and  totems. — The  midsummer  number  of 
the  Idler  is  wholly  occupied  with  fiction,  most  of  it 
dealing  with  adventure.— The  Playgoer  has  a  good 
picture  of  Mr.  Tree  as  Falstaff. 


We  must  call  upecial  attention  to  the  following 
notices  :— 

ON  all  communications  must  be  written  the  name 
and  address  of  the  sender,  not  necessarily  for  pub- 
lication, but  as  a  guarantee  of  good  faith. 

WE  cannot  undertake  to  answer  queries  privately. 

To  secure  insertion  of  communications  corre- 
spondents must  observe  the  following  rules.  Let 
each  note,  query,  or  reply  be  written  on  a  separate 
slip  of  paper,  with  the  signature  of  the  writer  and 
such  address  as  he  wishes  to  appear.  When  answer- 
ing queries,  or  making  notes  with  regard  to  previous 
entries  in  the  paper,  contributors  are  requested  to 
put  in  parentheses,  immediately  after  the  exact 
heading,  the  series,  volume,  and  page  or  pages  to 
which  they  refer.  Correspondents  who  repeat 
queries  are  requested  to  head  the  second  com- 
munication "  Duplicate." 

E.  L.  ("Though  lost  to  sight,"  &c.). — Your  second 
supposition  concerning  Linley  is  correct. 


Editorial  communications  should  be  addressed 
to  "The  Editor  of  'Notes  and  Queries'"— Adver- 
tisements and  Business  Letters  to  "  The  Pub- 
lisher "—at  the  Office,  Bream's  Buildings,  Chancery 
Lane,  E.C. 

We  beg  leave  to  state  that  we  decline  to  return 
communications  which,  for  any  reason,  we  do  not 
print ;  and  to  this  rule  we  can  make  no  exception. 

g»  s.  x.  AUG.  16,  MOB.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. —  No.  242. 

NOTES  : -Ballads  on  the  Coronation  of  George  II.,  121  — 
Bibliography  of  Dibdin's  Works,  122— Bacon-Shakespeare 
Question,  124 — Shakespeare,  Sonnet  Ixxvi.,  125 — Inventor 
of  the  Postcard—"  Cond  " — '  Sergeant  Bell  and  his  Raree- 
Show '— Themistocles  aivl  the  Peloponnesian  War,  126— 
"Swindler,"  127. 

QUERIES  :—"  Livings"  in  the  Game  of  Maw  —  Charles 
Gordon,  of  the  Chesapeake—"  Sithence  no  fairy  lights  " — 
French  Quotation  —  Name  of  Book  Wanted,  127  — Peri- 
winkle—Marjorie  Fleming's  Portrait — Italian  Bankers  and 
the  Holy  See— Greece  and  Gladstone—"  Different  than  " 
— Freund  Hein — Bugle  as  a  Signal  Instrument— "Gentle- 
man from  Ohio" — A.  Hepplewhite,  Cabinet-maker,  128 — 
Macaulay:  References— "Le  Furmager" — Dandy-cart— 
Farmiloe,  Whicheloe,  and  Swinhoe— Scott  and  Wilkie— 
Alexander  MacDougall— John  of  Gaunt  at  Markeaton— 
Earthworks  at  Burpbam  —Episcopal  College  of  St.  Edward 
— '  Hertfordshire  Historians,'  129. 

REPLIES  :— Michael  Bruce  and  Burns,  130— Thackeray  and 
Homoeopathy — King's-taper  —  Heraldic  —  Danes  in  Pem- 
broke— Duke  of  Brabant,  132 — Desborough  Portraits  and 
Relics— Green  an  Unlucky  Colour— Projection  on  a  Saw, 
133 — "Flapper"— Various  Lengths  of  the  Perch—"  Mere- 
steads"  or  "  Mesesteads  "— O  and  its  Pronunciation,  134 
—  "Barracked "  —  Byron's  Bust  by  Bartolini  —  Ceiling 
Inscription  in  Shropshire,  135 — Lambrook  Strariling  — 
"Ycleping"  the  Church  —  Mallet  used  by  Wren,  136— 
Jews'  Way  :  Jews'  Gate  :  Jews'  Lane  —  Shakespeare  v. 
Bacon— Defoe,  137— Legend  of  Lady  Alice  Lea— Thacke- 
ray's Residences  in  London — "  Upwards  of,"  138. 

NOTES  ON  BOOKS :— Potter's  '  Sohrab  and  Rustem'  — 
Copinger's  'History  of  BuxhalP— 'The  Saga  Book  of  the 
Viking  Club '— Littledale's  Dyce's  'Glossary  of  the  Works 
of  William  Shakespeare '— '  Edinburgh  Review." 

Notices  to  Correspondents. 


I  HAVE  in  my  possession  a  very  curious 
volume,  containing  a  collection  of  ballads 
and  garlands  printed  in  the  earlier  half  of 
the  eighteenth  century,  which  was  formerly 
in  the  library  of  the  late  Mr.  James  Maidment, 
and  constituted  lot  136  in  that  gentleman's  sale 
in  April,  1880.  Amongst  them  is  '  The  French- 
men  s  Garland,  containing  Four  Excellent 
New  Songs,'  the  first  two  of  which  have 
reference  to  the  coronation  of  King  George  II., 
of  which  an  account  was  recently  given  by 
the  author  of  that  clever  suvercherie,  '  A 
Foreign  View  of  England  in  the  Reigns  of 
George  I.  and  George  II. '  (see  '  N.  &  O.,' 
9th  S.  ix.  479).  As  the  tracts  forming  the 
collection  in  question  are  all  extremely  rare, 
if  not  unique,  I  will  venture  to  transcribe 
the  two  Coronation  ballads  in  the  hope  that 
'  N.  &  Q.'  may  be  able  to  find  room  for  them. 
I  have  omitted  the  last  stanza  of  the  second 
ballad,  for  reasons  which  the  students  of  the 
popular  literature  of  that  day  will  recognize. 


There  was  three  Frenchmen  came  over  from  France 

To  England,  for  their  own  Pleasure, 
As  well  as  to  see  King  George  the  Second  crown'd, 
And  with  them  they  brought  Store  of  Treasure  ; 
Good  Money  and  Rings,  and  other  fine  Things  ; 

But  was  mad  and  full  of  Vexation, 
For  th'  People  was  so  throng,  they  could  not  pass 

To  see  our  King's  Coronation. 

But  when  that  they  to  Westminster  were  come, 

O  the  Frenchmen  did  stare  and  wonder 
For  to  see  how  the  Coaches  and  Horses  did  fly 

Like  Storms  of  Lightning  and  Thunder, 
With  the  Bells  they  did  ring,  and  the  English  did 

With  Joy  and  Acclamations, 
They  huff'd  the  French  Dons,  and  bad  them  begone, 

For  this  was  the  King's  Coronation. 

Beggar,  says  the  Frenchmen,  what  do  you  mean  ? 

We  lately  have  come  over, 
From  Calice  I  came  but  the  other  Day, 

And  last  Night  I  landed  at  Dover  ; 
Me  bro't  over  Store  of  Gold,  therefore  be  not  ao 

To  us  in  your  English  Nation  ; 
For,  Beggar,  if  you  do,  we  will  make  you  to  rue 

Altho   tis  the  King's  Coronation. 

Then  the  Sharpers  they,  did  hasten  straightway 

For  to  bite  them  of  all  their  Treasure, 
For  one  shew'd  them*^iere,  and   another   shew'd 

Till  they  bit  them  of  all  at  Leisure  ; 
Beggar,  says  one,  when  he  found  his  Money  gone, 

Be  this  your  English  Fashion, 
We  will  never  come  more  unto  the  British  Shore 

For  to  see  the  King's  Coronation. 

Then  the  other  two,  did  cry  out  Morbleu, 

And  was  in  a  Devilish  Passion, 
And  said  all    their  Money  from    them  was  ta'en 

Which  was  to  them  a  sad  Vexation. 
Then,  Beggar,  says  one,  come  let  us  be  gone, 

If  this  be  English  Fashion, 
Me  will  ne'er  come  more  unto  the  British  Shore 

For  to  see  the  King's  Coronation. 

But  as  they  in  the  Height  of  their  Fury  were, 

A  Welshman'he  ran  up  to  them, 
And  looked  round  about,  and  thus  he  replied, 

What  is  the  Matter  with  the  Frenchmen  ? 
But  th'  Frenchmen  turn'd  strai't,  and  knock'd  him 
on  the  Pate, 

As  they  did  beat  him  and  bang  him, 
They  said  their  Money  was  gone,  and  he  was  the 

So  they  all  three  cried,  Let 's  hang  him. 

But  the  Welshman  he,  fell  on  his  bare  Knee, 

And  to  them  he  did  stammer  and  splutter, 
And  said  his  Pocket  was  also  well  piclct 

Of  Forty  Shillings  or  better  ; 
So  Gad  splutter  hur  Nails,  hur  will  run  into  Wales, 

And  will  ne'er  come  out  of  hur  Nation, 
For  the  De'il  take  me,  if  e'er  I  come  to  see, 

Any  more  of  their  King's  Coronation. 



[9th  S.  X.  AUG.  16, 1902. 

Well  met,  my  dear  Doll,  I  wish  you  a  good  Morn, 
Where  have  you  been,  I  han't  seen  you  so  long? 
I  Ve  sought  all  the  Plains  and  the  Groves  all  around. 
John,  I  've  been  at  London  to  see  the  King  crown'd. 

There  did  I  see  the  brave  Dukes  and  Lords, 
And  the  best  of  the  Nobles  all  England  affords, 
Some  had  Stars  on    their    Sides,  some  in  Scarlet 

John,  I  've  been  at  London  to  see  the  King  crown'd. 

There  did  I  see  the  fine  Canopy  bright, 
With  Gold  and  good  Lace,  fit  to  dazzle  your  Sight, 
Held  up  by  twelve  Noblemen  in  their  fine  Gowns. 
John,  I 've  been  at  London  to  see  the  King  crown'd. 

There  did  I  see  the  fine  Coronation  Chair 
All  cover'd  with  Velvet  so  costly  and  rare, 
With  a  fine  Satin  Cushion,  well  stufFd  full  of  Down. 
John,  I've  been  at  London  to  see  the  King  crown'd. 

The  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  stood  on  hia  right 


The  Archbishop  of  York  he  the  Bible  did  guide ; 
When  the  King  kiss'd  the  Book,  the  Trumpets  did 

John,  I  've  been  at  London  to  see  the  King  crown'd. 

There   I   See  the   King's  Champion    a   Challenge 


In  Armour  on  Horseback,  with  Sword  in  his  Hand. 
There  was  all  the  12  Judges,  with  chains  and  red 

John,  I  've  been  at  London  to  see  the  King  crown'd. 

There  was  Scaffolds  on  both  sides  of  Westminster 


There  was  Sharpers  and  Biters,  the  Devil  and  all ; 
There  some  lost  their  Watches,  and  others  them 

John,  I  've  been  at  London  to  see  the  King  crown'd. 




(Continued  from  9ih  S.  ix.  423.) 

1788.  The  Musical  Tour  of  Mr  Dibdin ;  in  which, 
—  previous  to  his  embarkation  for  India,  —  he 
finished  his  career  as  a  public  character.  "There 
was  a  grain  of  sand  that  lamented  itself  as  the  most 
unfortunate  atom  upon  the  face  of  the  universe ; 
but,  in  process  of  time,  it  became  a  diamond !  " 
Readings  and  Music.  Sheffield:  Printed  for  the 
Author  by  J.  Gales,  and  sold  by  all  the  Booksellers 
throughout  the  Kingdom.  M,  DCC,  LXXXVIII. 

4to,  pp.  6  (unnumbered,  containing  title, 
dedication  to  Prince  of  Wales,  and  "Adver- 
tisement "),  iv  (list  of  subscribers),  443. 
Directions  to  binder  on  444.  Pp.  174  and  175 
are  numbered  168  and  169,  210  as  110,  220  as 
208,  262  as  261  :  294  has  the  2  reversed,  300 
as  330,  309  as  307,  and  from  the  latter  num- 
ber the  pages  run  on  to  338;  after  338  the 
next  are  335,  336,  &c.;  378  is  numbered  as 
178.  There  are,  therefore,  six  pages  more  than 
the  pagination  indicates,  besides  fifteen  leaves 
containing  seven  engraved  songs.  The  text 
consists  of  107  letters  addressed  to  various 

correspondents,  the  first  dated  Hereford. 
16  August,  1787  ;  the  last,  London,  1  May, 
1788.  The  dates  are  not  always  accurate. 
The  volume  contains  a  full  account  of  Dib- 
din's  first  musical  tour,  a  description  of  the 
Entertainment,  with  some  of  the  music,  and  a 
list  of  eighty-six  works  produced  by  him  at 
the  theatres,  &c.  The  "advertisement"  states 
that  the  first  edition  consisted  of  600  copies, 
and  that  a  second  edition  was  being  printed 
in  London.  I  have  not  seen  or  heard  of  a 
copy  of  this. 

Up  to  this  point  1  have  not  referred  to 
individual  songs  in  operas,  pantomimes,  Ac., 
but  here,  and  in  following  entertainments, 
I  shall  set  down  a  list  of  the  songs  (titles  or 
first  lines)  introduced  by  Dibdin,  with  such 
particulars  as  may  seem  desirable.  In  this 
entertainment  forty-eight  songs  were  used 
(not  all  on  any  one  evening),  the  majority 
taken  from  previous  plays.  I  number  them 
in  the  order  in  which  Dibdin  mentions  them, 
but  they  are  rearranged  so  as  to  show  source, 
&c.  Those  of  which  the  music  is  given  in  the 
'  Tour '  are  Nos.  1,  2,  11,  13,  18,  36,  and  47.  It 
is  probably  published  there  for  the  first  time, 
although  two  of  the  pieces  are  from  '  Reason- 
able Animals '  (see  under  '  Pasquin's  Budget,' 
1780).  The  song  '  Little  Ben '  (afterwards  in 
'  The  Wags ')  was  also  used  at  some  of  the 
later  performances. 

1.  Probably  written  for  the  '  Tour.' 

1.  You  must  begin  Pomposo  (music). 

2.  When  impell'd  by  my  fortune  new  worlds  to 
explore  (music). 

4.  That  all  the  world  is  up  in  arms. 

6.  Fait,  honey,  in  Ireland,  I  'd  find  out  a  flaw. 

8.  At  the  sound  of  the  horn,  we  rise  in  the  morn. 

11.  I  thought  we  were  fiddle  and  bow  (music). 

12.  Sweet  ditties  would  my  Patty  sing. 
16.  Spirits  of  distress,  of  ev'ry  occupation. 
24.  Quaco  Bungy  go  about. 

33.  I've  made  to  marches  Mars  descend. 

34.  Do  but  thy  recollection  jog. 

35.  No  more  of  winds  and  waves  the  sport. 

36.  When  last  from  the  Straits  we  had  fairly  cast 
anchor  (music). 

37.  Recit.  To  peep  or  not  to  peep 's  the  question. 

46.  Ye  jobbers,  underwriters,  ye  tribes  of  pen 
and  ink. 

47.  But  thou,  O  Hope,  with  eyes  so  fair.     Words 
by  Collins  (music). 

48.  Lawyers  pay  you  with  words. 

Of  these  Nos.  6  and  16  were  afterwards 
used  in  'The  Whim  of  the  Moment,'  No.  35  in 
'Will  o'  the  Wisp,'  and  No.  48  in  'The  Coali- 
tion' and  'Nature  in  Nubibus.' 

2.  From  '  The  Quaker'  (1775). 
39.  Thou  man  of  firmness,  turn  this  way. 

3.  From  '  The  Wires  Revenged'  (1778). 
10.  Curtis  was  old  Hodge's  wife. 

9<»s.x.AuG.i6,i902.)        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


4.  From  'Plymouth  in  an  Uproar  '  (1779). 

20.  We  on  the  present  hour  relying. 

5.  From  '  The  Chelsea  Pensioner'  (1779). 
45.  Sing  the  loves  of  John  and  Jean. 
6.  From  '  The  Shepherdess  of  the  Alps'  (1780). 
9.  Oh  men,  what  silly  things  you  are." 
14.  Bright  gems  that  twinkle  from  afar. 
7.  From  '  The  Islanders '  (1780). 

25.  Poor  Orra  tink  of  Yanko  dear. 

26.  When  Yanko  dear  fight  far  away. 

8.  From  'Reasonable  Animals' (1780). 
13.  I  sing  of  a  war  set  on  foot  for  a  toy  (music). 

18.  I  sing  Ulysses  and  those  chiefs  (music). 

21.  Recit.  What  beast  art  thou,  my  good  friend, 
Hard-Phiz  ? — Air.  By  roguery  'tis  true,  I  opulent 

22.  Recit.  This  asthma  gives  me  such  a  dizziness. 
— Air.  For  dainties  I've  had  of  thf.m  all. 

23.  Recit.  What's  this,  a  Bull!   oy  the  ghost  of 
Priam. — Air.    Is't  my  story  you'd  know?     I  was 
Patrick  Mulrooney. 

9.  From  '  Tom  Thumb  '  (1784). 

19.  1  '11  tell  you  a  story,  a  story  that's  true. 

30.  Is  it  little  Tom  Thumb  dat  you  mean  ? 

40.  In  Paris  as  in  London. 

41.  Behold  the  fairies'  jocund  band. 

43.  Chairs  to  mend,  old  chairs  to  mend. 

44.  A  tinker  I  am,  my  name's  Natty  Sam. 

10.  From  '  Clump  and  Cudden '  (1785).     * 

42.  This  then  my  lad  'a  a  soldier's  life. 

11.  From  '  The  Benevolent  Tar '  (1785). 
5.  A  plague  of  those  musty  old  lubbers. 

17.  A  sailor's  love  is  void  of  art. 

27.  What  argufies  pride  and  ambition  ? 

12.  From  '  Pandora'  (?). 
38.  What  a  pity  'twill  be,  odds  babies  and  lambs. 

13.  From  'Liberty  Hall'  (1785). 

3.  Who  to  my  wounds  a  balm  advises. 

7.  Jack  Ratlin  was  the  ablest  seaman. 

16.  See  the  course  throng'd  with  gazers. 

28.  Recit.  Curate  Ap  Hugh,  driving  a  triple  trade. 
— Air.  Was  Winny  kind  to  me. 

29.  Recit.  Now  changing,  the  transition  quick  as 
re.— Air.  Do  salmons  love  a  lucid  stream  ? 

31.  When    fairies  are    lighted  by  night's  silver 

14.  From  '  Harvest  Home'  (1786). 

32.  As  Dermot  toil'd  one  summer's  day. 

The  following  songs  (and  probably  others) 
were  published  in  folio  by  Preston.  I  give 
the  titles,  with  numbers  for  reference  : — 

1.  Pomposo.  Composed  by  Mr.  Dibdin. and  sung 
by  him  with  the  greatest  applause  at  his  late  Read- 
ings and  Music.  4  pp.  Pr.  Is.  "  Where  may  be 
had  all  the  songs  sung  in  the  above  entertainment." 

5.  Nothing  like  Grog at  his  late  readings  at 

Bath,  Bristol,  Worcester,  Oxford,  &c.  3  pp.,  front 
blank.  Pr.  I/.  With  arrang'  for  trie  German  Flute. 

16.  Spirits    of  Distress 3    pp.,    front    blank. 

Pr.  6d.    Arrt.  for  Ger.  Flute. 

17.  Lovely  Polly.      A  favorite   song.      Written, 
composed,  and  sung  by  Mr.  Dibdin.    3  pp.,  front 
blame.     Pr.  Is.    Arr.  for  Guittar  and  German  Flute. 

36.  Bonny  Kitty.  Similar  heading  to  No.  1. 
Pr.  tid.  3  pp.,  front  blank.  Arr.  for  Ger.  Flute. 

48.  Lawyers  pay  you  with  words 3  pp.,  front 

blank.  Arr.  for  Ger.  Flute  or  Guittar.  Pr.  6d. 

1789.  Twelve  Songs  in  The  Whim  of  the  Moment 
or  Nature  in  Little  Written,  Composed,  -Sung,  & 
Accompanied,  by  Mr.  Dibdin.  Price  10s:  6d. 
Printed  for  the  Author  &  Sold  by  him  in  St.  George's 
Fields,  Messrs.  Preston  &  Son,  No.  97  Strand,  &  all 
the  Music  Sellers  in  Town  &  Country.  Folio,  pp.  ij, 
36  ;  ij,  and  1  blank. 

This  is  the  only  instance  known  to  me  of  the 
songs  from  one  of  Dibdin's  Table  Entertain- 
ments published  with  a  general  title  and  con- 
secutive pagination.  The  titles  of  the  songs 
it  contains  are  as  follows  : — 

1.  Wives  and  Sweethearts,  p.  2. 

2.  The  Mellow  Toned  Horn,  p.  5. 

3.  Pleasure  the  result  of  reflection,  p.  8. 

4.  The  Lassy  of  my  heart,  p.  10. 

5.  Poor  Jack,  p.  13. 

6.  The  Soldier's  Grave,  p.  16. 

7.  The  Triumph  of  Wine,  p.  18. 

8.  The  Sailor's  Sheet  Anchor,  p.  20. 

9.  The  Voice  of  Nature,  p  24. 

10.  The  Jolly  Fisherman,  p.  27. 

11.  Indian  Battle,  p.  30. 

12.  Homer  and  I,  p.  34. 

The  following  songs  seem  also  to  have  been 
used  in  the  Entertainment,  which  was  first- 
performed  23  January,  1789  :— 

1.  Probably  written  for  it. 

13.  Little  Neddy. 

14.  The  World's  Epitome. 

15.  Colin  and  Chloe. 

16.  The  Bumpkin  in  Town  (or  '  The  Bumpkin  no 
Fool').  * 

17.  I  don't  believe  a  word  on 't. 

18.  The  Return  of  Ulysses  to  Ithica  [sic]. 

2.  From  '  The  Islanders. 

19.  Come  round  me  and  weep. 

3.  From  '  Tom  Thumb.' 

20.  The  Fairy  Train. 

4.  From  '  Long  Odds. 

21.  I  vow  I  thought  you  at  first  sight. 

22.  'Tis  true  the  marks. 

23.  The  Lady  of  Ton. 

5.  From  the  Musical  Tour  Entertainment. 

24.  The  Incantation  ("  Spirits  of  distress,"  No.  16)t 

25.  Fait,  honey,  in  Ireland  (No.  6). 

26.  "The  Character  of  Hope"  (probably  No.  47, 
"  But  thou,  O  Hope  " 

6.  Afterwards  in  '  The  Oddities. 

27.  The  Portrait. 

7.   Uncertain,  but  most  likely  produced  1789. 

28.  A  Linnet's  Nest. 

29.  My  .Poll  and  Partner  JOQ. 

The  separate  sheet  songs  (all  folio)  were 
probably  first  published  in  the  same  manner 
as  the  set  of  twelve,  although  I  only  know  of 
two  with  author  as  publisher,  viz. : — 

16.  The  Bumpkin  no  Fool.  2  pp.  Signed.  No 
price  stated. 

23.  The  Lady  of  Ton.  2  pp.  Signed.  No  price 

It  is  probable  Dibdin  soon  discontinued 
this  first  attempt  as  music  publisher,  for 
Preston  &  Son  were  sole  publishers,  e.g.,  of 



.  x.  A™.  IG,  1902. 

the  following,  each  described  as  "a  Favorite 
song  in  the  Whim  of  the  Moment "  :— 

5.  Poor  Jack.  4  pp.  Price  Is. ;  arrangement  for 
German  Flute. 

15.  Colin  and  Chloe.    2pp.     Price  Qd. 

18.  The  Return  of  Ulysses  to  Ithica  [aic].  2  pp. 
Price  6d.  For  Ger.  Flute. 

The  following,  also  published  by  Preston  & 
Son,  are  described  as  "  Written,  Composed 
and  Sung  by  Mr.  Dibdin  at  the  Lyceum  ": — 

I.  Wives  and  Sweethearts,  or  Saturday  Night. 
4  pp.    Price  Is.    Arrt.  for  Guittar. 

6.  The  Chelsea  Pensioner,  "a  celebrated  Song" 
(i.e ,  The  Soldier's  Grave).  3  pp.  Price  Is.  Arr. 
for  German  Flute  or  Guittar. 

Another  copy,  price  6d. 

9.  The  Voice  of  Nature.     "An  admired  Indian 
Song."    3  pp.    Price  Qd.    Arr.  for  German  Flute. 

10.  The  Jolly    Fisherman,    "  a    favorite    song." 
3  pp.    Price  Qd. 

II.  The  celebrated  Indian  Battle.   4  pp.    Price  Is. 

None  of  these  are  signed ;  neither  are  the 
following,  which  are  printed  by  Longman 
&  Broderip,  No.  26,  Cheapside,  and  No.  13, 
Haymarket: — 

28.  A  Linnet's  Nest  with  anxious  care.  A  Favorite 
Ballad.    Composed  and  Sung  at  the  Lyceum  in  the 
Strand,  by  Charles  Dibdin.    Enter'd  at  Stationers 
Hall.     Pr.  Is.      4  pp.    Scored  for  violins,  oboes, 
horns  and  basso.    Also  arranget.  for  Guitar. 

29.  I  was,  d'ye  see,  a  Waterman  [My  Poll  and  Part- 
ner Joe].     A  favorite  Ballad  Composed,  &c.,  as 
above,  but  in  short  score.    Also  arr*  for  Guitar. 

Other  early  folio  editions  of  separate  songs : 

5.  The  new  Song  of  Poor  Jack.  Composed  by 
Dibdin.  1  p.  Dublin,  published  by  John  Lee. 

5.  Poor  Jack.  Dibdin.  Price  &d.  London,  Printed 
&  sold  by  Dale,  19  Cornhill,  &c.  (from  Dale's  9th 
book  of  songs).  2  pp. 

5.  Poor  Jack.  Composed  by  C.  Dibdin.  Pr.  In. 
2  pp.  Printed  &  sold  by  H.  Andrews,  No.  11  Little 
Canterbury  Place,  Lambeth  Walk. 

1.  Wives  and  Sweethearts.  Written  and  Com- 
posed by  C.  Dibdin.  Price  la.  2  pp.  No  publisher's 
name.  Water-mark  date  1803. 

29.  I  was  d'ye  see  a  Waterman.  A  Favorite  song, 
Composed  by  Mr-  Dibdin.  For  the  Piano  Forte. 
Price  Is.  2  pp.  London,  Printed  for  G.  Walker, 
106,  Great  Portland  Street. 

Several  of  the  songs  in  this  entertainment 
have  appended  arrangements  for  German 
flute  or  guitar.  Some  of  them  were  published 
in  'The  Bystander,'  1789,  q.v. 

Morningside,  Sudworth  Road,  New  Brighton. 
(To  be  continued.) 


(Continued  from  p.  44-) 

UP  to  the  present  I  have  made  but  little 
attempt  to  illustrate  passages  in  Bacon  by 
others  in  Ben  Jonson,  and  I  have  deliberately 
refrained  from  doing  so,  it  having  been 
my  object  to  show  that  the  'Promus'  notes 

and  other  matter  adduced  by  Baconians  can 
be  paralleled  out  of  the  work  of  all  writers  of 
the  period  or  previously.  There  is  little  or 
nothing  that  is  new  in  the  '  Promus ' ;  and 
the  vocabulary,  phrasing,  and  learning  dis- 
played in  Shakespeare's  work  are  common- 
place. The  examples  that  I  dealt  with,  except 
in  one  or  two  cases,  were  chosen  because  of 
their  supposed  difficulty ;  and  almost  in- 
variably they  prove  not  only  that  Shake- 
speare was  not  necessarily  a  Latin  and  Greek 
scholar,  but  that  the  Baconians  had  not 
mastered  Bacon's  own  work.  That  is  a 
point  worth  remembering.  These  men,  who 
pretend  to  know  so  much  about  their  master's 
work,  are  apparently  wilfully  ignorant  of 
vital  matters  with  which  they  should  be 
acquainted  ;  and  they  either  do  not  know  or 
pretend  not  to  know  that  Bacon's  notes  and 
other  matter  which  they  adduce  to  dethrone 
Shakespeare  are  commonplaces.  If  they  had 
honestly  worked  the  '  Promus '  with  other 
writers,  such  as  John  Lyly,  Robert  Greene, 
Beaumont  and  Fletcher,  or  with  any  other 
authors  who  produced  work  equal  in  volume 
to  -that  of  Shakespeare,  they  would  have 
known  that  the  work  of  Mrs.  Pott  is  a  huge 
joke,  and  that  the  attempt  to  filch  Shake- 
speare's work  from  him  is  a  task  beyond 
their  strength.  The  manner  in  which  Shake- 
speare is  made  to  furnish  parallels  for  the 
'Promus'  is  sometimes  highly  diverting  ;  as, 
for  instance,  when  we  find  the  same  passage 
at  one  time  doing  duty  as  an  English  pro- 
verb, then  as  an  allusion  to  a  Bible  sentence, 
next  as  an  adaptation  of  Ovid,  and,  finally, 
grinning  under  a  French  proverb.  That  kind 
of  thing  very  frequently  occurs  in  Mrs.  Pott's 
work,  which  is  full  of  gross  inaccuracies  and 
wild  assertions.  However,  I  saw  it  would 
never  do  to  let  the  chance  of  a  complete 
answer  to  the  Baconian  case  slip  by,  and 
therefore,  as  Mrs.  Pott  had  taken  the  trouble 
to  illustrate  the  'Promus'  by  copious  extracts 
from  Shakespeare,  I  thought  -  it  would  be 
wise  to  follow  suit  by  showing  that  other 
men's  work  was  equally,  or  even  more,  fruit- 
ful of  parallels ;  and  as  the  entries  are 
nearly  all  commonplaces,  the  task,  although 
laborious,  was  not  difficult  of  achievement. 
I  tried  Marlowe,  Spenser,  Lyly,  and  Beau- 
mont and  Fletcher,  and  found  they  were  all 
strong  "  Baconians  ";  but  finally  I  selected 
Ben  Jonson,  not  because  he  used  or  paralleled 
the  '  Promus '  entries  more  frequently  than 
others,  but  because  he  was  a  close  student  of 
Bacon  and  copied  from  him.  The  Baconian 
case  is  centred  in  the  assertion  that  the  repe- 
titions in  Bacon  and  Shakespeare  are  not 
commonplaces  ;  and  that  the  learning  they 

9*  s.  x.  AUG.  IB,  1902.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


display  proves  not  only  that  the  plays  and 
poems  are  by  a  profound  Greek  and  Latin 
scholar,  but  that  tnat  scholar  must  have  been 
Bacon.  Ben  Jonson  is  constantly  mentioned 
by  them  as  one  whose  work  is  in  striking 
contrast  to  that  of  Shakespeare,  and  Mrs. 
Pott  could  hardly  find  a  single  line  in  his 
work  to  parallel  any  of  the  '  Promus '  entries. 
Well,  let  readers  judge  for  themselves.  The 
work  of  Ben  Jonson  is  that  of  a  man  who 
was  steeped  to  the  lips  in  classical  authors ; 
consequently  we  shall  find  him  repeating  the 
learning  of  Bacon  with  a  literalism  that  is 
almost  painfully  different  from  Shakespeare, 
whose  knowledge  of  the  classics  was  derived 
almost  entirely  through  English  channels. 
Once  or  twice  only  does  Shakespeare  happen 
to  bring  into  his  plays  Latin  tags  noted  by 
Bacon,  although  they  can  be  found  by  the 
score  in  others ;  but  in  Ben  Jonson  they 
abound,  and  not  unfrequently  in  a  context 
that  is  manifestly  stolen  from  Bacon. 

There  is  no  evidence  to  prove  conclusively 
that  Bacon  and  Shakespeare  ever  met,  or 
were  acquainted  with  each  other.  But  the 
case  of  Ben  Jonson  is  different.  Jonson 
at  one  time  acted  as  a  kind  of  secretary 
to  Bacon,  and  translated,  or  assisted  to 
translate,  his  essays  into  Latin.  Jonson's 
'Discoveries,'  moreover,  prove  that  he  had 
often  been  in  Bacon's  company.  The  fact 
that  Bacon  and  Jonson  were  known  to  each 
other  is  not  disputed  ;  but  it  is  not  known, 
even  by  those  who  are  most  versed  in 
Bacon's  work,  that  certain  entries  in  the 
'  Promus '  have  a  direct  relation  to  Ben 
Jonson's  masques  and  plays.  I  will  deal 
with  these  entries  in  the  proper  place.  All 
I  urge  now  is  that  if  parallels  can  be  used  to 
filch  from  a  man  the  work  that  was  uni- 
versally assigned  to  him  by  contemporaries— 
if  we  must  ignore  all  tradition,  and  the  voice 
of  a  cloud  of  witnesses— if  gross  and  palpable 
differences  in  the  style  of  writers  are  to  count 
for  nothing  —  then  Shakespeare  must  be 
thrown  overboard  by  the  Baconians,  and 
they  must  elect  Ben  Jonson  in  his  place, 
because  Jonson  repeats  Bacon  much  more 
nearly  than  Shakespeare  does,  and  because, 
on  their  own  showing,  the  writer  of  the 
Jonson  plays  is  a  different  man  from  the 
writer  of  the  Shakespeare  plays  and  poems. 
Shakespeare  does  not  and  cannot  be  made  to 
illustrate  many  of  the  'Promus'  entries  in 
the  way  that  Bacon  and  Jonson  illustrate 

kthem ;  and  the  ludicrous  manner  in  which 
Mrs.  Pott  essayed  the  task  only  serves  to 
show  that  it  is  an  easy  matter  to  prove  by 
such  parallels  that  Bacon  must  have  written 
everything  that  had  been  penned  up  to- his 

time,  including  the  Bible,  and  not  forgetting 
that  portion  of  it  which'  is  entitled  the  Book 
of  Judges.  For  it  is  a  truth,  and  one  that 
we  should  ponder  over  when  we  begin  to 
flatter  ourselves  and  imagine  what  clever 
people  we  are,  that  the  range  of  our  thoughts 
is  extremely  limited,  and  that  the  number  of 
essentially  different  ideas  that  man  is  capable 
of  expressing  or  of  cogitating  in  his  mind 
is  on  about  a  par  with  the  number  of 
the  letters  in  the  alphabet.  These  ideas, 
like  the  letters  of  the  alphabet,  which  can 
be  made  to  represent  all  sounds  and  all 
knowledge,  are  simply  capable  of  being 
expanded  and  varied  by  an  infinite  number 
of  combinations ;  yet,  when  all  is  said,  it 
comes  to  this,  that  the  greatest  of  the  philo- 
sophers and  the  most  lofty  of  the  poets 
cannot  express  a  thought  which  cannot  be 
paralleled  out  of  the  crude  notions  of  the 
ignorant  ploughman.  It  is,  therefore,  easy 
to  explain  why  Shakespeare  can  be  made  to 
illustrate,  with  more  or  less  faithfulness,  the 
things  which  Bacon  noted  in  his  '  Promus,' 
or  which  have  been  brought  from  his  prose 
works.  Mrs.  Pott  thinks  it  a  legitimate  thing 
to  parallel  a  Greek  saying  with  a  time-worn 
English  proverb,  or  a  Bible  sentence  with  a 
bit  of  Ovid  or  of  Virgil  which  Shakespeare 
caught  up  from  son^  English  writer,  and  to 
use  the  same  passage  many  times  over  and 
under  various  headings  which  only  agree  in 
containing  the  same  notion  in  a  more  or  less 
crude  form.  I  say  again,  if  one  is  to  decide 
on  parallels  of  that  land,  then  Bacon  must 
have  written  everything  that  had  been 
written  up  to  his  time  and  during  the  time 
that  he  lived.  Is  it  any  wonder,  then,  that 
the  critics  who  work  upon  such  a  plan  as 
that,  and  who,  just  as  the  ostrich  when  it  sees 
an  enemy  buries  its  head  in  the  sand,  refuse 
to  read  or  who  ignore  the  writings  of  all  other 
men  because  they  would  convict  them,  con- 
fining their  reading  to  Shakespeare  and  Bacon 
— is  it  any  wonder  that  they  are  able  to  pre- 
sent a  specious  case  against  Shakespeare  and 
to  impose  on  men  who  either  have  not  the  time 
or  lack  the  critical  faculty  to  see  through 
their  false  and  preposterous  resemblances  ? 
Bacon  calls  that  kind  of  work  legerdemain, 
and  he  compares  it  to  the  tricks  of  tumblers, 
who  only  thrive  until  their  tricks  are  known. 

53,  Hampden  Road,  Hornsey,  N. 
(To  be  continued.) 

In  Judge  Webb's  recent  book  'The  Mystery 
of  William  Shakespeare '  there  is  one  special 
argument  against  the  ordinarily  received 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        [9»  s.  x.  A™.  IG,  1902. 

authorship  based  on  Sonnet  Ixxvi.,  to  which 
the  learned  judge  frequently  recurs.  He  says 
,p.  156):— 

"  The  author  of  the  Sonnets,  admittedly,  was  the 
Author  of  the  Poems  and  the  Plays,  and  the  whole 
Shakespearian  question  would  seem  to  resolve 
itself  into  the  question,  who  was  the  author  of  the 

Sonnets? The  author  could  not  have  been  Shake- 

spere.  If  he  kept  Invention  he  did  not  keep  it  in 
a  noted  weed.  He  had  no  reason  to  conceal  his 

Judge  Webb  again  quotes  the  line  about 
invention  at  p.  162.  At  p.  64,  after  quoting 
the  sonnet,  he  says :  "  Here  the  author 
certainly  intimates  that  Shakespeare  was 
not  his  real  name,  and  that  he  was  fearful 
lest  his  real  name  should  be  discovered." 

Again  (p.  264),  writing  of  this  sonnet,  he 
speaks  of  "the  sonnet  which  warned  the 
public  that  Shakespeare  was  not  the  real 
name  of  the  author,  but  the  noted  weed  in 
which  he  kept  Invention."  See  also  p.  65. 

But  does  the  author  of  the  sonnet  really 
endeavour  to  conceal  his  name?  What  are 
the  lines  relied  on  ? 

Why  write  I  still  all  one,  ever  the  same, 
Andl  keep  invention  in  a  noted  weed, 
That  every  word  doth  almost  tell  my  name, 
Showing  their  birth,  and  where  they  did  proceed  ? 
O  know,  sweet  love,  I  always  write  of  you. 

Here  I  think  the  ordinary  reader  would 
attribute  to  the  words  no  other  meaning 
than  that  the  poet  ever  wrote  to  the  same 
purpose,  ever  (as  he  says)  kept  his  poetry 
dressed  in  the  same  well-known  dress  : — 

O  know,  sweet  love,  I  always  write  of  you, 
And  you  and  love  are  still  my  argument. 

It  follows  that  the  person  addressed  could 
recognize  the  author  as  plainly  as  if  the 
sonnet  had  been  signed  William  Shakespeare. 
In  Sonnets  cxxxv.,  cxxxvi.,  and  cxliii. 
the  poet,  so  far  from  concealing  his  name, 
plays  on  it  again  and  again.  Now  why 
Francis  Bacon  should  write  three  sonnets 
punning  on  a  name  by  which  (on  the  Baconian 
hypothesis)  the  person  addressed  can  never 
have  known  him— or,  indeed,  any  one  else 
for  that  matter  —  remains  altogether  un- 
explained. W.  E.  ORMSBY. 

Emanl.  Hermann,  Councillor  of  the  Austrian 
Ministry  of  Commerce,  to  whom  is  ascribed 
the  invention  of  the  postcard,  died  in  Vienna 
14  July,  at  the  age  of  sixty-three.  Dr.  Her- 
mann first  suggested  the  idea  of  the  postcard 
in  an  article  which  appeared  in  the  Neue 
Freie  Presse  in  1869,  and  his  suggestion  was 
carried  into  effect  by  the  Austrian  post  office 
almost  immediately.  The  price  was  two 
kreutzers,  which  is  less  than  a  halfpenny,  and 

the  communication  on  the  card  was  restricted 
to  twenty  words  ;  but  this  limitation  was 
soon  dropped.  Germany  was,  I  believe,  the 
next  country  to  adopt  the  postcard,  after 
which  it  very  soon  became  universal. 


"CoND."— The  'N.E.D.'  gives  the  verb  cond 
in  the  senses  of  "to  conduct,  to  direct  the 
helmsman  how  to  steer  a  ship."  I  do  not, 
however,  find  the  noun  cond,  which  in  the 
passage  below  seems  to  mean  "  the  place  from 
which  orders  are  given  for  the  steering  of  a 
ship  ":- 

1766.  "  Such,  for  example,  as  the  ship  that  came 
in  one  night  from  the  Cfape  of  Good  Hope  plump 
into  the  harbor  of  Goa,  a  distance  of  some  thousands 
of  miles,  the  devil  holding  the  helm,  and  the  Virgin 
Mary  at  the  cond,  in  quality  of  quarter-master.  - 
Grose,  '  A  Voyage  to  the  East  Indies,'  new  edition, 
2  vols.,  ii.  170. 


[Dr.  Murray  gives  the  word  under  con,  conn,  but 
the  earliest  quotation  is  1825.] 

Sotheby's  sale  catalogue  for  22  July  includes 
the  following  item  : — 

"[Dickens  (C.)]  Sergeant  Bell  and  his  Raree- 
Show,  embellished  with  woodcuts  by  Cruikshank, 
Thompson,  Williams,  &c.  Tegg,  1839." 

The  book  was,  I  believe,  written  by  George 
Mogridge,  a  voluminous  writer  for  the  young, 
and  one  of  those  who  "  borrowed  "  the  pseu- 
donym of  "  Peter  Parley  "  from  the  American 
Goodrich,  who  first  made  it  famous.  The 
association  of  Dickens's  name  with  it  is  surely 
a  cataloguer's  mistake.  If  not,  I  should  be 
glad  to  learn  the  extent  of  the  novelist's 
connexion  with  a  book  so  widely  different  from 
his  usual  work.  By  the  way,  the  '  D.N.B.' 
(vol.  xxxvi.  p.  302)  gives  1842  as  the  date  of 
publication.  WALTER  JERROLD. 


FLEET. — There  is  a  curious  slip  in  Mr.  Bury's 
truly  admirable  'History  or  Greece,'  with 
reference  to  which  a  few  words  may  be  of 
interest.  It  is  at  the  bottom  of  p.  326 
(ed.  1900),  where  we  read  : — 

"The  activity  of  Themistocles  in  defeating  the 
designs  of  Sparta  at  this  period  is  reflected  in  the 
story  that  he  induced  the  Athenians  to  set  fire  to 
the  Peloponnesian  fleet  in  Thessalian  waters." 

In  Latin  there  are  separate  verbs  (suadeo 
and  persuadeo)  for  endeavouring  to  persuade 
others  to  do  anything  and  for  actually 
succeeding  in  such  endeavour,  but  in  English 
persuade  can  only  mean  the  latter,  and  for 
the  former  we  are  obliged  to  use  three  words, 
"  try  to  persuade."  In  like  manner  to  induce 
is  to  lead  or  prevail  upon  a  person  to  do  a 

9*  s.x.  A™.  16,  M02.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


certain  thing,  and  cannot  mean  only  to  try 
to  produce  that  effect.  Now  we  are  all 
familiar  with  the  famous  story  told  in  two 
places  in  Plutarch  (under  Themistocles  and 
Aristides)  that  Themistocles  proposed  to 
the  Athenians  a  scheme  for  securing  their 
supremacy,  but  was  ordered  to  refer  it  to 
Aristides,  and  he  reporting  that  it  was 
advantageous  but  unjust,  it  was  rejected 
without  being  explained  ;  and  that  it  con- 
sisted in  burning  the  whole  of  the  confederate 
fleet  except  the  Athenian  portion.  Lang- 
horne,  in  his  translation  of  the  life  of 
Themistocles,  without  stopping  to  consider 
whether  the  story  could  be  true  or  indeed 
possible  (for  the  confederates  would  scarcely 
stand  by  and  see  all  their  ships  destroyed 
without  resistance),  indulges  in  a  note  on  the 
enormity  of  the  scheme,  prompted  by  a 
"  policy  which  was  diabolical."  Kollin  uses 
similar  language.  It  may  be  worth  while 
to  refer  to  Grote's  note  (vol.  iv.  p.  293)  on 
this  story,  which  owes  its  wide  circulation 
to  the  popularity  of  Plutarch.  Grote  says 

"some  allusion  to  it  was  necessary,  though  it  has 

long  ceased  to  be  received  as  matter  of  history 

Pagasse  was  Thessalian,  and  as  such  hostile  to  the 
Greek  fleet  rather  than  otherwise  ;  the  fleet  seems 
to  have  never  been  there  ;  moreover  we  may  add 
that,  taking  matters  as  they  then  stood,  when  the 
fear  from  Persia  was  not  at  all  terminated,  the 
Athenians  would  have  lost  more  than  they  gained 
by  burning  the  ships  of  the  other  Greeks,  so  that 
Themistocles  was  not  very  likely  to  conceive  the 
scheme,  nor  Aristides  to  describe  it  in  the  language 
put  into  his  mouth.  The  story  is  probably  the 
invention  of  some  Greek  of  the  Platonic  age,  who 
wished  to  contrast  justice  with  expediency,  and 
Aristides  with  Themistocles— as  well  as  to  bestow 
at  the  same  time  panegyric  upon  Athens  in  the 
days  of  her  glory." 

But  what  I  am  pointing  out  now  is  that 
the  expression  in  Mr.  Bury's  reference  to  the 
story  implies  that  the  imaginary  and  nefarious 
scheme  was  not  merely  proposed,  but  actually 
carried  out — "  that  he  induced  the  Athenians 
to  set  fire  to  the  Peloponnesian  fleet  in 
Thessalian  waters."  W.  T.  LYNN. 


"  SWINDLER."— This  has  been  regarded  by 
Prof.  Skeat  and  others  as  one  of  our  few  loan- 
words from  the  German — viz.,  Schwindler.  It 
should  be  noted,  however,  that  the  Germans 
themselves  consider  their  Schwindler  to  be  an 
adaptation  of  the  English  swindler,  intro- 
duced by  Lichtenberg  in  his  explanation  of 
Hogarth's  engravings  (1794-99).  See  Dr. 
H.  Dunger,  'Englanderie  in  der  deutsche 
Sprache,'  1899,  p.  7.  It  is  not  easy  to  see 
what  is  the  original  meaning  of  the  word, 
whether  it  is  (from  A.-S.  swindan,  to  vanish) 

one   who  vanishes  or    cuts  away   with  his 
booty,  or  one  who  dazzles  or   deceives  the 
eyes  of  his  victim,  like  a  thimble-rigger,  by 
assimilation  to  Ger.  Kfatwndeln,  to  be  dizzy. 
S.  Woodford. 


WE  must  request  correspondents  desiring  infor- 
mation on  family  matters  of  only  private  interest 
to  affix  their  names  and  addresses  to  their  queries, 
in  order  that  the  answers  maybe  addressed  to  them 

is  the  meaning  of  the  term  livings  in  the 
following  extracts  from  '  The  Groome- porters 
lawes  at  Ma  we '  (about  1570),  in  '  Collection  of 
Black-Letter  Ballads  and  Broadsides'  (1867), 
pp.  124-5?— 

"If  you  turne  vp  the  ace  of  hartes,  and  thereby 
make  either  par  tie  aboue  xxvj,  the  contrary  part 
must  haue  liuings ;  but  if  the  contrary  parte  bee 
xxv,  by  meanes  whereof  liuings  sets  them  out,  then* 
is  he  who  turned  vp  the  ace  of  hartes  to  make  for 
the  set." 

"  You  may  not  aske  a  carde  to  set  the  contrary 
parte  or  your  selfe  at  liuings  or  out. 

"  Prouided  alwaies  that,  if  the  contrarie  parte  be 
xxiij  or  aboue,  by  reason  that  fower  sets  the  other 
partie  behinde  the  liuirfi^es,  it  shalbe  lawfull  for  the 
partie  which  is  behinde  to  aske  a  carde,' although 
the  carde  so  asked  piit  the  other  to  liuings." 

Clarendon  Press,  Oxford. 

To  what  family  did  Charles  Gordon,  of  the 
U.S.  warship  Chesapeake,  belong]  He  was 
tried  with  the  captain,  James  Barron,  for 
surrendering  to  H.M.S.  Leopard,  1808. 


118,  Pall  Mall. 

reader  of  '  N.  &  Q.'  tell  me  the  name  of  the 
author  of  the  following  lines,  which  are 
quoted  by  Hazlitt  in  his  essay  on  Jeffre*y — 
'Spirit  of  the  Age,'  1825,  p.  307?— 

Sithence  no  fairy  lights,  no  quickning  ray, 
Nor  stir  of  pulse,  nor  object  to  entice 
Abroad  the  spirits  ;  but  the  cloister'd  heart 
Sits  squat  at  home,  like  Pagod  in  a  niche 

141,  Ebury  Street,  S.W. 

FRENCH  QUOTATION.— "Beaucoup  de  per- 
sonnes  voudraient  savoir,  mais  peu  desirent 
apprendre."  Whence  does  this  come? 


NAME  OF  BOOK  WANTED.— Could  you  or 
any  of  your  readers  tell  me  the  name  or  title 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [9th  B.  x.  AUG.  ie,  im 

of  a  novel  published  about  forty-five  years 
ago  containing  a  very  excellent  description 
of  Gwrych  Castle,  near  Abergele  ? 


PERIWINKLE. — Can  any  one  throw  light  on 
the  following  early  uses  of  this  word  ? — 

1.  En  a  poem  preserved  in  Harl.  MS.  2253, 
fol.  63,  it  is  said  : — 

The  priraerole  he  passeth,  the  parvenke  of  pria  : 
i.e  ,  the  pretty  precious  periwinkle,  "of  pris" 
being  merely  added  in  .alliteration.  Not  so  in 

2.  'Sir    Degrevant,'    1.    730    ('Thornton 
Romances,'  Camden  Society) : — 

Corteys  lady  and  wyse, 
As  thou  art  pervenke  of  pryse, 
1  do  me  on  tni  gentryse, 
Why  wolt  thou  me  spyll  ? 

Where  "pervenke  of  pryse"  must  certainly 
mean  "  supreme,"  "  paragon  of  excellence." 
But  it  is  strange  to  find  the  periwinkle 
chosen  as  an  image  for  this.  I  would  compare 
an  entry  in  Godefroy's  '  O.F.  Diet.' : — 

3.  "  Pervenke,  semble  signifier  qui  surpasse  tous 
les  autres : — 

De  tous  vins  ce  est  le  pervenke. 

Jofroi  de  Watreford,  Richel.,  1822." 

On  the  other  hand,  I  find  the  flower  spoken 
of  as  symbol  of  dishonour. 

4.  John  Lydgate,  Bochas's  '  Fall  of  Princes,' 
vi.  1  :— 

Thou  hast 

Crowned  one  with  laurer  hye  on  hys  head  set ; 
Other  with  perwinke  made  for  the  gybet. 

Whence  comes  this  association  with  the 
gibbet  ? 

5.  In  a  will,  dated  1501  (Somerset  House), 
William  Hylle  bequeaths  "  ij  of  my  goblettes 
of  pirwyncles."    Can  some  precious  stone  be 
here  meant  ? 

6.  In    Purchas's    '  Pilgrims,'    ix.  xii.    §  4  : 
"The  Manamotaha  and  his  subjects  weare 
a  white  periwinkle    in    the   forehead  for  a 
Jewell,  fastened  in  the  haire."  Here  "Jewell" 
may  mean  nothing  more  than  "ornament," 
and  the  flower  may  be  meant,  but  by  com- 
parison with  the  preceding  extract  one  is  led 
to  think  of  a  precious  stone. 

I  find  nothing  in  the  Indices  of  '  N.  &  Q.' 

C.  B.  MOUNT. 

one  kindly  inform  me  whether  the  portrait, 
taken  by  her  sister,  of  Marjorie  Fleming  has 
been  reproduced  or  published  ;  if  so,  where  it 
is  obtainable  1  The  pictures  in  my  edition  of 
the  book  do  not  pretend  to  be  genuine  por- 
traits of  the  little  maid,  I  believe,  but  simply 
pretty  and  fanciful  sketches. 



I  shall  be  grateful  to  any  reader  who 
has  a  copy  of  the  fifth  volume  of  the 

'Compte  rendu  du  3meCongres des  Catho- 

liques  a  Bruxelles,  1894,'  if  he  will  lend  it  to 
me  for  a  few  days.  I  am  anxious  to  read 
Jordan's  article  on  this  subject,  and  cannot 
find  the  book  in  the  Britisn  Museum  or  the 
Bodleian.  ROBT.  J.  WHITWELL. 

70,  Banbury  Road,  Oxford. 

GREECE  AND  GLADSTONE.— Can  any  of  your 
readers  refer  me  to  some  satirical  lines  written 
about  fifteen  years  ago,  when  an  offer  was 
made  by  Hellas  (Greece)  to  send  marble  for  a 
monument  to  Gladstone  in  London  1 

W.  R.  S. 

[.The  lines  in  question,  with  the  authorship  of 
which  we  are  acquainted,  have  not  been  printed. 
If  you  will  give  us  your  full  address  we  will  send 
them  to  you  direct.] 

"  DIFFERENT  THAN."— In  Truth  of  3  July  I 
read  :  "  Future  generations  will  undoubtedly 
consider  Mr.  Swinburne's  poetry  in  a  different 
light  than  the  present  one  does."  Is  it  good 
grammar  to  say  "  different  than  "  \  I  observe 
a  similar  use  made  of  the  words  in  the  City 
article  of  the  Birmingham  Daily  Post  of 
13  July.  YOUNGSTER. 

[The  entire  sentence  is  inaccurate  and  inelegant.] 

FREUND  HEIN. — In  what  German  folk-tale 
or  folk-tales  is  death  personified  under  the 
name  of  "  Freund  Hein  "  ?  T.R.E.N.T. 

did  the  bugle  take  the  place  of  the  drum  as 
a  signal  instrument  in  the  army  ? 


Royal  Institution,  Hull. 

"GENTLEMAN  FROM  OHIO." — Profs.  J.  B. 
Greenpugh  and  G.  L.  Kittredge  (Harvard) 
write  in  '  Words  and  their  Ways  in  English 
Speech ' : — 

"Among  some  savages,  it  is  a  deadly  insult  to  call 
a  man  by  his  right  name— an  idea  which  has  left  its 
traces in  the  parliamentary  phrase  '  the  gentle- 
man from  Ohio.' " 

What  are  the  origin  and  meaning  of  this 
phrase?  J-  J-  F. 


—Can  any  reader  tell  me  what  is  known 
of  A.  Hepplewhite,  who  in  1788  published 
a  book  called  'The  Cabinet  -  Maker  and 
Upholsterer's  Guide,'  by  Hepplewhite  &  Co., 
and  contributed  a  few  plates  to  the  '  Cabinet- 
Maker's  Book  of  Prices,'  1788?  I  want  to 
know  when  Hepplewhite  was  born,  when  he 
died,  where  he  lived,  and  if  he  was  himself 

9*  s.  x.  AUG.  16, 1902.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


a  maker  of  furniture.  I  have  searched  all 
the  best-known  books  on  cabinet  -  making, 
and  find  that  nothing  is  known  of  Hepple- 
white  by  the  writers  of  these  books.  I  am, 
therefore,  very  anxious,  for  biographical 
purposes,  to  know  if  any  reader  of  '  N.  &  Q.' 
has  any  personal  information  on  the  subject. 

24,  Ladbroke  Square,  W. 


"  One  lively  poet  proposed  that  the  great  acts 
of  the  fair  Marian's  present  husband  should  be 
immortalized  by  the  pencil  of  his  predecessor  ;  and 
that  Imhoff  should  be  employed  to  embellish  the 
House  of  Commons  with  paintings  of  the  bleeding 
Rohillas,  of  Nuncomar  swinging,  of  Cheyte  Sing 
letting  himself  down  to  the  Ganges.  Another,  in 
an  exquisitely  humorous  parody  of  Virgil's  third 
eclogue,  propounded  the  question  what  that  mineral 
could  be  of  which  the  rays  had  power  to  make 
the  most  austere  of  princesses  the  friend  of  a 
wanton." — Macaulay,  'Essay  on  Warren  Hastings.' 

Can  any  one  give  me  the  reference  to  these 
poems?  F.  C.  M. 

"  LE  FURMAGER."— In  ancient  Bristol  days 
several  of  the  citizens,  and  a  certain  number 
of  Jews  likewise,  are  found  distinguished 
with  this  qualification,  meaning,  I  apprehend, 
cheesemonger  or  cheese  factor.  Was  Bristol 
ever  noted  for  its  cheese  industry  1 

M.  D.  DAVIS. 

[Several  persons  named  Le  Furmager  occur,  1277- 
1410,  in  Dr.  R.  R.  Sharpe's  'Calendar  of  Wills 
proved  in  the  Court  of  Huating.'] 

DANDY-CART.— In  the  'New  English  Dic- 
tionary '  a  "  dandy-cart "  is  defined  as  a  kind 
of  spring- cart  used  by  milkmen,  &c.,  and  the 
earliest  illustration  which  the  editor  can  give 
of  the  employment  of  the  word  is  taken  from 
Ramsay's  '  Reminiscences,'  1861.  In  the  north 
of  England  the  "dandy-cart"  was  a  low  truck 
used  on  the  old  railroads  and  waggon  ways  in 
the  days  of  horse-traction.  On  arriving  at  an 
inclined  plane  the  horse  was  unhitched,  and, 
letting  the  waggons  which  he  had  been  drag- 
ging run  past  him,  trotted  behind,  jumped 
on  the  low  truck,  and  rode  down  the  bank. 
The  earliest  reference  I  have  to  the  use  of  the 
word  is  dated  31  August,  1831,  and  appears 
in  a  report  to  the  directors  of  the  Stockton 
and  Darlington  Railway,  which  states  that 
a  driver  named  Thos.  Anderson  left  his  horse 
and  got  into  the  "  dandy-cart "  belonging  to 
a  set  of  waggons  going  up  the  line  before 
him  and  fell  asleep.  Can  any  of  your  readers 
supply  me  with  an  earlier  reference  or  say 
how  the  word  came  to  be  applied  to  this 
primitive  horse-carriage  by  the  old  waggon- 
men  of  the  North  ]  WM.  W.  TOMLINSON. 


Will  some  one  inform  me  whence  come  the 
names  Farmiloe,  Whicholoe,  and  Swinhoe? 
They  do  not  seem  to  be  derivatives  of  Danish, 
Saxon,  or  Norman.  A.  LELAND-NOEL. 

— Allan  Cunningham,  in  his  'Life  of  Sir 
David  Wilkie,'  makes  what  appears  to  me 
a  somewhat  remarkable  statement  regarding 
the  great  artist's  relations  with  Scott.  Speak- 
ing of  Wilkie's  friends,  the  biographer  says 
(vol.  ii.  p.  43)  :— 

"Among  the  men  of  genius  Walter  Scott  stood 
foremost;  of  his  friend  Wilkie  he  loved  to  talk 
as  well  as  write ;  the  painter  stands  repeatedly 
recorded  in  the  pages  of  his  inimitable  romances." 

It  is  to  the  last  observation  that  I  refer.  What 
is  Cunningham's  authority  for  it  ?  W.  B. 

your  readers  kindly  tell  me  where  the  mar- 
riage register  of  the  above  gentleman  is  to 
be  found,  or  furnish  me  with  any  particulars 
respecting  him1?  I  may  add  that  he  was* 
born  on  1  January,  1761,  and  practised  in  the 
King's  Bench  Court  from  1789  (address,  10, 
Staple  Inn).  His  wife's  name  was  Elizabeth 

,   and   their   eldest   child    was   baptized 

at  Allhallows'  Chuych,  Lombard  Street,  on 
23  October,  1796.  ,4t  is  possible  that  the 
marriage  may  have  taken  place  in  Edinburgh. 


be  glad  of  any  information  regarding  a  state- 
ment that  John  of  Gaunt,  Duke  of  Lancaster, 
slept  at  Markeaton,  co.  Derby,  on  the  night 
of  9  May,  1399,  the  guest  of  Sir  Robert 
Mundy,  or  possibly  his  son.  P.  M. 

EARTHWORKS  AT  BURPHA"M.  —  I  should  be 
glad  to  have  some  information  respecting 
the  ancient  earthworks  at  Burpham,  Sussex. 
They  protect  the  river  Arun,  and  run  in  a 
sort  of  detached  terraced  work  towards  a  low- 
lying  part  of  the  Downs,  where  there  is  a 
very  distinct  raised  parallelogram  with 
circular  ends,  intersected  by  squares.  There 
is  also  a  sunk  road  on  the  top  of  the  Downs 
of  which  I  should  like  to  know  the  history. 


Burpham,  Arundel. 

have  a  book-plate  of  this  college,  surmounted 
by  an  episcopal  hat.  Can  any  correspondent 
tell  me  where  this  college  stands,  or  stood  1 
I  should  be  grateful  for  the  information. 


Norden,  1548-1626  ;  Sir  Henry  Chauncy, 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.         [9th  s.  x.  A™.  IG,  1902. 

1632-1719;  Nathaniel  Salmon,  1675-1742 
Robert  Clutterbuck,  1772-1831 ;  John  Edwin 
Cussans,  1837-1899.  For  the  purpose  oi 
preparing  a  paper  with  the  above  title  1 
should  be  glad  of  any  biographical  note? 
or  other  particulars  relating  to  the  foregoing 
supplementary  to  their  biographies  in  the 
'  Dictionary  of  National  Biography.' 

W.  B.  GEEISH. 
Bishop's  Stortford. 


(9th  S.  vii.  466  ;  viii.  70,  148,  312,  388,  527 ; 

ix.  95,  209,  309,  414,  469,  512 ;  x.  69.) 

THE  Bruce-Logan  controversy  owes  much 
of  its  intricacy  to  the  imperfect  manner  in 
which  the  Rev.  William  Mackelvie,  D.D., 
executed  his  task  in  1837  when  he  published, 
along  with  the  'Poems,'  a  'Life  of  Michael 
Bruce.'  In  1865  the  Rev.  A.  B.  Grosart, 
D.D.,  LL.D.,  issued  his  edition  of  Bruce's 
'Poems'  with  'Memoir 'and  an  'Introduction 
to  the  Poems. '  Instead  of  helping  to  elucidate 
the  subject,  his  unfortunate  style,  utterly 
wanting  in  judicial  calmness,  has  but  further 
increased  the  difficulty  of  removing  from  the 
minds  of  his  readers  the  impression  that 
Logan  acted  in  the  scandalous  manner 
charged  against  him.  In  the  latest  edition 
of  Bruce's  'Poems'  with  'Life,'  issued  in 
1895  by  the  Rev.  William  Stephen,  of  Kelty, 
there  is  a  repetition  of  all  the  former  charges. 
Nor  is  there  any  evidence  that  a  comparison 
of  the  uncon  tested  productions  of  the  two 
authors  was  undertaken.  Mr.  Stephen  has 
not  come  forward  to  explain  or  defend  his 
position,  although  evidence  has  been  adduced 
proving  that  Tooke  incorporated  a  consider- 
able portion  of  one  of  Logan's  sermons  to 
embellish  one  in  a  second  edition  of  Zollikofer, 
the  charge  having  been  made  that  it  was 
Logan  who  stole  from  Tooke's  translation. 

The  following  extracts  from  letters  still 
extant  show  how  groundless  is  another 
charge,  and  a  most  serious  one,  that  Logan 
utilized  for  his  own  advancement  lectures 
which  he  had,  surreptitiously  or  otherwise, 
obtained  from  a  friend.  Both  letters  are 
addressed  to  the  Rev.  Dr.  Carlyle,  Mussel- 
burgh,  near  Edinburgh  :— 

London,  20th  Aug'  [1787]. 

DEAR  SIR, — There  has  been  a  long  interruption  of 
our  correspondence  from  accidents  which  I  do  not 

know I  fancy  you  recollect  a  Dr.  Rutherford 

who  came  from  Scotland  about  twelve  years  ago, 
to  be  a  dissenting  clergyman  and  Teacher  of  an 
Academy  at  Uxbridge.  He  is  now  publishing  'A 
View  of  Antient  History '  by  subscription May  I 

hope  that  you  will  do  him  the  honour  to  be  one  of  his 
subscribers  and  promote  a  subscription  for  his  book 
among  your  acquaintance  ?  It  is  to  consist  of  three 

volumes  octavo If  you  could  interest  the  family 

of  Buccleugh  [.sic]  in  this  affair  I  would  look  upon  it 

as  a  great  favour I  go  [to]  the  country  this  day 

to  stay  for  some  weeks Yours  faithfully, 


Uxbridge,  27th  Sept'  '87. 

I  have  been  living  at  Uxbridge  for  these  six 

weeks,  which  is  one  of  the  most  beautiful  spots  in 
England.  Another  summer  in  the  country  will 
perfectly  re-establish  my  health. 

He  died  in  December  of  the  following  year. 
In  a  foot-note  to  vol.  i.  chap.  xiii.  Rutherford 
refers  thus  to  the  synopsis  of  Logan's  lectures 
to  show  that  he  was  indebted  to  it  for 
material:  "Vide  Logan's  Elements."  These 
two  charges  being  removed,  I  propose  to 
subject  the  remaining  ones  to  an  examina- 
tion, so  as,  if  possible,  to  show  that  they  also 
are  unfounded.  In  doing  so  I  will  ignore 
Dr.  Grosart's  dictum  (p  105):  "Internal 
evidence  is  not  very  much  to  be  depended 
on."  One  wonders  if  he  had  detected  how 
strong  it  was  in  Logan's  favour. 

In  order  to  attain  my  end  it  will  be  neces- 
sary to  compare  the  authentic  pieces  with 
Logan's  undisputed  '  Runnamede '  and  his 
sermons.  The  compositions  that  require 
examination  are  (1)  'A  Tale,'  beginning 
"  Where  pastoral  Tweed  ";  (2) '  Levina,'  being 
278  lines  of  Bruce's  '  Lochleven,'  from  "  Low 
lies  a  lake  "  and  onwards  ;  (3)  a  collection  of 
hymns,  most  of  which  are  now  included  in 
the  Paraphrases  found  at  the  end  of  most 
editions  of  the  Bible  as  printed  for  use  in 
Scotland.  After  these  are  disposed  of,  the 
'Ode  to  the  Cuckoo'  will  alone  xemain  for 
consideration ;  for  the  Rev.  Dr.  Robert 
Small,  Edinburgh,  has  already  in  the  British 
and  Foreign  Evangelical  Review  (April  and 
October,  1879)  conclusively  shown  that  the 
'  Ode  to  Paoli '  and  the  '  Danish  Odes '  could 
not  have  been  written  by  Bruce,  the  data  for 
the  former  having  been  non-existent,  and 
Gray's  '  Odes,' of  which  the  latter  were  imita- 
tions, not  published  till  after  Bruce's  death. 
For  an  exhaustive  treatment  of  the  subject 
readers  of  '  N.  &  O.'  are  referred  to  the 
British  and  Foreign  Evangelical  Review.  But 
some  material  not  utilized  by  Dr.  Small 
will  be  considered  here  to  strengthen  the 
onclusion  at  which  that  writer  found  him- 
self reluctantly  compelled  to  arrive.  To 
make  the  matter  perfectly  clear  it  is  im- 
possible to  avoid  altogether  going  over  old 

Let  us  then  first  consider  '  A  Tale.' ^  Rely- 

ng  upon  a  certain  parallelism  in   it  with 

similar  lines  in  '  Levina,'  Dr.  Mackelvie  con- 

luded, "  These  are  not  accidental  coincidences 

s.  x.  AUG.  16, 1902.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


of  thought Our  firm  conviction  is   tha 

both  are  the  composition  of  Michael  Bruce 
(par.  87).  Mr.  Stephen  endorses  this  opinion 
and  adds : — 

"  The  coincidences  are,  as  Dr.  Small  points  out 

very    striking,  and  would have    strongly  sup 

ported  his  argument  had  Logan  not destroye< 

the  quarto  volume  which    might   enable   him 

consciously  or  unconsciously,  to  repeat  and  ever 
transmute  into  what  seemed  his  own  characteristic 
phrases  the  poetic  vocabulary  of  Michael  Bruce." 

This  is  equivalent  to  saying  that  Logan  was 
possessed  of  a  most  retentive  memory.  He 
published  Bruce's  '  Poems '  in  1770.  How  long 
'Runnamede'  took  to  compose  we  have  nc 
means  of  knowing.  But  it  waa  not  publishec 
until  1783,  and  in  it  are  to  be  round  severa 
most  important  parallelisms  with  lines  in  'A 
Tale.'  Even  in  sermons  and  other  poems 
expressions  corresponding  to  those  in  'A 
Tale'  are  to  be  found;  so  that  this  piece, 
long  though  it  is,  must  have  made  a  lasting 
impression  on  Logan's  memory.  It  contains 
ninety-four  verses,  thirty-two  of  which  reflect 
more  or  less  distinctly  Logan's  language.  A 
few  extracts  taken  from  compositions  which 
.  are  indubitably  Logan's  are  here  given  for 
comparison  with  those  from  'A  Tale.'  Some 
of  these,  it  will  be  seen,  occur  in  more  than 
one  production.  Logan's  '  Poems '  appeared 
in  1781— two  years  before  'Runnamede.' 
A  Tale,.  Runnamede. 

Long    did    he    look    in    Long  did  he  look with 

silence  sad.  aspect  wild. 

What    these    sad    eyes    What    these    sad    eyes 

have  seen.  have  seen. 

The  lover  of  her  youth.       The  gallant  lover  of  her 

Now  sainted  in  the  sky    A  saint  in  heaven  [the 

[the  mother].  mother]. 

The  angel  of  his  age.  My  daughter,  thou  wast 

an  angel  once. 
She  rose  in    beauty  by    You     rose     in    beauty, 

my  side.  smiling  by  my  side. 

The  halcyon  main.  The  halcyon  hour. 

That  peerless  maid.  That  peerless  maid. 

A  Tale.  Logan's  Sermons. 

Apple  of  his  eye.  Apple  of  his  eye. 

Vale  of  tears.  Vale  of  tears. 

Shifts  the  scene.  Shift  the  scene. 

The  shower  of  night  did    The  shower  of  summer 

'all.  descends. 

Wept  a  lover's  woe.  Weep   for    the  woes  of 


A  Tale.  The  Lovers. 

A  lover  s  woe.  A  hapless  lover's  woe. 

[This  idea  of  "  weeping 

for  the  woes"  of  others  Ode,  in  Autumn. 

occurs  in  the  '  Sermons '    Weep  for  imaged  woes, 
and  in  these  three  pieces : 
'  A  Tale,'  '  The  Lovers,' 
and     'Ode,    written     in 

Here  is  a  notable  parallelism.    At  the  end 
of  'Sermon  XIX.'  Logan  says  :— 

"Thus  the  vale  of  tears  is  the  theatre  of  Jmman 
glory ;  that  dark  cloud  presents  the  scene  for 
all  the  beauties  in  the  bow  of  virtue  to  appear." 

The  same  mind  can  be  recognized  in  this 
verse  from  'A  Tale ': — 

The  stream  that  carries  us  along 

Flows  through  the  rale  of  tears  ; 
Yet,  on  the  darhican  of  our  day, 

The  bow  of  Heaven  appears. 
"Vale  of  tears  "  occurs  several  times  in  the 
'Sermons,'  and  twice  in  'A  Tale.'    The  idea 
contained  in  these  lines  of  another  verse  of 
'  A  Tale,'— 

— a  hand  unseen 
Upon  the  curtain  ever  rests, 
And  sudden  shifts  the  scene — 

is  found  in  the  '  Sermons,'  in  '  Runnamede,' 
and  in  'The  Lovers.'  In  the  last  it  is  "an 
unforeseen  and  fatal  hand  ";  in  'Runnamede,' 
"No  hand  invisible  to  write  his  doom  ;  no 

demon to  draw   his  curtain"  (Act  IV.); 

in  '  Sermon  V.,' vol.  i.,  "How  often doth 

a  hand  unseen  shift  the  scene  ! "    In  the  same 
sermon  reference  is  made  to  "an  invisible, 
hand"  that  "interposes  and  overturns."    In 
'Sermon   XVI.,'    vol.    ii.,    occurs    "drawing 

thee with  a  hand  unseen." 

From  many  more  that  might  be  brought 
forward  to  support  the  claim  made  on  behalf 
of  Logan  the  following  striking  parallelisms 
are  chosen : — 

For  now  the  lover  of  her  youth 
To  Indian  climes  had  roved. 

'A  Tale.' 
My  lord  to  Indian  climates  went. 

'  Monimia.' 

And,  if  I  find  her  not,  I  fly 
To  Indian  climes  again.  '  A  Tale.' 

The  hero  in  '  Runnamede,'  having  returned 
:rom  the  Holy  Land,  and  fancying  that  his 
Elvina  has  proved  false,  exclaims  : 

— let  us  depart, 
I  spread  my  banners  for  the  Holy  Land. 

She  came  in  every  dream.  '  A  Tale.' 

You  came  an  angel  to  my  constant  dream. 
'  Runnamede.' 

A  better  country  blooms  to  view, 

Beneath  a  brighter  sky.  '  A  Tale.' 

And  brighter  days  in  better  skies. 

'  Ode  written  in  Spring.' 

Dr.  Mackelvie's   parallelism  brings   us  to 

Levina,'  the  consideration  of  which  must  be 

leld  over  for  the  present.     Enough  has  been 

ubmitted  in  connexion  with   'A  Tale'  to 

enable  readers  of  'N.  &  Q.'  to  judge  whether 

)r.  Mackelvie  was  justified   in  concluding, 

rrom  one  resemblance,   or    rather  identical 

expression,  occurring  both  in  '  A  Tale '  and  in 

part  of  Bruce's  '  Lochleven,'  that  the  former 

)iece  was  also  by  Bruce. 

A.  M. 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        [9*  s.  x.  A™.  IB,  1902. 

(9th  S.  x.  63).— DR.  SYKES  says,  "  I  believe 
from  internal  evidence  that  Thackeray  was  a 
convinced  homoeopathist,  and  that  Dr.  John 
Elliotson. ...was  a  homoeopathic  practitioner." 
Will  DR.  SYKES  give  his  authority  for  stating 
that  Dr.  Elliotson  was  a  "disciple  of  the 
homoeopathic  heresy'"?  The  biography  of 
Dr.  Elliotson  in  the  '  Dictionary  of  National 
Biography,'  by  Robert  Hunt,  F.R.S.,  who 
personally  knew  the  doctor,  and  also  the 
biography  in  the  '  Encyclopaedia  Britannica' 
do  not  state  that  Dr.  Elliotson  was  a  homoeo- 
pathist, and  from  my  personal  knowledge  of 
him  for  some  years  I  am  satisfied  that  he 
was  not.  DR.  SYKES  appears  to  have  little 
knowledge  of  Dr.  Elliotson,  and  seems  not  to 
know  that  he  was  one  of  the  most  eminent 
physicians  of  his  day,  and  that  he  had  a  large 
number  of  friends  and  patients  distinguished 
in  literature,  science,  and  art.  When  Thacke- 
ray was  so  seriously  ill — in  1849,  I  think — it 
was  owing  to  Dr.  Elliotson's  fame  as  a  phy- 
sician that  he  was  called  in.  DR.  SYKES 
implies  that  he  was  not  "  a  regular  prac- 
titioner." It  is  true  that  he  was  a  believer 
in  mesmerism,  but  Mr.  Hunt  in  the  'D.N.B.' 
says  that,  although  he  "  continued  to  practise 
mesmerism  upon  his  patients,  he  refrained 
from  introducing  the  subject  to  any  of  those 
by  whom  he  was  largely  consulted." 

DR.  SYKES  has  quoted  the  well  -  known 
dedication  of  '  Pendennis '  to  Dr.  Elliotson, 
and  I  should  like,  if  you  will  permit  me,  to 
refer  to  another  dedication,  not  so  well  known. 
There  was  a  small  book  written  by  a  poor 
carpenter,  dying  of  consumption,  to  which 
Dickens,  with  his  usual  kind  ness,  wrote  a  pre- 
face, with  a  view  to  help  the  sale  of  the  book. 
Mr.  Forster,  in  his  '  Life  of  Charles  Dickens,' 
says,  "The  book  was  dedicated  to  the  kind 
physician  Dr.  Elliotson,  whose  name  was  for 
nearly  thirty  years  a  synonym  with  us  all 
for  unwearied,  self-sacrificing,  beneficent  ser- 
vices to  every  one  in  need  "  (vol.  ii.  p.  86). 
The  name  of  the  poor  carpenter  was  Overs, 
and  Dickens,  in  a  letter  to  his  friend  Mac- 
ready,  says,  "  What  a  good  fellow  Elliotson 
is.  He  kept  him  [Overs]  in  his  room  a  whole 
hour,  and  has  gone  into  his  case  as  if  he  were 
Prince  Albert"  (Dickens's  'Letters,'  vol.  ii. 
p.  49).  When  Dr.  Elliotson  was  obliged  to 
tell  this  man  that  he  must  not  work  at  his 
trade,  besides  his  care  of  him  as  a  physician 
he  helped  him  liberally  out  of  his  own  purse. 
Beyond  being  an  eminent  physician,  Dr 
Elliotson  was  a  most  generous,  kind,  anc 
warm  -  hearted  man,  as  I  personally  wel' 
know.  HARRY  B.  POLAND. 

Inner  Temple. 

KING'S-TAPER  (9th  S.  x.  68).— If  H.  K.  means 
;hat  this  name  is  omitted  from  the  'New 
English  Dictionary,'  he  or  she  is  mistaken. 
[t  is  not  only  there,  but  is  accompanied  by 
a  quotation  from  Mrs.  Lankester's  '  Wild 
Flowers,'  published  in  1861,  in  which  she 
*ives  as  "the  common  name"  of  the  great 
rnullein  "  Torch- blade,  or  King's  taper."  Prior, 
aowever,  knows  it  not  in  1870,  the  date  of 
the  second  edition  of  his  '  Popular  Names  of 
British  Plants.'  except  in  Latin,  Candela 

•egia,  and  old  German,  Konig-kerz  (1531), 
modern  Konigskerze  (art.  '  Hig-taper ').  Scan- 
dinavian terms  are  kongelys  (Dan.),  kongsljus 
(Swed.),  kongstaka  (Norw.).  See  Grimm's 

Deutsches  Worterbuch.'  F.  ADAMS. 

HERALDIC  (9th  S.  ix.  487).— The  different 
species  of  the  Corvidse,  or  crow  family,  are 
very  common  bearings  in  heraldry,  and  are 
borne  by  persons  with  such  names  as  Corbett, 
Raven,  Croker,  Beekly,  &c.,  and  names  begin- 
ning with  Tre.  J.  HOLDEN  MACMICHAEL. 

DANES  IN  PEMBROKE  (9th  S.  x.  89).— Judg- 
ing from  the  many  place-names  found  in 
Pembroke  of  Scandinavian  origin,  both  in- 
land and  along  the  south  and  west  coast  to 
St.  David's  Head,  there  seems  every  likeli- 
hood that  a  flourishing  Danish  or  Norwegian 
colony  existed  here  in  the  tenth  century. 
Names  like  Colby,  Ramsey,  Gateholm  Island, 
Caldy  Island,  Tenby,  Sageston  (Sagatun  ?), 
Jordestun,  Hasguard  (Asgard,  Aysgarth  ?), 
Reynalton,  Upton,  Freytrop  (Frey  thorp  ?), 
Hubberston,  Herbrandston,  and  Haraldston 
all  give  proof  of  a  settlement.  In  the  '  Saga 
of  the  Jomsvikingar '  is  mentioned  a  certain 
Beorn  or  Bjorn  the  Briton,  who  may  have 
had  his  stronghold  in  Pembroke  or  Glamor- 
gan, which  also  abounds  in  Danish  names  on 
the  coast,  as  well  as  the  two  leading  Welsh 
ports,  while  Carmarthen  has  no  coast  towns 
to  speak  of  and  hardly  any  Northern  names. 

W.  R.  P. 

The  Norse  (not  Danes)  settled  in  this 
county,  as  witness  the  many  Norse  place- 
names  of  the  islands  and  along  the  sea  coast 
and  the  fiords  of  Milford  Haven.  There  were 
Norse  settlements  at  Lower  Fishguard  (in 
Kernes),  Langum,  and  Angle,  which  survive 
in  part  to  this  day.  H.  V. 

DUKE  OF  BRABANT  (9th  S.  x.  68).— God- 
frey I.,  surnamed  Barbatus,  Duke  of  Brabant, 
was  descended  from  Charlemagne  through 
Gerberga,his  great-grandmother, and  through 
his  great-grandfather  from  the  Counts  of 
Hainault.  He  was  father  of  Adeliza,  the 
second  wife  of  King  Henry  I.,  and  of  Josce- 
line,  who  married  Agnes  de  Percy,  from  whom 

X.  AUG.  le,  1908.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


the  Percies,  Earls  of  Northumberland,  were 
descended.  He  was  also  ancestor  of  the 
Landgraves  of  Hesse.  The  dukedom  passed 
through  Margaret,  daughter  of  Margaret  and 
Lewis,  the  last  Count  of  Flanders,  to  the 
Dukes  of  Burgundy  of  the  House  of  Valois. 

H.  L.  will  find  much  information  in  '  L'Art 
de  Verifier  les  Dates,'  and  at  a  glance  trace 
Duke  Godfrey's  ancestry  back  to  the  last 
quarter  of  the  ninth  century,  up  through  the 
Counts  of  Louvain  to  Rainier  I.,  Count  of 
Hainault.  In  '  Diet.  Nat.  Biog.'(art. '  Adeliza,' 
by  Mr.  Round)  we  are  told  that  Godfrey 
descended  in  the  male  line  from  Charles  the 
Great.  That  I  have  not  been  ,able  to  verify, 
but  do  not  presume  to  doubt. 

C.  S.  WARD. 

Wootton  St.  Lawrence,  Basingstoke. 

The  '  D.N.B.'  states  that  Godfrey  (Barba- 
tus)  of  Louvain,  Duke  of  Brabant  or  Lower 
Lotharingia,  who  was  descended  in  the  male 
line  from  Charles  the  Great,  founded  the 
Abbey  of  Affligam,  near  Alost,  in  Flanders  ; 
to  which  his  daughter  Queen  Adeliza— leaving 
her  second  husband  William  de  Albini  — 
retired,  and  where  she  died  and  was  buried. 
Her  brother  Henry  had  already  withdrawn 
there  (1149).  Another  brother,  Joceline  (•'  the 
Castellan "),  ancestor  of  the  Earls  of  North- 
umberland, she  had,  while  lady  of  Arundel, 
subenfeoffed  in  the  lordship  of  Petworth. 

A.  R.  BAYLEY. 

viii.  497  ;  ix.  30,  175).— I  have  seen,  by  the 
kindness  of  Prof.  Newton,  of  Magdalene  Col- 
lege, Cambridge,  a  copy  of  the  catalogue 
of  the  Leverian  Museum,  and  in  it  appears 

"Oliver  Cromwell's    armour given   by  a 

lady,  a  descendant  of  General  Desborough,  to 
Mr.  Busby,  and  by  him  to  Sir  Ashton  Lever." 
The  purchaser  of  this  lot  for  five  guineas  was 
Mr.  Bullock,  who  himself,  as  Prof.  Newton 
tells  me,  formed  a  museum,  which  was 
exhibited  at  what  is  now  the  Egyptian  Hall. 
But  in  the  catalogue  of  this  museum,  when  it 
came  to  be  sold,  this  armour  does  not  appear, 
and  it  was  probably  previously  sold  sepa- 
rately. I  should  be  glad  to  trace  the  where- 
abouts of  this  armour,  which  consisted  of 
"Oliver  Cromwell's  helmet,  gorget,  armour 
for  the  body  and  left  arm,  and  leathern  sur- 
tout."  I  remember  being  told  when  a  child 
that  Oliver  Cromwell's  sword  had  been  given 
by  some  members  of  our  family  to  the  British 
Museum.  This,  1  take  it,  was  an  incorrect 
version  of  the  fact  that  his  armour  had  been 
given,  as  above  stated,  by  my  grandmother, 
who  was  a  descendant  of  General  Desbrowe. 

Was  it  ever  the  practice  to  carry  armour  on 
the  left  arm  only,  perhaps  in  order  to  leave 
the  sword  more  free?  E.  F.  Du  CANE. 

GREEN  AN  UNLUCKY  COLOUR  (9th  S.  viii. 
121,  192  ;  ix.  234,  490  ;  x.  32).— It  cannot  have 
been  so  accounted  in  Italy  in  Dante's  time  or 
he  would  not  have  seen  the  angels  thus  : — 
Verdi,  come  fogliette  pur  mo  nate, 
Erano  in  veste,  che  da  verdi  penne 
Percosse  traean  dietro  e  ventilate. 

'Purg.,'  viii.  28. 

Nor  is  it  likely  that  he  would  have  said  of 
Hope  that  she  was 

Come  se  le  carni  e  1'  ossa 
Fossero  state  di  smeraldo  fatte 

('Purg.,'xxix.  124); 

or  of  Beatrice,  the  beloved,  that  her  eyes  were 
emeralds  ('Purg.,'  xxxi.  116),  or  that  she 
appeared  to  him  "sotto  verde  manto" 
('  Purg.,'  xxx.  32),  emblematic  of  hope. 

It  is  not  very  probable  that  Manfred  of 
Sicily  would  have  been  always  dressed  in 
green  if  the  colour  had  been  accounted  un- 

If  "gren"  mean  green  in  the  following 
passage  from  '  English  Metrical  Homilies 
from  MSS.  of  the  Fourteenth  Century '  (John 
Small,  M.A.,  Edinburgh,  1862),  we  have 
another  indication  that  the  hue  was  not 
deemed  of  ill  omen  :-J* 

Quat  yed  ye,  he  said,  to  se 

In  wildernes,  ye  tel  me, 

A  man  robed  in  wlank  wede, 

Als  qua  sai,  nai,  ue  in  fairhede, 

For  al  men  wist  that  knew  sain  Jon, 

That  he  hauid  camel  har  him  upon, 

For  thi  asked  Crist,  quethir  thei  yed 

Te  se  sain  Jon  in  wlanke  wede, 

Als  qua  sai,  es  he  nan  of  tha 

That  er  clad  in  gren  and  gra. 

Crist  spac  of  thaim  that  gas  in  gren, 

To  scheu  the  folc  quat  he  wald  men. 

In  kinge-houses,  he  said,  won  thai 

That  er  cled  in  gren  and  grai. 

'  Dom.  iii.  Advent.  Domini." 


PROJECTION  ,ON  A  SAW  (9th  S.  x.  49).— Surely 
this  is  merely  to  assist  in  keeping  the  kerf 
clear.  I  have  seen  Disston  saws  with  the 
notch,  though  possibly  they  are  thus  made 
for  the  English  market.  J.  D. 

Inquiry  of  the  foreman  of  a  large  iron- 
monger's business  results  in  the  reply  that 
the  projection  has  no  name  and  no  use,  and 
that  it  is  being  discontinued  by  manufac- 
turers. The  query  might  have  stated  that 
at  the  point  in  question  there  is  a  dip  in  the 
back  of  the  saw,  involving  a  lesser  relative 
breadth.  A  similar  query  to  a  Chinaman 
about  one  of  his  tools  would  be  aptly  dismissed 
with  the  words,  "  B'long  olo  custom,"  which 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        [9th  s.  x.  A™.  ie,  1902. 

apparently  sums  up  the  present  matter.  I 
shall  be  glad  to  learn  whether  my  informa- 
tion is  correct.  H.  P.  L. 

"  FLAPPER,"  ANGLO-INDIAN  SLANG  (9th  S.  ix. 
260,  373,  455).— An  instrument  exactly  similar 
to  that  described  at  the  last  reference  is  in 
constant  use  during  the  summer  by  one  of 
the  butchers  in  this  village. 


West  Haddon,  Northamptonshire. 

I  understand  that  at  flapper  is  a  little  duck  • 
this,  then,  is  why  a  young  girl  may  be  termed 
a  flapper.  ST.  SWITHIN. 

I  have  always  heard  a  young  wild  duck 
called  a  flapper.  About  ten  years  ago  I 
heard  the  name  applied  as  a  slang  term  to 
girls  of  sixteen  or  seventeen  years  of  age.  I 
have  not  heard  it  before  or  since,  but  it  was 
used  by  a  rather  "  fast "  young  man  of  my 
acquaintance.  F.  R.  R. 

213,  296,  376,  437  j  4th  S.  iii.  360,  4461— In  a 
copy  of  the  1510  edition  (Wynkyn  de  Worde) 
of  '  The  boke  of  iustyces  of  peas '  in  the  Bod- 
leian, of  which  the  press-mark  is  "  Rawlinson, 
4°,  457,"  are  a  series  of  notes,  made  apparently 
in  the  sixteenth  and  seventeenth  centuries. 
Among  them  is  the  following  : — 

"  Notandum  est  quod  Dominus  Henricus  de  Lacy 
Comes  Lincolnise  constituit  perticam  istius  Dominii 
continentem  xxj  pedes  de  pedibus  suis  propriis, 
qusequidem  pertica  non  continet  de  assisa  Regis 
Anglise  nisi  xviij  pedes  et  dimidium  et  vnum  polli- 
cem.  Et  pertica  ilia  fit  mensuratio  terrarum  et 
bosoorum  et  vastorum  et  omnium  quae  mensurantur 
in  ista  Ex[ten]ta." 

The  above  is  in  a  seventeenth  -  century 
hand  ;  the  copy  of  an  extent  referred  to  has 
disappeared.  Is  it  possible  to  ascertain 
whether  the  Earl  of  Lincoln  (presumably  the 
Henry  de  Lacy  born  c.  1250,  ob.  1311)  really 
made  such  a  "  constitution,"  and  over  how 
large  an  area  it  was  binding  ?  O.  O.  H. 

"  MERESTEADS  "  OR  "  MESESTEADS  "  (9th  S. 
ix.  248,  437  ;  x.  9,  53).— It  is  not  the  fact  that 
" messuage"  is  "  due  to  the  Latin  manere"  It 
is  due,  as  I  have  already  proved  (9th  S.  v.  349, 
520  ;  vi.  122),  to  the  Latin  mensus,  participle 
of  metiri,  to  measure.  The  prefix  mess-  in 
mess-uage  is  the  same  word  as  mess,  a  measure 
or  portion,  as  in  the  phrases  "  a  mess  of  pot- 
tage," or  "a  meeas  of  ale,"  as  they  say  in 
South  Yorkshire.  I  have  before  (9th  S.  vi. 
162)  referred  to  a  document,  quoted  by  Du 
Cange,  in  which  an  allowance  of  a  mesagium 
panis — i.e.,  a  mess  or  measure  of  bread,  weigh- 
ing five  pounds — is  made  to  each  of  certain 

During  the  last  year  1  have  met  with  many 
confirmations  of  the  conclusion  at  which  I 
had  arrived.  It  is  quite  a  common  thing  in 
Latin  documents  relating  to  England  and 
elsewhere  to  find  a  messuage  described  as 
mensura.  Thus  a  grant  of  two  mensuroe  is 
recorded  in  'Rotuli  Chartarum,'  p.  124  b. 
Again,  it  appears  from  Hatfield's  'Survey' 
(Surtees  Soc.)  that  four  men  held,  as  tenants 
in  common,  twenty-two  acres  of  arable  land, 
together  with  a  mensura,  in  Wydop.*  Occa- 
sionally the  messuage  is  described  as  maisura 
—i.e.,  measure. t  That  tofts,  building-plots,  or 
messuages  in  villages  and  cities  were  regularly 
measured,  and  were  mostly  uniform  in  length, 
can  be  proved  by  many  extracts  from  old 
records.*  It  is  obvious  that  a  mens-ura,  mais- 
ura, or  mess-iiage  was  a  measured  plot  of  land. 
If  more  evidence  were  needed,  I  would  point 
to  the  fact  that  in  the  '  Whitby  Chartulary,' 
published  by  the  Surtees  Society  (i.  198), 
messuagiwm  is  used  as  identical  in  meaning 
with  malwagium.  Here  the  prefix  mal-  in 
mal-wagium  translates  the  prefix  mess-  in 
mess-uagium,  and  is  the  old  Norse  mal,  a 
measure.  In  Norway,  according  to  Ivar 
Aasen's  '  Norsk  Ordbog,'  maal  means  not 
only  "  measure,"  but  "  measured  piece  of 

It  is  true  that  the  French  "  maison  repre- 
sents the  Latin  mansionem."  But  it  does  not 
follow  from  this  that  mansio  in  old  surveys 
is  connected  with  manere,  or  that  it  means 
"  a  dwelling-place."  It  is  quite  as  likely  to 
be  a  late  form  of  mensio,  a  measure.  The 
minutce  mansiones  at  York  mentioned  in 
Domesday  Book  are  possibly  "small 

I  am  glad  that  C.  0.  B.  has  discovered  that 
William  Bradford,  Governor  of  the  colony 
at  Plymouth,  came  from  Austerfield,  near 
Bawtry.  Austerfield  is  in  South  Yorkshire, 
and  is  about  twenty-five  miles  from  Royston, 
where  I  found  the  word  meadstead,  and 
about  thirty-five  miles  from  Dewsbury,  where 
Mr.  Chad  wick  found  the  word  meestead  or 
neastead  in  the  Court  Rolls.  S.  O.  ADDY. 

O  AND  ITS  PRONUNCIATION  (9th  S.  x.  48).— 
The  pronunciation  of  "  God "  as  Gaud,  to 
whatever  it  may  bo  due,  is  no  new  thing.  A 
harsh  critic  might  possibly  say  it  was  a 
sanctimonious  drawl,  but  it  is  kinder  to 
suppose  it  due  to  a  mistaken  feeling  of 

*  "Tenuerunt  inter  se  xxij  acraa  terrse  cum 
mensura  in  Wydop." 

f  "  Homo  obiit  in  quadam  maisura." — '  Rotuli 
Hundredorum,'  ii.  175  a. 

£  Thus  we  have  "  Toftum  unum  xij  perticarum 
in  latitudine,  et  longitudine  quantum  torta  aliorum 
hominum."— '  Whitby  Chartulary,'  i.  179. 

s.  x.  AUG.  IB,  1902.]         NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


reverence  for  the  Divine  name.  I  know  this 
was  my  own  feeling  as  a  child,  when  I,  in 
common  with  most  people  round  me,  always 
said  Gaud.  My  friends  were  mostly  Wesley  an 
Methodists  (without  ceasing  to  be  Church- 
people),  and  I  fancy  this  pronunciation  was 
and  is  more  common  among  Methodists  than 
elsewhere.  The  use  of  Wesley's  hymns 
would  certainly  foster  it,  for  in  them  the  o  in 
"  God  "  is  often  lengthened.  Charles  Wesley 
lengthens  it  to  provide  a  rime  to  "endued"  ; 
either  he  or  his  brother  makes  it  rime  with 
u  abroad  "  (more  than  once),  and  Cowper,  in 
a  hymn  included  in  the  Wesleyan  book, 
with  "road."  "Abode,"  "bestowed,"  "load," 
"stood,"  and  even  "  loud  "  are  Irsed  as  rimes, 
as  also,  it  is  fair  to  add,  is  "  blood  " ;  but  it  is 
noticeable  that  in  almost  all  cases  where  a 
true  rime  is  not  used  the  vowel  is  length- 
ened. I  believe  this  is  because  it  was 
customary  to  pronounce  "  God  "  slowly,  from 
a  feeling  of  awe. 

The  case  is  different  as  regards  "  coffee " 
and  "broth."  Your  correspondent  will  do 
well  to  consult  the  'H.E.D.'for  the  history  of 
these  words.  He  will  there  learn  that  the  o 
in  "  coffee  "  represents  an  earlier  au  (from  the 
Turkish  kahveh),  and  that  in  "  broth ''  the 
vowel  seems  to  have  been  originally  long, 
early  forms  of  the  word  (though  not  the  very 
earliest)  being  "  broath  "  and  "  broathe." 
Probably  "cawffee"  and  "brauth  are 
dialectal  survivals.  As  to  the  general 
question  of  vowel-sounds,  I  do  not  think  it  is 
possible  to  arrange  these  by  "shires,"  but  my 
impression  is  that  the  broader  and  longer 
sounds  are  more  heard  in  the  southern  than 
in  the  more  northerly  counties.  C.  C.  B. 

On  Tyneside,  and  I  should  say  in  the  North 
and  Durham  generally,  the  o  in  "note,"  &c., 
has  still  the  pure  sound.  The  a  in  "glass," 
&c.,  is  also  sounded  almost  the  same  as  a  in 
"cat."  R.  B-K. 

"  BARRACKED  "  (9th  S.  ix.  63,  196,232,355, 
514  ;  x.  76).— In  contradiction  to  Prof.  Morris's 
theory  that  barrack  is  derived  from  borak 
may  be  mentioned  the  fact  that  both  words 
are  still  in  use  with  well-defined  differing 
meanings.  Barrack  is  a  verb — the  substan- 
tive being  formed  by  the  addition  of  -er— 
while  borak,  so  far  as  my  observation  goes,  is 
always  a  noun,  signifying  chaff  or  banter. 
Thus  a  barracker,  barracking  for  his  favourite 
football  team,  will  "  poke  borak  "  plentifully 
at  the  opposing  side  or  their  supporters. 
Any  one  who  has  heard  the  barracking  at  a 
Victorian  football  match,  even  at  a  consider- 
able distance,  will  be  disposed  to  regard  the 
word  as  a  playful  variant  of  barking,  in  the 

same  way  that  larrikin  was  derived  from  an 
Irish  policeman's  pronunciation  of  larking, 
per  medium  of  an  ingenious  facetious  police- 
court  reporter  in  the  early  eighties.  I  can 
vouch  for  the  fact  that  in  1885,  when  I  arrived 
in  Victoria,  both  words  were  well  established, 
and  that  a  police-court  origin  of  barracking 
was  current  and  apparently  accepted. 


BYRON'S  BUST  BY  BARTOLINI  (9th  S.  x.  47). — 
The  following  appears  in  6th  S.  vi.  422,  under 
the  heading  '  Busts  and  Portraits  of  Lord 
Byron ' : — 

"  Marble  bust  by  Bartolini,  Pisa,  1822.  Property 
of  Lord  Malmesbury.  In  an  unpublished  letter  to 
Mr.  Murray,  Byron  says,  '  The  bust  does  not  turn 
out  a  good  one,  though  it  may  be  like  for  aught  I 
know,  as  it  exactly  resembles  a  superannuated 
Jesuit.' " 


71,  Brecknock  Road. 

ix.  386).  —  The  arrangement  of  the  panel- 
ling, and  the  ornamentation  within  the 
panels,  of  the  ceiling  in  the  old  house  at 
Wilderhope,  in  the  parish  of  Rush  bury,  are 
almost  identical  with  ceilings  in  the  abbot's 
house  at  the  abbey  ^t  Build  was,  and  in  a 
small  house,  probatly  a  grange  of  the'  abbey, 
distant  from  it  about  a  mile  and  a  half.  The 
ornamentation  in  the  small  house  consists  of 
the  Tudor  rose,  fleur-de-lys,  a  stellate  flower, 
and  shields,  one  bearing  the  word  IESU,  the 
other  having  the  Prince  of  Wales's  plume. 
The  ceiling  in  the  abbot's  house  is  enriched 
with  much  foliate  work  in  the  rectangular 
spaces,  and  in  addition  to  the  other  devices 
(excepting  the  star  flower)  has  the  portcullis, 
and  at  the  intersections  of  the  rectangles 
a  panel  with  motto.  The  reverse  order  is 
curious,  but  it  appears  to  be  intended  to  read 
as  MAL  MEV  EST  DEV  DROiT.  Their  order  at 
Wilderhope  is  given  differently,  thus :  MEV  EST 
DEV  IAM  DROIT  ;  but  the  fourth  word  should 
no  doubt  be  MAL.  It  is  possible  a  terminal 
consonant  may  be  omitted  from  MEV  and 
DEV.  The  work  at  Build  was  is  excellently 
done ;  but  the  room  at  the  abbey  has  been 
divided,  and  the  ceiling  much  damaged  in 
consequence.  The  use  of  the  Tudor  badges 
would  indicate  an  intentional  design  and 
strong  party  loyalty  in  the  owner.  Whether 
the  letters  E  E  refer  to  the  owner  is  doubtful. 

Herefordshire  and  South  Shropshire  were 
strongly  Yorkist.  King  Edward  IV.  granted 
representation  in  Parliament  to  the  borough 
of  Ludlow,  and  also  to  the  territorial  area, 
which  he  constituted  a  municipal  borough, 
still  known  as  the  Borough  of  Wenlock, 



s.  x.  AUG.  IB,  1902. 

belonging  to  the  priory  at  Wenlock  Magna. 
The  Burnells  were  liberal  donors  to  the  abbey 
at  Build  was,  and  it  acquired  from  them 
the  advowson  and  tithes  of  Kushbury  in 
1  Henry  IV.  Most  probably  the  house  at 
Wilderhope  was  under  Build  was  influence, 
and  the  three  ceilings  were  put  up  in  the 
later  years  of  King  Henry  VII.  Build  was 
Abbey  was  dissolved  in  1535.  The  ceilings 
must  have  been  done  long  before  that  event. 
The  name  of  Henry  SraaJemon,  of  Stanweye, 
in  the  parish  of  Rushbury,  adjacent  to 
Wilderhope,  appears  in  9  Edward  II.,  1315-6. 
In  the  'Castles  and  Old  Mansions  of  Shrop- 
shire '  Mrs.  Stackhouse  Acton  states  the  motto 
at  Wilderhope  is  MAL  MEA  DBA  EST,  and  that 
the  initials  ES,  FS,  and  PS,  and  a  date  1602 
appear  on  some  panels.  This  is  not  correct 
with  regard  to  the  motto,  and  if  it  should 
have  been  so  at  one  time  with  regard  to  the 
initials  and  the  year,  it  cannot  be  that  these 
were  contemporaneous  with  the  erection  of 
the  ceilings.  I  submit  my  remarks  with 
hesitation.  The  details  of  the  ceilings  are 
taken  from  photographs  by  the  late  Dr.  W.  E. 
Thursfield,  of  Shrewsbury.  If  accurate  in- 
formation as  to  the  dates  and  motto  can  be 
given,  I  shall  be  glad.  W.  G.  NORRIS. 


LAMBROOK  STRADLING  (9th  S.  x.  47).— A  per- 
son named  Lamorack  Stradlynge  witnessed 
in  1600  the  will  of  Henry  Mathew,  of  Radyr, 
and  was  almost  certainly  the  testator's 
relative.  Lamrock  was  the  Christian  name 
of  a  son  of  Robert  Mathew,  of  Cardiff,  who 
died  circa  1610,  and  whose  will,  dated  in 
1608,  was  witnessed  by  Lamrock  Stradling, 
of  Roath,  esquire  ('  Cardiff  Records,'  vol.  iii. 
pp.  117,  118).  In  a  survey  of  the  manor  of 
Spital,  Cardiff,  1666,  reference  is  made  to 
lands  of  Lamorack  Stradling,  esquire,  deceased, 
at  Rpath  (?'&.,  vol.  ii.  p.  85).  A  rent-roll  of 
Cardiff  town,  1686,  names  Jane,  widow  of 
Larnbrocke  Stradling,  esquire  (ib.,  vol.  iv. 

Town  Hall,  Cardiff. 

"  YCLEPING"  THE  CHURCH  (9th  S.  viii.  420, 
486  ;  ix.  55,  216,  394  j  x.  54).— Note  Exodus, 
chap,  xxxiii.,  last  three  verses,  21,  22,  23,  more 
especially  the  last  verse,  in  connexion  with 
the  extract  cited  by  MR.  DOUGLAS  OWEN, 
ante,  p.  55,  passages  in  lines  8,  9,  10,  11,  12, 
14,  15,  16,  17,  18,  25,  26,  27,  from  the  top  of 
the  page.  GNOMON. 


ix.  346,  493  ;  x.  17).— I  was  very  glad  to  see 
the  note  by  MR.  J.  Ross  ROBERTSON  re  Sir 

Christopher  Wren  (M.P.,  D.C.L.,  P.R.S.).  It 
is  astonishing  how  many  Masonic  historians 
have  been  led  into  error  re  Wren's  Masonic 
career.  According  to  Kenning's  '  Cyclopaedia 
of  Freemasonry,'  it  has  been  general  for  many 
years  to  credit  Sir  Christopher  Wren  witn 
everything  great  and  good  before  the  "  Re- 
vival," but  on  very  slender  evidence.  He  is 
said  to  have  been  a  member  of  the  "Lodge 
of  Antiquity "  for  many  years ;  "  and  the 
maul  ana  trowel  used  at  the  laying  of  the 
stone  of  St.  Paul's,  with  a  pair  of  mahogany 
candlesticks,  were  presented  "  to  him,  and  are 
now  in  the  possession  of  the  lodge.  Dr. 
Anderson  mentions  him  as  Grand  Master 
in  1685;  but  according  to  a  manuscript  of 
Aubrey's  in  the  Royal  Society  he  was  not 
admitted  a  Brother  Freemason  until  1691. 
(Wren  is  popularly  supposed  to  have  suc- 
ceeded Henry  Bennett,  Earl  of  Arlington, 
and, "  for  the  second  time,"  King  William  HI.) 
Unfortunately,  the  early  records  of  the  cele- 
brated "  Lodge  of  Antiquity  "  have  been  lost 
or  destroyed,  so  there  is  nothing  certain  as  to 
Wren's  Masonic  career,  and  what  little  has 
been  circulated  is  contradictory.  It  is,  of 
course,  more  than  likely  he  took  an  active 
part  in  Freemasonry,  though  he  was  not  a 
member  of  the  Masons'  Company;  but  as  the 
records  are  wanting  it  is  idle  to  speculate, 
and  absurd  to  credit  to  his  labours  on  behalf 
of  our  society  what  there  is  not  a  tittle  of 
evidence  to  prove. 

48,  Hanover  Square,  Bradford. 

I  am  afraid  that  MR.  HOLDEN  MAcMiCHAEL 
has  been  somewhat  led  astray  in  depending 
on  '  Old  and  New  London '  for  his  informa- 
tion concerning  Wren  and  Freemasonry. 
When  the  destruction  of  that  venerable  hos- 
telry the  "  Goose  and  Gridiron  "  was  in  con- 
templation, a  very  interesting  account,  with  a 
sketch  of  the  building  and  its  sign,  appeared 
in  the  Daily  Graphic  of  28  August,  1894. 
The  paragraph  concerning  Wren  and  Free- 
masonry was  there  dished  up  much  as  it 
appears  in  '  Old  and  New  London '  (i.  272), 
and  was  contradicted  by  several  corre- 
spondents in  a  subsequent  number.  From 
one  of  the  letters,  signed  W.  F.  L  ,  I  extract 
the  following  paragraph  : — 

"  Touching  the   connection    of   the  Freemasons 

with  the  'Goose  and  Gridiron,' will  you  permit 

me  to  differ  from  your  statement  that  Sir  Chris- 
topher Wren  belonged  to  the  Masonic  body,  or  that 
a  Grand  Lodge  existed  previously  to  that  founded 
in  1717  at  the  old  hostelry  in  question  ?  Both  inci- 
dents are  simply  legends,  and  as  such  are  discarded 
as  matters  of  fact  by  the  leading  Masonic  historians 
of  the  present  day,  for  the  very  tangible  reason  that 
no  documentary  evidence  has  ever  been  forthcoming 

9t»s.x.AuG.i6,i902.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


to  prove  either  statement.  On  the  other  hand,  the 
foundation  of  the  first  Grand  Lodge  of  England  in 
1717  at  the  '  Goose  and  Gridiron'  can  be  verified  by 
records  in  Freemasons'  Hall,  London.  I  may  further 
add  that  the  Lodge  of  Antiquity  No.  2,  now  meet- 
ing at  Freemasons  Hall,  is  the  only  one  left  of  the 
four  lodges  that  founded  the  first  Grand  Lodge  of 
England.  In  1717  its  domicile  was  the  '  Goose  and 
Gridiron.' " 

Another  error  propagated  by  'Old  and  New 
London  '  and  repeated  by  MR.  MACMICHAEL 
is  the  substitution  of  the  name  of  the  physi- 
cian Sir  Hans  Sloane  for  that  of  the  architect 
Sir  John  Soane.  JOHN  T.  PAGE. 

West  Haddon,  Northamptonshire. 

Dutch  carvers 

Hither  to  whet  [not  wet]  their  whistles  daily  come. 

&c.  (9th  S.  ix.  508;  x.  54).— The  name  of 
Jews'  Court  is  applied  to  two  houses  situated, 
near  the  Jews'  House,  on  the  Steep  Hill, 
Lincoln.  They  are  of  considerable  antiquity, 
but  they  are  not  in  any  way  connected  with 
the  period  at  which  the  Jews  lived  in  Lincoln. 
Tradition,  however,  claims  that  one  of  the 
houses  contains  the  well  into  which  little 
St.  Hugh's  body  was  thrown  after  his  sup- 
posed murder,  whilst  a  cellar  in  the  rear  of 
the  same  building  is  said  to  be  the  scene 
of  his  crucifixion.  The  St.  Dunstan's  Lock 
mentioned  by  ST.  SWITHIN  was,  it  is  sup- 
posed, the  lower  boundary  of  the  Jews' 
quarter,  beyond  which  no  Jew  was  per- 
mitted, at  all  events  after  sunset.  The  real 
name,  probably,  of  the  gateway  is  Dernestall 
Lock,  an  old -time  local  board  being  re- 
sponsible for  the  corruption.  Even  Derne- 
stall Lock  is  said  by  some  to  be  a  corruption 
of  "  the  Dernestall,"  the  place  where  little 
St.  Hugh  was  born.  Further  information  on 
this  subject  may  be  gleaned  from  two  ad- 
mirable articles  on  the  Jews  in  Lincoln  in 
the  Transactions  of  the  Jewish  Historical 
Society,  sessions  1896-8.  A.  R.  0. 

SHAKESPEARE  t.  BACON  (9th  S.  ix.  245,  414  ; 
x.  11). — I  am  not  a  Scott  student,  but  I  am 
told  that  in  '  Ivanhoe '  and  '  Rob  Roy '  the 
"Author  of  'Waverley'"  quotes  from  the 
acknowledged  poems  of  Walter  Scott.  Doubt- 
less some  of  your  readers  can  supply  these 
references,  and  possibly  others. 

At  the  same  time  it  would  be  well  to  have 
exact  references  to  the  places  where  the 
"Author  of  'Waverley '"  "makes  honourable 
mention  of  almost  every  distinguished  con- 
temporary poet,"  and  the  terms  in  which  he 
speaks  of  them.  When  we  have  this  list,  and 
a  full  list,  corresponding  to  it,  of  Francis 
Bacon's  references  to  his  distinguished 

poetical  contemporaries,  we  shall  be  in  a 
position  to  discuss  the  weight  of  the_argu- 
ment  that  MR.  STRONACH  and  MR.  THEOBALD 
raise  at  the  last  reference.  It  seems  to  me 
a  very  interesting  aspect  of  the  question, 
and  well  worth  looking  into  with  a  view  to 
ascertaining  the  direct  and  acknowledged 
effect  on  the  mind  of  a  great  writer  of  the 
works  of  his  contemporaries.  Q.  V. 

[The  motto  at  the  head  of  '  Guy  Mannering '  is 
from  '  The  Lay  of  the  Last  Minstrel.'] 

Adolphus,  in  his  'Letters  to  Heber,'  is 
wrong  in  saying  that  the  author  of  '  Waver- 
ley' never  makes  honourable  mention  of 
Walter  Scott.  Some  lines  from  '  The  Lay  of 
the  Last  Minstrel '  are  the  motto  to  '  Guy 
Mannering.'  And  surely  this  may  be  called 
honourable  mention.  I  have  a  notion  that 
Scott  refers  to  himself  elsewhere  in  the 
"  Waverley  Novels,"  and  that  he  has  done  so 
designedly  in  order  to  convince  the  public 
that  he  was  not  the-  author  of  them.  Shak- 
speare  had  nothing  to  do  with  Henslowe  and 
Alleyn.  He  wrote  for  his  own  theatre.  The  • 
playwrights  mentioned  were  connected  with 
other  theatres.  As  is  the  way  with  small 
writers,  the  minor  dramatists  wrote  com- 
mendatory verses  on  one  another.  Shak- 
speare  was  too  great  to  do  this.  He  disdained 
to  recommend  himself  by  praising  others  in 
order  that  he  might  himself  be  praised.  Still 
it  must  be  remembered  that  he  is  sometimes 
mentioned  by  authors  of  his  time,  and  that 
Ben  Jonson  wrote  commendatory  verses  on 
him,  after  his  death,  which  are  worth  more 
than  all  the  other  eulogies  written  in  that 
age.  E.  YARDLEY. 

DEFOE  (9th  S.  ix.  207,  318 ;  x.  32).  —  Since 
the  statement  that  in  the  late  Miss  Mary 
Ann  Defoe  died  the  last  of  the  descendants 
of  Daniel  Defoe  has  gone  the  round  of  the 
papers,  two  letters  on  the  subject  have 
appeared  in  the  Daily  Mail.  The  first, 
written  by  Mr.  C.  E.  Baker,  of  Nottingham, 
is  as  follows  :— 

"  I  notice  it  'is  stated  that  the  late  Mary  Ann 
Defoe,  of  Croydon,  was  the  last  descendant  of 
the  author  of  '  Robinson  Crusoe.'  This  may  be  on 
the  male  side,  but  Daniel  Defoe's  daughter  Sophia, 
who  died  in  1772,  married  Henry  Baker,  F.R.S.,  the 
author  of  several  microscopical  works,  and  their 
descendants  are  represented  by  Hugh  Baker,  Esq., 
of  St.  Albans,  and  others,  Defoe  having  been 
coupled  with  that  of  Baker  until  quite  recently  in 
the  late  Rev.  W.  De  Foe  Baker,  late  rector  of 
Thruxton,  Hants."— Daily  Mail,  23  June. 

The  second  letter  came  from  the  Rev. 
Canon  De  Foe  Baker,  of  Lincoln,  who  wrote 
as  follows  : — 

"  A  namesake,  Mr.  C.  E.  Baker,  of  Mapperley 
Rise,  has  stated  correctly  in  a  recent  number  of  the 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       p*  s.  x.  AUG.  ie,  1902. 

Daily  Mail  that  there  are  descendants  living  of 
De  Foe's  daughter  Sophia,  who  in  1729  married 
Henry  Baker,  F.R.S.  and  F.S.A.  There  are  omis- 
sions and  mistakes  in  Mr.  C.  E.  Baker's  letter,  as 
to  which  I  need  not  trouble  you ;  but  perhaps 

B>u  will  allow  me  to  say  that  I  am  not  yet  the  late 
e  Foe  Baker."— Daily  Mail,  7  July. 

West  Haddon,  Northamptonshire. 

LEGEND  OF  LADY  ALICE  LEA  (9th  S.  x.  68).— 
Under  the  general  heading  'Folk-Lore,'  and 
with  the  more  extended  title,  'The  First 
Mole  in  Cornwall ;  a  Morality  from  the 
Stowe  of  Morwenna,  in  the  Rocky  Land,' 
a  correspondent  signing  himself  H.,  and 
obviously  Hawker  of  Morwenstowe,  con- 
tributed to  a  very  early  number  (1st  S.  ii.  225) 
a  detailed  and  characteristic  sketch  of  the 
legend  of  Lady  Alice  Lea  and  her  ill-starred 
love  for  Sir  Beville  Grenville,  of  Stowe. 


D.  K.  T.  may  find  this  told,  and  probably 
by  Mr.  Hawker,  in  1st  S.  ii.  225,  or  in  '  Choice 
Notes  from  "  Notes  and  Queries " :  Folk- 
Lore,' pp.  48-51.  ST.  SWITHIN. 

S.  ix.  508).— The  best  authority  on  matters 
concerning  W.  M.  Thackeray  (his  daughter) 
knows  nothing  of  this  supposed  residence  of 
her  father,  nor  the  reason  of  the  tablet  being 
placed  on  28,  Clerkenwell  Road.  She  says : 
"My  father  was  eleven  and  thirteen  in 
1822-24,  and  at  school.  I  don't  know  what  it 
means.  Please  write  and  say  so." 


96,  Philbeach  Gardens,  S.W. 

"UPWARDS  OF  "  (9th  S.  ix.  446,  516  ;  x.  38). 
— I  must  demur  to  the  assertion  that  in  the 
West  the  above  phrase  is  commonly  used  in 
the  sense  of  "almost."  "I've  agot  up  a 
score  "  in  my  experience  would  mean  "  close 
upon  a  score  "  =  a  score  more  or  less— gener- 
ally in  the  sense  of  rather  less.  But  "  upwards 
of  a  score"  would  not  be  used  by  dialect 
speakers,  or  any  other  class,  unless  at  least 
some  excess  of  number  over  twenty  was 
intended  to  be  understood. 




Sohrab  and  Rustem :  the  Epic  Theme  of  a  Combat 
between  Father  and  Son.  By  Murray  Anthony 
Potter,  A.M.  (Nutt.) 

To  the  "Grimm  Library"  of  Mr.  Nutt,  of  which  it 
forms  No.  14,  has  been  added  a  study  of  the  genesis 
and  use  in  literature  and  popular  tradition  of  the 

,heme  of  combat  between  father  and  son,  the  most 
amiliar  aspect  of  which  is  the  story  of  Sohrab  and 
rlustem.  Originally  accepted  at  Harvard  Univer- 
sity in  1899  as  a  doctorate  thesis,  this  essay  easily 
inks  itself  with  '  The  Legend  of  Perseus '  of  Mr. 
Sartland,  the  studies  in  Arthurian  romance  of  Miss 
Jessie  L.  Weston,  and  similar  works  with  which  it 
s  now  conjoined.  That  combats  of  this  or  a  similar 
nature  were  so  common  in  literature  few  who  have 
not  looked  closely  into  the  question  can  have  sur- 
mised. In  his  opening  chapter  Mr.  Potter  points 
to  its  occurrence  in  Tasso's  '  Jerusalem  Delivered,' 
Shakespeare  s  '  King  Henry  VI.,'  Voltaire's  '  Hen- 
riade,'  Lillo's  '  Fatal  Curiosity,'  Miiller's  '  Der 
neun  und  zwanzigste  Februar,'  'Lucrece  Borgia,' 
&c.,  by  Victor  Hugo,  and  in  other  works.  To  the 
classical  scholar  the  story  of  Odysseus  and  Tele- 
gonus,  his  son  by  Circe,  at  once  occurs,  as  fulfilling 
all  the  requirements  of  the  legend.  The  most 
characteristic  forms  are  found  in  the  famous  '  Hilde- 
brandslied'  and  the  Persian  'Shah  Numeh'  episode 
of  Sohrab  and  Rustem.  Mr.  Potter  does  not  confine 
himself  to  the  fight  between  father  and  son,  but  deals 
with  the  combats  generally,  which  would  have  been 
avoided  by  the  proclamation  of  a  name.  Briefly 
summarized,  the  points  of  the  tale  are :  a  man 
embraces,  generally  at  her  request,  a  woman  whom 
his  beauty  or  bravery  has  attracted,  and  rides 
away,  leaving  her  to  give  birth  to  a  child  of  heroic 
mould.  Branded  as  a  bastard  by  his  fellows,  the 
youth  obtains  from  his  mother  the  secret  of  his 
parentage,  takes  arms,  and  starts  in  search  of  his 
Father.  The  pair  meet,  generally  in  ignorance  of 
the  relationship  between  them,  and  fight,  because 
each  thinks  it  unworthy  to  give  up  his  name.  The 
result  of  the  combat  is  different  in  different  cases. 
What  strikes  our  author  as  most  suggestive  in  the 
story,  innumerable  variants  of  which  he  gives,  are 
the  "uncertainty  of  paternity  connected  with  the 
man's  marriage  from  home,  the  callous  neglect  by 
the  hero  of  his  wife  or  mistress  and  child,  the 
prominent  role  played  by  the  woman  in  seduction 
or  other  matters,  and  the  departure  of  the  son  in 
search  of  his  father.  An  explanation  of  these  things 
he  seeks  in  exogamy  and  matriarchy.  Very  inge- 
nious, if  not  always  conclusive,  are  his  arguments, 
and  the  chapters  in  which  he  deals  with  these 
points  are  the  most  interesting  in  his  volume.  It 
is  only  in  recent  years  that  Australasian  folk-lore  has 
been  scientifically  studied,  and  a  vast  mass  of 
matter  available  for  his  purpose  has  come  under 
Mr.  Potter's  observation  ana  been  diligently  em- 
ployed. The  book  cannot,  indeed,  be  neglected  by 
the  folk-lorist,  the  anthropologist,  or  the  student 
of  comparative  mythology,  and  its  decisions,  even 
when  they  fail  to  carry  conviction,  will  command 

History  of  the  Parish  of  Buxhall,  in  the  County  of 
Suffolk.  By  W.  A.  Copinger,  LL.LX,  F.S.A.,  &c. 
(Sotheran  &  Co.) 

SELDOM  can  a  parish  so  small  have  had  accorded 
it  honours  such  as  those  of  which  Buxhall  is  the 
recipient.  According  to  the  latest  authority  to 
which  we  have  access,  Buxhall,  which  is  situated 
some  three  miles  west  of  Stowmarket,  contains 
2,560  acres  and  a  population  of  401  souls.  To  it  is 
dedicated  a  handsome  quarto  volume  of  over  three 
hundred  and  twenty  pages,  with  twenty-four  full- 
page  illustrations  and  a  large  parish  map,  contain- 
ing all  the  field-names,  which  bring  the  average  to 
not  far  short  of  a  page  per  inhabitant.  This  is  not 

o»s.x.  AUG.  16,1908.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


all.  Large  as  it  is,  the  book  may  be  regarded  as  a 
continuation  of  a  previous  work,  which  we  have 
not  seen,  devoted  to  the  family  of  the  author,  long, 
closely,  and  honourably  connected  with  the  place. 
Those  interested  in  the  family  who  do  not  possess 
the  history  by  Prof.  Copinger  need  only  turn  to  the 
latest  edition  of  Burke  s  '  Landed  Gentry,'  wherein 
they  will  find  dedicated  to  Copinger  of  Buxhall 
close  upon  two  columns.  With  the  family,  which 
claims,  among  other  members,  more  than  one  dis- 
tinguished bibliophile,  French  or  English,  we  are 
not  allowed  now  to  concern  ourselves.  Very  far 
are  we  from  condemning  the  length  at  which  the 
parish  has  been  treated,  since  we  hold  that  in 
time  most  villages  and  hamlets  will  have  their 
independent  histories,  and  the  more  parish  records 
that  are  put  beyond  the  reach  of  destruction  the 
better.  The  treatment  is,  at  least,  exemplary  in 
fulness,  and  there  can  be  few  sceneV  or  objects  of 
importance  in  Buxhall  of  which  views  are  not  given. 
Buxhall  is  called  in  Domesday  Book  Bukessalla- 
buressalla=the  bower  of  health  and  the  hall  of 
flagons,  a  striking  testimony  to  the  salubrity  of 
situation  and  the  hospitality  of  its  owner.  It  is  a 
scattered  village  in  the  hundred  of  Stow  and  the 
diocese  of  Norwich.  Its  soil  being  a  strong  or  clayey 
loam,  which  is  rather  persistently  misnamed  clay, 
it  has  little  geological  interest.  In  matters  of 
antiquity  it  boasts  the  customary  dovecote, 
mill,  pound,  and  stocks,  though  the  pillory  and 
tumbrel  —  the  latter  a  species  of  ducking-stool 
for  scolds,  which  it  should  have  had,  since  the 
lord  of  the  manor  had  the  franchise  of  view 
of  frankpledge — are  not  to  be  traced.  We  find 
in  the  time  of  Elizabeth  and  James  more  than  one 
rector  presented  for  playing  bowls  on  the  green. 
This  must  have  been  done  in  view  of  the  statutes 
for  the  encouragement  of  archery.  For  the  Dane- 
gelt  Buxhall  was  rated  at  25rf.,  equal  to  about 
67.  5s.  of  modern  money.  The  amount  seems  to 
have  been  readily  paid,  Buxhall,  with  a  river  then 
navigable  to  vessels  of  light  draught,  being  open  to 
incursions  from  the  Danish  rovers.  In  the  '  1  eet  of 
Fines'  the  name  of  Copeuger  occurs  so  early  as 
7  Richard  II.  The  vill  of  Buxhall  was  a  tithing  in 
itself,  the  tithing- man  being  called  the  headborough. 
Its  manorial  court  had  the  right  to  execute  the  law 
of  frankpledge,  and,  beside  other  privileges,  to 
hold  twice  a  year  a  court  leet.  Among  the  fines 
exacted  14  April,  27  Eliz.,  for  trivial  offences  was 
iijs.  iiiyl.  for  not  using  caps  on  Sundays  and  feast 
days.  The  inhabitants  and  parishioners  within 
the  precincts  of  the  leet  were  also  "in  mercy  iijd 
for  not  providing  and  having  a  sufficient  snare 
called  '  A  Rooke  Nett.' "  For  not  shooting  with 
bows  and  arrows  the  parishioners  were  fined 
vj,s.  viijrf.  among  them  all,  the  penalty  having 
been  much  reduced.  The  Court  Rolls  are  intact 
from  the  reign  of  Henry  VIII.  to  to-day,  and 
courts  baron  have  been  regularly  held.  In  the 
time  of  Edward  the  Confessor  the  manor  belonged 
(1050)  to  Leswin  Croc,  who  also  had  the  advowson 
of  the  church.  The  first  Norman  lord  was  Roger 
Pictaviensis  (Roger  of  Poictou),  third  son  of  Roger 
de  Montgomery,  Earl  of  Shrewsbury,  by  Mabel  his 
wife,  daughter  and  heiress  of  William  Talvace. 
Through  three  successive  descents  the  manor  came, 
in  1412,  by  marriage  into  the  hands  of  John  Copin- 
ger, of  Buxhall,  Esq.  His  family  had  long  lived  in 
Buxhall,  and  exercised  such  hospitality  that  to 
"  live  like  the  Copingers"  became  a  common  phrase 
in  Suffolk.  The  manor  was  in  the  hands  of  the  Copin- 

gers until  the  close  of  the  seventeenth  century,  and  in 
1899  the  Buxhall  estates,  including  the  manor,  came 
into  the  possession  of  Walter  Arthur  Copinger,  the 
forty-fifth  lord  of  the  manor,  and  the  author  of  the 
present  work.  For  a  period  of  close  on  a  thousand 
years,  or  from  the  time  of  Edward  the  Confessor  to 
Edward  VII.,  there  has  been  no  break  in  the  con- 
tinuity of  the  lords  of  Buxhall.  The  parish  registers 
from  6  January,  1558,  to  1699— so  far  as  they  are 
decipherable,  some  injuries  having  been  experienced 
—are  printed.  The  illustrations  are  numerous  and 
serviceable,  and  the  book  is  entitled  to  a  high  place 
among  works  of  topographical,  antiquarian,  and 
genealogical  interest. 

The  Saga  Book  of  the  Viking  Club.  Vol.  III.  Part  I. 
THE  first  part  of  the  third  volume  of  the  Saga 
Club,  issued  under  the  care  of  the  Saga  Master, 
F.  T.  Norris,  supplies  the  title-pages,  indexes,  and 
other  prefatory  matter  to  vols.  i.  and  ii.,  reports  of 
meetings  in  1901  and  those  of  the  district  secre- 
taries, and  three  separate  and  important  papers. 
The  first  of  these  consists  of  '  Traces  of  their 
[Viking]  Folk-lore  in  Marshland,'  a  very  interest- 
ing selection  of  folk-lore,  superstitions,  and  beliefs 
— many  of  them  familiar  enough,  but  others  less 
well  known  —  collected  in  that  particular  area 
which,  judging  from  place-names,  must  at  one  time 
"  have  been  the  most  exclusively  Norse  portion  of 
Lincolnshire,  if  not  of  all  England."  This  contri- 
bution, which  is  most  brightly  written,  will  be  of 
keen  interest  to  all  folk-lorists.  More  ambitious  is 
Dr.  W.  Dreyer's  'Features  of  the. Advance  of  the 
Study  of  Danish  Archaeology,'  which  imparts  much 
curious  information  conc^jning  the  results  of  recent 
explorations.  The  third  consists  of  an  essay  by 
Mrs.  Clara  Jerrold  on  '  The  Balder' Myth  and  some 
English  Poets.'  The  Viking  Club  is  doing  good 
service,  and  its  work  may  be  commended  to  the 
attention  of  those  of  our  readers  who  are  not 
already  familiar  with  it.  Particulars  may  be  ob- 
tained of  the  librarian,  A.  W.  Johnston,  36,  Mar- 
garetta  Terrace,  Chelsea,  S.W. 

A  Glossary  of  the.  Works  of  William  Shakespeare. 
By  the  Rev.  Alexander  Dyce.  Revised  by  Harold 
Littledale,  M.A.  (Sonnenschein  &  Co.) 
DYCE'S  glossary,  forming  a  volume  of  his  edition  of 
Shakespeare,  has  long  been  held  in  high  estimation 
by  scholars.  Since  1874  it  has  been  in  some  respects 
superseded  by  the  'Shakespeare-Lexicon'  pi  Dr. 
Alexander  Schmidt,  the  assistance  of  which  no 
careful  student  would  willingly  forego.  The 
last-named  work  -has,  however,  long  been  difficult 
of  access,  and  is  now,  virtually,  not  to  be  pur- 
chased. Bartlett's  '  Concordance,'  to  which  in  his 
preface  the  reviser  draws  attention,  is  an  admirably 
serviceable  book,  but  cumbrous  in  shape,  and  is, 
after  all,  a  concordance,  not  a  glossary.  It  is, 
accordingly,  a  happy  idea  of  Prof.  Littledale  to 
revise  and  amplify  the  glossary  of  Dyce  and  facili- 
tate the  employment  of  its  pages.  Dyce  edited  "  on 
his  own  hand,"  and  his  references  are  to  the  volume 
and  page  of  his  own  excellent  edition  of  Shake- 
speare. In  the  case  of  those  employing  other 
editions  the  task  of  research  is  necessarily  diffi- 
cult and  laborious.  Dr.  Littledale's  first  task  has 
been  to  alter  every  one  of  Dyce's  references,  and 
to  incorporate  into  the  text  matters  of  glossarial 
value  which  had  been  left  in  the  foot-notes.  The 

Siotations  haye  then  been  made  to  conform  to  the 
lobe  text,  as  is  done  in  the  compilations  of  Schmidt 



[9«»  S.  X.  AUG.  16,  1902. 

and  Bartlett.  The  advantage  of  this  is  obvious. 
The  Globe  may  not  be  an  ideal  text,  but  it  is  one  of 
the  best.  Successive  editors  have  arranged  the 
line-numbering  according  to  their  caprice,  and  it 
is  next  to  impossible,  in  the  case  of  various  editions, 
to  render  the  best  and  most  established  aids  avail- 
able without  much  labour.  All  readers  know,  in 
the  case  of  the  glossary  of  Mrs.  Cowden  Clarke,  a 
work  of  exemplary  labour,  how,  when  one  had  found 
the  references  desired,  the  task  was  but  half  accom- 
plished, and  one  had  to  read  through  a  long  scene 
at  a  time  when  probably  one  was  working  under 
pressure.  It  is,  as  the  professor  points  out,  neces- 
sary that  some  agreement  as  to  the  division  of  prose 
lines  should  be  reached.  The  treatment  observed 
in  bringing  Dyce's  work  up  to  date  has  been  reve- 
rent. Compression  has  been  occasionally  employed. 
Where  additions  have  been  made  by  the  reviser 
they  are  generally  enclosed  in  brackets.  Shake- 
spearian students  will  not  fail  to  obtain  and  em- 
ploy this  work,  even  though  they  possess  that  of 
Schmidt.  It  will  greatly  facilitate  their  labours,  is 
simple  and  easy  of  reference,  and  convenient  to 
handle.  Much  of  the  information  given  is  ampler 
and  more  satisfactory  than  that  supplied  in 
Schmidt.  Consult  both,  for  instance,  under  '  Circe.' 
As  a  work  of  scholarly  reference  the  book,  which 
contains  near  six  hundred  pages,  and  appears  in  a 
handsome  shape,  with  a  Roxburghe  binding,  is 

IT  was  to  be  anticipated  that  the  experience  of 
war  which  we  have  had  of  late  should  cause  collec- 
tions of  battle-verses  to  become  popular.  War, 
however — that  is  recent  war — does  not,  it  would 
seem,  stimulate  the  poetic  faculty.  Knightly 
stories  were  composed  in  the  Middle  Ages  of  which 
war,  next  to  love,  was  the  most  prominent  feature, 
but  they  related  almost  solely  to  fights  fought  long 
ago,  not  to  feats  of  arms  that  had  occurred  in  days 
with  which  the  authors  were  personally  familiar. 
This,  too,  may  be  assumed  regarding  the  '  Iliad.' 
and  the  ballads  also — if  there  were  any — which 
formed  its  foundation.  The  ballads  of  the  North 
Country  may  be  quoted  as  an  exception:  but  in 
nearly  every  case  we  are  ignorant  alike  of  date  and 
authorship.  As  the  writer  of  '  War  and  Poetry,'  in 
the  Edinburgh  Review  for  July,  points  out,  some  of 
the  Border  ballads  contain  the  true  Greek  battle 
spirit,  and  we  may  add  that  the  word-selection  is 
often  as  true  as  Homer's  own.  Nothing  has  had 
deeper  issues  or  moved  the  spirit  of  the  age  more 
keenly  than  the  war  between  king  and  Parliament, 
but  it  has  left  us  no  scrap  of  contemporary  verse 
which  touches  the  heart  as  the  ballads  do.  Milton 
himself  preferred  to  build  his  greatest  poem  in 
regions  far  away  from  the  stress  and  struggle  in 
which  he  spent  his  life.  Until  the  days  of  Sir 
Walter  Scott  the  romance  elements  of  that  great 
contest  were  unappreciated,  and  when  Scott  tried 
to  celebrate  Waterloo — "a  crowning  mercy,"  as  a 
Puritan  would  have  said,  for  which  he  felt  deeply 
thankful— he  failed  in  a  way  little  short  of  miserable, 
though  now  and  then  there  occur  flashes  of  light 
which  redeem  it  from  the  utter  obscurity  which 
by  far  the  greater  part  of  it  merits.  The  review  of 
Lord  Avebury's  book  on  '  The  Scenery  of  England ' 
is  well  worth  attention,  though  we  hardly  think 
the  writer  appreciates  it  as  it  deserves.  It  should 
be  borne  in  mind,  also,  that  Lord  Avebury  was  not 
writing  a  book  on  the  controversies  which  range 
themselves  around  certain  scientific  subjects.  He 

was  drawing  a  picture,  not  a  map,  of  what  have  been 
the  causes  of  much  that  we  see  around  us.  If  he 
assumes  some  few  things  as  certain  which  have  not 
as  yet  been  demonstrated  by  proofs  so  rigid  as  to 
mark  a  man  as  an  imbecile  who  should  call  them  in 
question,  we  can  no  more  blame  him  than  we  should 
the  writer  of  a  popular  work  who  assumed  the 
Belgfe  to  have  been  of  this  or  that  prehistoric  race, 
although  their  origin  has  not  yet  been  decided  to 
the  satisfaction  of  some  continental  and,  we  believe, 
also  a  few  English  scholars.  The  paper  on  '  The 
Royal  Palaces  of  London '  is  accurate,  but  not  so 
picturesque  as  such  a  subject  might  have  been  made. 
This  is  perhaps  owing  to  the  width  and  varying 
character  of  the  things  which  have  to  be  men- 
tioned and  the  confined  limits  of  a  review.  Victor 
Hugo  is  seldom  fairly  dealt  with  by  Englishmen. 
He  is  at  the  same  time  too  near  and  too  far  off  to 
be  estimated  as  he  deserves.  Blame  and  praise  in 
unstinted  measure  he  has  had  in  plenty,  but  very 
rarely  strict  justice.  The  writer  in  the  Edinburgh, 
who  is  evidently  on  familiar  terms  with  all  h«  has 
produced,  has  striven  to  be  fair,  and  has  been  in 
a  great  degree  successful.  Neither  the  praise  nor 
the  blame  he  metes  out  is  undeserved.  On  the 
psychological  contradictions  which  force  themselves 
upon  our  attention  when  we  try  to  harmonize  Victor 
Hugo's  perplexing  character  the  reviewer  does  not 
touch,  though  it  is  evident  that  this  maze  has  been 
occupying  his  thoughts.  There  are  several  political 
articles,  on  which  we  have  no  remarks  to  make.  We 
may  say,  however,  that  '  The  Albanian  Question ' 
throws  no  little  light  on  subjects  of  which  people 
are  usually  ignorant,  and,  we  fear,  for  the  most  part 
are  well  content  to  remain  so. 

to  C0mstr0tt  fonts. 

We  must  call  special  attention  to  the  following 
notices : — 

ON  all  communications  must  be  written  the  name 
and  address  of  the  sender,  not  necessarily  for  pub- 
lication, but  as  a  guarantee  of  good  faith. 

WE  cannot  undertake  to  answer  queries  privately. 

To  secure  insertion  of  communications  corre- 
spondents must  observe  the  following  rules.  Let 
each  note,  query,  or  reply  be  written  on  a  separate 
slip  of  paper,  with  the  signature  of  the  writer  and 
such  address  as  he  wishes  to  appear.  When  answer- 
ing queries,  or  making  notes  with  regard  to  previous 
entries  in  the  paper,  contributors  are  requested  to 
put  in  parentheses,  immediately  after  the  exact 
heading,  the  series,  volume,  and  page  or  pages  to 
which  they  refer.  Correspondents  who  repeat 
queries  are  requested  to  head  the  second  com- 
munication "  Duplicate." 

S,  H. — Will  be  inserted  without  charge,  as  usual. 

CORRIGKNDA.— P.  85,  col.  1,  1.  24  from  bottom,  for 
"Ulster"  read  Usher  ;  col.  2,  1.  4  from  bottom,  for 
"  July"  read  June. 


Editorial  communications  should  be  addressed 
to  "The  Editor  of  'Notes  and  Queries'" — Adver- 
tisements and  Business  Letters  to  "  The  Pub- 
lisher"— at  the  Office,  Bream's  Buildings,  Chancery 
Lane,  E.C. 

We  beg  leave  to  state  that  we  decline  to  return 
communications  which,  for  any  reason,  we  do  not 
print ;  and  to  this  rule  we  can  make  no  exception. 

9«>s.x.Auo.23,i902.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. —  No.  243. 

NOTES  :— Charles  II.  in  West  Dorset,  141  — Portrait  of 
Harriett  Powell.  145— Russian  and  Slavonic— Jews  and  the 
'Encyclopedia  Britannic*,'  146  — Portrait  Superstition- 
Crooked  Usage,  Chelsea,  147. 

QUERIES  :— Sir  C.  Aldis,  147— Court  or  Semi-Court  Dress 
—Gordons  of  Rochester— Shetland  Song— Scottish  College 
— C.  Doyle— Lacy  or  De  Lacv— Fees  and  Parish  Registers- 
Esquires,  148 — Wine  in  Public  Conduits— English  Families 
in  Russia  —  Glisson  —  Ancient  Confectionery — Dryden's 
Brothers— Capt.  T.  Morris  —  Branstill  Castle  —  Grattan's 
Portrait— "  But  ah  !  Maecenas"— "After  wearisome  toil" 
—Burial-places  of  Peers,  149—'  The  Soul's  Errand,'  150. 

REPLIES  :— 'Aylwin,'  150  — Arms  on  Fireback  —  Cardinal 
Allen  — "Only  too  thankful,"  151  •*- "  Utilitarian"  - 
Baronets  of  Nova  Scotia— "Ganges  "—Trinity  Monday- 
Bishop  Sanderson's  Descendants,  152— Barbadian  Register 
— "  Autocrat, "in  Russian — Duchy  of  Berwick,  153  — Price 
of  Eggs—"  Rock-bottom  prices  " — Chocolate,  154— Mourn- 
ing Sunday— "  Harry  Dick  hat":  "Adelaide  waistcoat" 
—  Honoriflcabilitudinitas,  155  —  "  Keep  your  hair  on"  — 
Dutch  East  India  Company— Napoleon's  First  Marriage 
—Bicycle  Bibliography— Iron  Duke,  156— Rockall — Cuck- 
ing  Stool  —  English  Gladiators,  157  —  Hebrew  Incanta- 
tion, 158. 

NOTES  ON  BOOKS  :— Merriman's  'Life  and  Letters  of 
Thomas  Cromwell'  — Kitten's  'Charles  Dickens'— 'Con- 
gregational Historical  Society  Transactions  '  —  '  Trans- 
actions of  the  Hampstead  Antiquarian  and  Historical 

Notices  to  Correspondents. 


WEST  DORSET  was  recently  the  scene  of 
a  very  interesting  ceremony,  namely,  the  un- 
veiling of  three  memorial  tablets  affixed  to 
certain  old  houses  which  had  established  their 
claim  to  the  honour  of  having  sheltered  the 
prince  afterwards  Charles  II.  during  the 
three  eventful  days  he  spent  there  in  his 
hurried,  but  fruitless  endeavour  to  escape 
to  France  from  the  coast  of  Dorset  after  his 
decisive  defeat  at  the  battle  of  Worcester  on 
3  September,  1651.  This  ceremony  was  the 
complement  of  an  earlier  one  which  took 
place  on  the  outskirts  of  Bridport  on  23  Sep- 
tember last,  the  250th  anniversary  of  the 
king's  visit  to  that  town,  and  which  is  re- 
ferred to  in  detail  later. 

There  is,  it  seems  to  me,  special  reason 
why  these  proceedings  and  the  history  of 
the  movement  which  led  up  to  them  should 
be  recorded  permanently  in  the  pages  of 
'  N.  &  Q.,'  for  it  was  in  great  measure  what 
had  previously  appeared  there  upon  the 
subject,  now  nearly  twenty  years  ago,  that 
led  to  the  carrying  out  of  the  present 

At  that  time  there  was  an  interesting  dis- 

cussion in  '  N.  &  Q.'  (6th  &  v.  and  viii. 
as  to  what  old  houses  now  exist  in  the  coun- 
try that  had  formed  hiding  -  places  for 
Charles  II.  between  the  battle  of  Worcester 
in  September,  1651,  and  the  time  when  the 
king  at  last  effected  his  escape  from  Bright- 
helmstone  on  the  15th  of  the  following  October. 
It  was  then  that  I  put  forward  the  claim  of 
the  old  manor-house  at  Pilsdon,  in  West 
Dorset,  at  that  time  the  property  of  those 
staunch  royalists  the  Wyndhams,  to  rank  as 
one  of  those  entitled  to  this  honourable  dis- 
tinction, basing  the  claim  upon  a  local  tradi- 
tion that  I  had  heard.  This  claim,  however, 
having  been  challenged  by  one  of  your  corre- 
spondents, I  went  more  deeply  into  the  ques- 
tion of  Charles  II.'s  wanderings  in  Dorset, 
and  after  consulting  the  principal  authorities 
at  my  disposal  I  was  constrained  to  admit 
that  the  claim  I  had  put  forward  rested  upon 
tradition  only,  and  had  no  historical  founda- 
tion. This  I  did  in  a  somewhat  lengthy  paper 
which  I  read  before  a  meeting  of  the  Dorset 
Natural  History  and  Antiquarian  Field  Club 
upon  Pilsdon  Pen  itself,  the  highest  hill  in 
the  county  of  Dorset,  in  September,  1886,  I 
think  —  from  which  meeting  I  date  my 
acquaintance  with  Thomas  Hardy,  the  Wessex 
novelist.  This  papeVwas  reproduced  in  the 
annual  volume  (viiiO  of  the  society's  Pro- 
ceedings for  the  following  year,  and  also 
reprinted  in  pamphlet  form.  In  it  I  traced 
in  considerable  detail  the  wanderings  of 
Charles  from  the  time  he  left  Trent  manor, 
another  seat  of  the  Wyndhams,  on  the  borders 
of  Dorset  and  Somerset,  on  22  September,  till 
he  returned  there  on  the  24th,  after  his  abor- 
tive attempt  to  quit  the  Dorset  coast  at  Char- 
mouth  on  the  night  of  the  22nd.  1  mainly 
followed  the  narrative  given  by  Mr.  J.  Hughes 
in  his  'Boscobel  Tracts'  (first  published  in 
1830,  a  second  edition  of  which  appeared  in 
1857)  from  the  authorities  there  cited,  taking 
my  former  contributions  in  'N.  &  Q.'  as  the 
basis,  and  confining  myself,  of  course,  to 
those  incidents  which  happened  on  Dorset 
territory  alone. 

A  very  interesting  feature  of  Mr.  Hughes's 
book  was  the  description  he  gave  of  the 
houses  and  buildings  which  had  sheltered  the 
king  as  he  found  them  in  1830.  To  the  Dorset 
portion  of  them  I  added  in  my  paper  a  de- 
tailed description  of  the  condition  in  which  I 
found  them  some  fifty  years  later. 

In  1897  was  published  Mr.  Allan  Fea's  most 
interesting  work,  'The  Flight  of  the  King,' 
in  which  appeared  many  excellent  illustra- 

[*  The  discussion  as  to  Charles's  hiding-places 
ranged  from  6th  S.  iv.  to  xi.] 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [9th  s.  x.  AUG.  23, 1902. 

tions  and  descriptions  of  the  various  houses 
and  hiding-places  which  had  sheltered  the 
king  immediately  after  the  battle  of  Wor- 
cester, and  many  other  places  and  articles  of 
interest,  portraits,  &c.,  connected  therewith. 
In  fact,  it  may  be  said  to  be  the  complement 
or  an  up-to-date  edition  of  Mr.  Hughes 's  book. 
In  this  work  Mr.  Fea  refers  to  my  Dorset 
pamphlet.  To  me  the  Dorset  portion  of  his 
work  was  particularly  interesting,  in  that  it 
showed  one  of  the  houses  which  I  had  been 
unable  to  locate— that "  lonely  house,  situated 
about  a  mile  and  a  half  from  Oharmouth, 
among  the  hills  to  the  north,"  at  which  Capt. 
Ellesdon  (the  author  of  the  '  Letter  to  Lord 
Clarendon '  which  appears  in  the  thirteenth 
book  of  the  '  History  of  the  Rebellion ')  met 
the  fugitive  king  on  his  way  down  from 
Trent  into  Charmouth  —  "an  old  thatched 
building  known  to  this  day  as  Elsdon's  Farm," 
at  Monkton  Wyld,  an  ecclesiastical  parish 
carved  out  of  Whitechurch  Canonicorum.* 

General  public  interest  having  —  by  Mr. 
Fea's  volume  and  by  another  kindred  work,  by 
Dr.  Osmund  Airy,  which  I  have  not  yet  had 
an  opportunity  of  seeing — been  aroused  in 
what  the  then  Bishop  of  Llandaff  (in  a  letter 
to  Mr.  Hughes  in  1827)  termed  "  by  far  the 
most  romantic  piece  of  English  history  we 
possess,"  it  was  only  to  be  expected  that  local 
interest  in  the  subject  would  be  quickened. 

And  so  about  a  year  ago  (May,  1901) 
appeared  in  the  Dorset  County  Chronicle  an 
interesting  letter  from  a  correspondent  sign- 
ing himself  "  Lee  Lane "  (the  pseudonym 
being  taken  from  the  name  of  a  lane  about 
half  a  mile  from  Bridport,  on  the  Dorchester 
road,  down  which  the  king  is  alleged  to  have 
turned  on  his  way  to  Broad  Windsor  on 
23  September,  1651),  calling  attention  to  the 
fact  that  within  a  few  months  would  occur 
the  250th  anniversary  of  King  Charles's  visit 
to  the  county,  and  advocating  the  erection  of 
a  memorial  at  the  corner  of  the  above  lane 
to  mark  the  occasion,  a  monumental  design 
for  which  was  sketched  in  detail.  The  pro- 

*  How  narrowly  Mr.  Fea's  book  escaped  having 
any  illustration  or  detailed  description  of  this 
"  lonely  house,"  and  what  happy  accident  it  was 
that  put  its  author  on  the  right  track  to  discover  it 
on  the  eve  of  the  publication  of  his  book,  is  plea- 
santly told  by  Mr.  Fea  in  a  letter  to  the  Dorset 
County  Chronicle  in  July  of  last  year.  He  says : 
"Mr.  Udal  told  me  of  his  disappointment  in  not 
being  able  to  locate  this  solitary  house  amongst  the 
hills.  This  acted  as  a  stimulant,  and  I  explored 
those  beautiful  hills  minutely  over  and  over  again, 
with  maps,  compass,  and  ancient  records,  but  to 
no  purpose."  Alas  for  the  influence  of  the  tropics 
on  one's  memory  !  I  have  quite  forgotten  this  inci- 
dent, and,  still  worse,  the  fact  of  my  ever  having 
met  Mr.  Fea. 

posal  for  a  memorial  I  myself  supported  from 
the  distant  West  Indies,  and  at  the  same 
time  suggested  that,  in  addition  to  any  monu- 
ment at  Lee  Lane,  commemorative  tablets 
might  be  affixed  by  the  Dorset  Field  Club,  as 
the  premier  antiquarian  society  in  the  county, 
to  those  four  houses  in  Dorset  which  had 
been  indicated  in  my  paper  and  in  Mr.  Fea's 
book  as  having  actually  sheltered  the  king. 

For  some  reason  or  other,  whilst  certain 
subscriptions  were  promised,  neither  of  these 
suggestions  was  taken  up  by  the  Dorset 
Field  Club  or  by  any  other  local  responsible 
body ;  and  eventually  '*  Lee  Lane,"*  who  had 
offered  a  generous  donation  in  support  of  his 
proposal,  signified  his  intention  of  himself 
erecting,  anonymously  and  at  his  own 
expense,  the  proposed  memorial  at  the  corner 
of  Lee  Lane,  though  in  a  somewhat  less 
elaborate  form  than  he  had  at  first  suggested. 

On  23  September  last,  then,  the  250th  an- 
niversary of  the  king's  escape,  the  memorial 
was  unveiled.  Its  design  had  been  well 
carried  out  by  Mr.  Milverton,  marble  mason 
of  Bridport,  and  consisted  of  a  large  plinth  of 
Portland  stone  supporting  a  very  tine  slab 
of  Bothenhampton  stone,  rising  to  the 
height  of  10ft.  from  the  ground.  It  stood, 
covered  with  the  Union  Jack,  under  a 
weather-beaten  old  oak  tree  at  the  head  of 
the  lane,  bearing  the  following  inscription  : — 

King  Charles  II, 

Escaped  Capture  through  this  Lane 
September  xxiii.,  MDCLI. 

When  midst  your  fiercest  foes  on  every  side, 

For  your  escape  God  did  a  Lane  provide. 

(Thomas  Fuller's  '  Worthies.') 
Erected  September  xxiii.,  MDCCCCI. 

It  was  unveiled  by  Mr.  James  Penderel-Brod- 
hurst,  the  well-known  writer  and  journalist, 
and  a  descendant  of  the  Penderels  of 
Boscobel,  in  the  presence  of  a  fairly  represen- 
tative company.  Mr.  Broadley  was  present 
and  took  a  leading  part  in  the  ceremony, 
whilst  Miss  Lane  Brown,  a  descendant  of  the 
Lanes  of  Bentley,  co.  Stafford,  placed  a  crown 
of  oak-leaves  upon  the  monument. 

At  the  conclusion  Mr.  Lomas,  one  of  the 
Magdalen  College,  Oxford,  glee  singers,  sang 
Sir  Walter  Scott's  ballad  '  Here 's  a  health  to 
King  Charles.'  Thus  was  brought  to  a  happy 
issue  an  interesting  historic  ceremony,  of 

'  It  subsequently  transpired  that  "Lee  Lane'' 
was  the  pseudonym  of  Mr.  A.  M.  Broadley,  who 
will  be  remembered  as  having  some  years  ago  been 
the  leading  counsel  for  the  notorious  Arabi  the 
Egyptian,  and  as  the  author  of  '  Tunis '  and  other 
works,  and  who  had  some  time  previously  taken 
up  his  residence  in  the  neighbouring  parish  of 
Bradpole,  of  which  his  father  had  for  many  years 
jeen  vicar. 

^s.x.Auo.23,1902.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


which  a  very  good  account  appeared  in  the 
Dorset  County  Chronicle  at  the  time. 

Mr.  Broadley  then,  apparently  undeterred 
by  the  very  lukewarm  support  that  he  appears 
to  have  received  locally,  proceeded  to  turn 
his  attention  and  the  funds  of  the  somewhat 
slender  subscription  list  towards  carrying  out 
the  suggestions  I  had  previously  offered  as  to 
the  four  commemorative  tablets  to  be  erected 
at  Ellesdon  Farm,  Monkton  Wyld,  where  the 
king  stayed  a  few  hours  on  22  September, 
1651 ;  the  old  inn  at  Charmouth,  then  known 
as  the  "  Queen's  Head,"  but  now,  and  for  some 
time  past,  as  the  manse  for  the  Nonconformist 
minister  at  Charmouth,  where  the  king  stayed 
the  evening  and  night  of  the>22nd,  waiting 
in  vain  for  the  boat  which  was  to  convey  him 
to  France ;  the  old  house  in  Bridport,  then 
called  the  "  George  Inn,"  now  a  chemist's 
shop,  where  the  royal  party  had  their  midday 
meal  on  the  23rd,  and  so  narrowly  escaped 
detection  by  the  local  ostler  ;  and  the  old 
inn  at  Broad  Windsor,  then  known  also  as  the 
"George,"  where  the  king  spent  that  night, 
the  one  immediately  preceding  his  return  to 
Kent,  having  successfully  evaded  his  pursuers 
at  Bridport  by  turning  down  Lee  Lane.  All 
but  the  one  at  Bridport  are  now  happily 

The  tablets,  which  were  of  marble  in  a 
frame  of  Ham  Hill  stone,  the  inscription  being 
in  imperishable  letters,  were  also  the  work 
of  Mr.  Milverton's  hands.  Those  at  Char- 
mouth  and  Monkton  Wyld  were  the  firsl 
to  be  erected,  and,  being  only  a  mile  or 
so  distant  from  each  other  .were  unveiled  on 
the  same  day,  Easter  Monday  last.  For  the 
account  of  the  ceremony  I  may  be  allowed  to 

refer  to  one  of  the  local  papers — the  Bridpor 
News.    It  states  :— 

"Those  who  were  present  at  the  unveiling  of  th< 
King  Charles  II.  tablets  at  Charmouth  and  Ellesdoi 
Farm  on  Easter  Monday  had  a  most  interesting  anc 
a  very  delightful  day.  It  was  an  ideal  spring  day 
and  nature  was  budding  out  in  all  her  vernal  fresh 
ness.  To  [sic]  those  who  have  made  themselve 
acquainted  with  the  incidents  associated  with  thi 
flight  of  the  king  through  Dorset,  the  drive  alon, 
the  road  from  Bridport  to  Charmouth  and  Ellesdon 
Farm  on  that  quiet  sunny  morning  could  hardly 
.have  failed  to  contrast  [sic]  that  happy  condition  o 
things  with  the  state  of  anxiety  which  must  hav 
possessed  Charles  when  he  and  his  companions  rod 
nastily  on  the  same  road  to  Bridport  on  th 
23rd  Sept.,  1651,  with  those  hunting  for  his  blooi 
before  and  behind  him.  The  royal  fugitive  coul 
hardly  have  time  or  taste  under  the  circumstance 
to  admire  the  charming  scenery  through  whic 
this  old  coach  road  passes.  The  pretty  villages  o 
Chideock  and  Charmouth  seem  to  have  the  famon 
'  heights  of  Dorset '  standing  sentinel  over  ther 
and  guarding  them  from  harm,  and  one  would  hay 
to  travel  a  long  way  to  find  a  more  delightful  pic 

ure  than  presented  by  these  villages  as  seen  from 
ic  hills  descending  into  them.      The  RevT  F.  J. 
dorrish  very  kindly  allowed  visitors  to  pass  through 
be  old  manse  which  he  now  occupies,  and  contem- 
late  the  room  which  Charles  II.  spent  the  night 
i,  waiting  for  Limbry  and  his  boat  which  never 
ame.     From   the  window  of  this  room   an  unob- 
tructed  view  of  the  beach  may  be  obtained.     It 
s  a  pity  that  the  royal  arms  which  were  erected 
n  the  room  have  been  covered   over  by  builders 
nd  paper-hangers.     It  is  at  the  manse  where  the 
irst  tablet  was  gracefully  unveiled  by  Mrs.  Simms, 
he  revered  mother  of  the  rector  (Rev.  Spencer 
Simms).    The  drive  from  Charmouth  to  Ellesdon 
Tarm  opens  out  vistas  of  a  charming  country.     The 
Vale  or  Marshwood  sweeps  along  far  below  the 
oadway  on  the  right,  and  here  and  there  some  of 
he  'jstately  homes  of  England  '  may  be  seen  looking 
iut   from    their   wooded    surroundings    upon    the 
Channel,  glittering  on  the  left,  and    the  smiling 
/alleys.     Ellesdon    Farm,  occupied  by  Mrs.   Lar- 
jombe,  is  a  delightful  old  house,  an  ideal  haven  of 
•est,  secluded  from  th.e  public  gaze  in  a  little  nook 
within  a  stone's  throw  01  the  highway.    It  was  here 
the  hunted  king,  barely  of  age,  rested  on  the  after- 
noon of  the  22nd  Sept.",  and  the  tablet  over  the 
entrance,  unveiled  by  Miss  Simms,  will  perpetuate 
the  fact  to  future  generations,  for  the  old  house,  • 
with  its  granite  cobble  floors,  is  of  such  a  substantial 
character  that  it  will  stand  the  ravages  of  time  for 
a  considerable  period  of  time.     The  day  was,  in- 
deed, a  memorable  and  an  enjoyable  one  to  those 
who  took  part  in  the  proceedings,  but,  as  Mr.  Broad- 
ley  suggested  in  his  speech,  these  commemorations 
will  not  be  complete  until  a  fourth  tablet  is  erected 
at  the  house  now  occupies  by  Mr.  James  Beach  at 
Bridport,  where  the  king  rested,  the  premises  being 
an  hostelry  at  that  time.  ' 

Mr.  Broadley,  who  again  took  a  leading 
part  in  the  proceedings,  in  an  interesting 
address  explained  to  those  present  the 
occasion  for  the  ceremony,  and  shortly 
reviewed  the  circumstances  of  the  king's  stay 
at  these  two  places,  after  which  he  sub- 
mitted for  their  inspection  a  very  interesting 
and  valuable  collection  of  contemporary  pro- 
clamations and  broadsides,  letters,  portraits, 
medals,  and  medallions,  which  he  had  recently 
brought  together. 

On  the  following  Friday  (4  April)  the  third 
memorial  tablet,  at  Broad  windsor,  was  un- 
veiled by  Mr.  Perkins,  the  Mayor  of  Taunton. 
The  same  paper  from  which  I  have  just  quoted 
gives  the  following  account  of  the  proceed- 
ings :— 

"The  third  of  the  tablets  erected  in  the  district 
to  commemorate  the  places  of  refuge  of  Charles  II. 
during  his  wanderings  in  West  Dorset  when  pursued 
by  the  Roundheads  after  the  battle  of  Worcester 
was  unveiled  by  the  Mayor  of  Taunton  (Mr. 
Perkins)  on  Friday.  Like  the  others  at  the  Manse, 
Charmouth,  and  at  Ellesdon  Farm,  the  tablet  is  of 
marble,  framed  with  Ham  Hill  stone,  and  inscribed 
in  imperishable  letters.  It  is  placed  in  the  front 
wall  of  the  cottage  occupied  by  Mr.  Charles 
Harrison,  to  the  left  of  the  entrance  to  the  inn 
yard,  which  was  undoubtedly  at  one  time  a  part 
of  the  old  '  George  Inn,'  where  King  Charles  stayed 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        [9<»  s.  x.  AUG.  23, 1902. 

on  the  night  of  the  23rd  September,  1651.  The 
inscription  on  the  tablet  commemorates  this  fact, 
and  Mr.  Milverton,  marble  mason,  of  Bridport,  who 
has  done  all  the  tablets,  experienced  considerable 
difficulty  in  placing  it  in  position,  owing  to  the  old 
walls  being  a  species  of  rubble,  composed  of  stones 
and  foxmould.  Again  the  day  was  fortunately  fine, 
and  a  fairly  large  gathering  of  spectators  was 
present  at  the  ceremony." 

The  proceedings  were  opened  by  the  Rev. 
G.  C.  Hutchings,  vicar  of  Broad  Windsor— a 
place  which  is  interesting  as  having  had  for 
a  prior  incumbent  the  famous  Thomas  Fuller, 
author  of  '  The  Worthies  of  England  '—after 
which  the  Mayor  of  Taunton  unveiled  the 
tablet  by  withdrawing  the  Union  Jack  which 
covered  it. 

At  the  luncheon  at  the  "George  Hotel" 
which  followed,  Mr.  Broad  ley,  in  again  stating 
the  occasion  of  the  proceedings,  referred  to 
the  local  incidents  connected  with  the  king's 
visit.  In  commenting  on  the  connexion  of 
Thomas  Fuller  with  Broad  Windsor  he  pro- 
duced, in  addition  to  a  fine  portrait  of  the 
author,  several  of  his  minor  works,  which  he 
stated  to  be  very  rare— in  particular,  a  copy 
of  his  sermon  called  '  Jacob's  Vow,'  which  he 
preached  before  King  Charles  I.  at  St.  Mary's, 
Oxford,  on  10  May,  1644,  and  of  which,  it 
was  asserted,  no  copy  was  known  in  the 
British  Museum  or  the  Bodleian  Library,  nor 
was  it  known  to  Mr.  Pickering,  who  com- 
piled the  bibliography  in  Russell's  'Life  of 
Thomas  Fuller.'  At  a  subsequent  adjourn- 
ment to  the  vicarage  Mr.  Broadley's  fine 
collection  of  broadsides,  portraits,  medals, 
<fec.,  was  submitted  for  inspection. 

I  may  add  that  Mr.  Broadley  in  the  course 
of  his  remarks  was,  as  on  former  occasions, 
most  courteous  in  his  references  to  myself, 
"  to  whom,"  he  stated,  "  the  credit  of  having 
first  called  public  attention  to  the  deep 
interest  which  belongs  to  the  Dorset  portion 
of  the  flight  of  the  king  must  always  be 
attributed."  And  this  recognition  was  ren- 
dered still  more  graceful  by  his  having  sent 
me,  on  the  250th  anniversary  of  "  Worcester 
Fight,"  one  of  two  facsimiles — which,  with 
the  consent  of  the  authorities  of  the  Bod- 
leian Library,  he  had  had  reproduced  at 
his  own  expense— of  the  famous  letter  of 
Capt.  William  Ellesdon  to  the  Earl  of 
Clarendon,  already  alluded  to.  This  letter, 
of  fourteen  pages,  in  exceptionally  good  and 
clear  handwriting  for  the  time,  is  exceed- 
ingly well  reproduced  by  the  photographers 
of  the  Clarendon  Press. 

There  only  now  remains  the  final  tablet  to 
be  erected  in  Bridport  at  the  premises  of  Mr. 
Beach,  chemist,  which  premises  occupy  the 
site,  and, indeed,  form  part  of  the  old  "George 

Inn,"  where  Charles's  ready  wit  alone  saved 
the  whole  party  from  the  most  imminent 
risk  of  discovery.  May  I  express  a  hope 
that  it  will  not  be  long  before  this  memorial 
is  also  erected,  and  that  the  good  work 
already  done  by  the  loyal  county  of  Dorset 
in  commemoration  of  the  share  which  it 
had  in  the  preservation  of  the  fugitive  king 
may  be  followed  by  many  other  parts  of  the 
country  ? 

I  cannot  imagine  a  better  way  of  spending 
one  of  those  excellent  "field-days"  which 
so  many  of  our  county  natural  history 
and  antiquarian  societies  set  apart  every 
summer  for  the  pleasure  and  instruction  of 
their  members  and  their  friends,  than  by 
making  them  the  occasion  of  such  cele- 
brations. Our  great  metropolis,  through 
the  Society  of  Arts,  has  for  many  years 
past  placed  such  fitting  memorials  on  those 
buildings  which  have  sheltered  its  illustrious 
dead.  In  this  Coronation  year  surely  the 
country  districts  should  not  be  backward  in 
doing  their  share. 

The  only  matter  for  regret  that  I  have  in 
the  work  already  carried  out  in  West  Dorset 
is  that  it  should  practically  have  been  the 
work  of  one  man.  The  great  thing  to  be 
desired  in  these  matters  is  accuracy,  both 
historical  and  topographical,  and  this  cannot 
always  be  relied  upon  when  the  work  is 
initiated  and  carried  out  by  a  single  man, 
however  able  and  willing  he  may  be.  At  all 
events,  the  imprimatur  of  a  public  body  or  a 
learned  society  is  much  to  be  desired  in  such 
matters,  and  I  am  personally  very  sorry  that 
such  a  competent  body  as  the  Dorset  Field 
Club,  which  numbers  amongst  its  executive 
many  men  of  scientific  and  archaeological 
attainments,*  should  not  have  come  forward, 
as  invited,  and  have  taken  up  the  burden  of 
and  responsibility  for  that  which  has  been 
done  by  private  hands.  Other  promoters 
may  not  be  so  fortunate  in  having  the  way 
so  carefully  prepared  for  them  as  it  has 
been  in  the  case  of  Dorset. 

J.  S.  UDAL,  F.S.A. 

Antigua,  W.I. 

*  On  King  Charles's  Day  (29  May)  the  news  has 
come  to  me  of  the  death  of  the  president  of  this 
society,  Mr.  J.  C.  Mansel-Pleydell,  the  well  known 
naturalist  and  geologist,  and  author  of  many 
works  upon  Dorset  flora  and  fauna,  in  his  eighty- 
fourth  year— an  old  and  much  revered  friend  of 
mine — who  had  been  its  president  ever  since  the 
institution  of  the  society,  now  nearly  thirty 
years  ago.  To  him,  and  to  General  Pitt-Rivers, 
who  did  not  long  predecease  his  old  friend  and 
fellow-worker,  must  mainly  be  attributed  the  high 
position  to  which  of  late  years  the  county  of  Dorset 
has  attained  in  archseological  research. 

g»s.x.AuG.23,MQ2.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 



THE  Earldom  of  Seaforth  dates  from  the 
year  1623,  when  Colin  Mackenzie,  who  built 
the  Castle  of  Brahan  in  the  county  of  Ross, 
first  bore  that  title.  The  fifth  earl,  however, 
was  attainted  for  his  share  in  the  "  events  "  of 
1716,  and  so  lost  all  his  honours  and  titles ; 
but  his  grandson,  Kenneth  Mackenzie,  was 
created  in  1761  Baron  Ardeloe  and  Viscount 
Fortrose,  and  in  1771  was  advanced  to  the 
title  of  Earl  of  Seaforth.  He  it  was  who  raised 
the  regiment  called  after  him  the  Seaforth 
Highlanders.  As  Viscount  Fortrose  he 
married,  in  1765,  Caroline,  eldest  daughter  of 
the  first  Earl  of  Harrington  ;  but  this  lady 
died  without  male  issue  in  1767,  and  was 
buried  at  Kensington. 

So  far  we  have  the  peerages  and  other 
authorities  as  sources  of  information,  but  it 
is  generally  considered  that  there  was  a 
second  marriage,  of  which  they  take  no  official 
cognizance,  and  in  the  '  Annual  Register '  for 
1779  there  is  an  obituary  notice  as  follows  : — 
"December,  1779,  The  Right  Honourable 
Lady  Seaforth,"  upon  which  laconic  entry  one 
peerage  queries,  in  a  note,  whether  this  lady 
may  not  have  been  a  second  wife  of  the  Earl 
of  Seaforth,  on  whose  death  the  title  became 
extinct.  The  probability  that  this  was  the 
case  is  considerably  strengthened  by  a 
passage  in  the  earl's  will  to  which  none  of 
the  aforesaid  authorities  seem  to  refer.  This 
will  was  executed  at  Guernsey  on  19 
April,  1779,  and  proved  on  4  May,  1785,  and 
from  it  we  find  that  the  earl  left  the  personal 
property  of  which  he  had  the  power  of  dis- 
posing to  "  Harriett,  Countess  of  Seaforth, 
my  wife."  The  reference  to  the  Somerset 
House  Register  for  this  will  is  "  Seaforth 
274,  1785."*  The  maiden  name  of  the  lady 
thus  mentioned  was  Harriett  Powell,  who 
was  a  celebrated  singer  and  actress  of  her 
day,  and  whose  portrait  was  painted  by 
three  of  the  chief  portrait  painters  of  the 
period,  mezzotints  of  which  portraits  are  in 
the  Print  Room  of  the  British  Museum,  where 
they  are  recognized  as  those  of  Harriett, 
afterwards  Countess  of  Seaforth.  No  infor. 

*  This  will,  as  mentioned  in  the  text,  was 
executed  at  Guernsey,  and  the  reason  of  this  seems 
to  have  been  that  after  the  Seaforth  Highlanders, 
commanded  by  the  Earl  of  Seaforth,  had  been 
ordered  to  proceed  to  the  East  Indies,  events 
occurred  which  caused  these  orders  to  be  postponed, 
and  the  troops  were  sent  for  a  time -to  Guernsey. 
They  afterwards  returned  to  Portsmouth,  but  it 
was  not  until  1  May,  1781,  that  they  embarked  for 
the  East.  After  a  most  tedious  voyage,  Lord  Sea- 
forth died  suddenly,  before  the  vessels  arrived  at 
St.  Helena,  and  he  was  probably  buried  at  sea.  " 

mation  seems  to  be  available  just  at  present 
as  to  where  the  original  portraits  now  are, 
but  the  dates  of  the  mezzotints  are  as 
follows  :  that  after  Catherine  Read  was  pub- 
lished in  1769,  that  after  Sir  Joshua  Rey- 
nolds in  1771,  and  that  after  William  Peters 
in  1776. 

Of  late  years,  however,  another  portrait  of 
this  lady  has  come  under  my  notice,  which, 
so  far  as  can  be  discovered,  has  not  hitherto 
been  described  or  engraved.  There  does  not 
appear  to  be  any  record  as  to  how  this  portrait 
came  into  the  possession  of  the  present  owner, 
but  it  is  curious  that  there  should  be  another 
painting  in  the  same  family,  which  is  known 
to  have  been  executed  seventy-five  or  eighty 
years  ago,  in  which  this  identical  portrait  of 
Harriett  Powell  is  depicted  as  hanging  on  the 
wall  of  the  room  in  the  same  frame  as  it  is 
now  in.  This  frame  is  a  very  handsome  and 
characteristic  one,  and  dates  from  the  latter 
part  of  the  eighteenth  century,  and  on  the 
back  of  it  is  an  old  label  with  the  words, 
"Miss  Hariot  Powel  afterwards  Countess  of 
Seaforth  "  (or  Seaford),  written  upon  it  in  a 
somewhat  illiterate  hand. 

As  to  the  portrait  itself,  the  pose  of  the 
sitter  is  effective  and  artistic ;  she  is  repre- 
sented as  looking  towards  the  left,  the  head 
and  bust  only  being*depicted,  the  latter  of 
which  is  partially  draped  in  a  sort  of  blue 
fichu.  The  colour  of  the  hair  is  a  dark  brown, 
and  the  features  quite  bear  out  the  apprecia- 
tive verdict  of  her  .con temporaries  as  tnose  of 
a  sensible  and  very  attractive-looking  young 
woman.  The  face  is  well  built  up,  the 
treatment  of  the  flesh  tints  is  delicate  and 
clear,  the  eyes  are  large  and  lustrous,  the 
colour  of  the  cheeks  being  heightened  after 
the  attractive  custom  of  the  period.  The  size 
of  the  canvas,  it  should  be  mentioned,  is 
twenty  by  twenty-three  inches. 

The  next  point  to  be  considered  is  to  whom 
this  portrait  is  to  be  attributed,  and  I 
cannot  do  better  than  offer  the  opinion  of  a 
well-known  expert  who  has  examined  it,  and 
who  pronounces  it  to  be  a  partially  finished 
painting,  hitherto  undescribed,  by  the  same 
Catherine  Read  who  painted  the  other  por- 
trait to  which  I  have  already  referred.  He 
looks  upon  it  as  a  very  good  specimen  of  that 
artist's  style  and  quality,  and  of  considerable 
artistic  merit  as  a  painting. 

Whatever  opinion  may  be  entertained  as  to 
the  second  marriage  of  the  Earl  of  Seaforth 
does  not  affect,  we  may  venture  to  believe, 
the  identity  of  this  portrait,  which  must  be 
admitted,  I  think,  to  be  that  of  the  lady 
whose  name  it  bears,  whether  or  no  she  was 
entitled  to  the  rank  and  title  of  "  Harriett, 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        [9*  s.  x.  A™.  23, 1002. 

Countess  of  Seaforth,  my  wife  "—though  the 
evidence  is  probably  in  favour  of  that  desig- 
nation being  the  proper  one. 

W.  H.  W.  P. 

EUSSIAN      AND      ITS     RELATION      TO     OTHER 

SLAVONIC  LANGUAGES.  —  The  Slavonic  lan- 
guages possessing  a  remote  common  basis,  it 
follows  that  there  is  a  certain  degree  of 
affinity  between  them,  and  that  a  student 
of  one  often  recognizes  a  familiar  word  or 
phrase  in  another.  Thus  a  Russian  scholar 
strolling  through  Prague  or  Warsaw  will 
understand  shop  signs  and  street  directions, 
if  he  knows  the  compounds  of  Latin  letters 
in  which  Czech*  and  Polish  are  written,  and 
he  may  occasionally  catch  the  drift  of  a  con- 
versation. The  Czechs  told  me  that  they 
could  understand  Russians,  but  that  Russians 
did  not  understand  them ;  and  during  a 
Russian  conversation  which  I  carried  on 
with  some  Russian-speaking  Czechs  a  Czech 
friend  who  stood  by  declared,  to  my  surprise, 
that  he  could  understand  me,  though  not 
his  fellow-countrymen.  Proficiency  in  one 
Slavonic  language  does  not  of  itself  lead 
to  a  mastery  of  the  others,  as  they  differ  as 
much  as  German  from  Dutch  and  Danish, 
and  Italian  from  Portuguese  and  Roumanian. 
(Passim,  a  Swedish  gentleman  who  married 
a  Dane  and  lived  in  Norway  told  me  that  at 
home  he  and  his  wife  spoke  their  respective 
languages  and  the  children  spoke  Norwegian, 
all  being  mutually  intelligible.  To  what 
extent  this  is  possible  I  am  not  prepared 
to  say.) 

When  in  Vienna  I  spent  a  pleasant  evening 
with  Prof.  E.  V.  Jagic,  of  the  University, 
editor  of  the  Archiv  fiiT  slavische.  Philologte, 
whose  knowledge  of  these  languages  rivals 
that  of  the  celebrated  Prof.  Miklosic.  His 
experience  is  that  Russian  students  often 
assume  that  they  know  all  about  other 
Slavonic  languages  without  the  necessity  of 
study.  Such  assumption  is,  of  course,  a 
patent  fallacy,  and  the  best  practical  proof 
is  the  learned  work  in  Russian,  edited  by 
Prof.  Jagic,  on  'A.  S.  Pushkin  in  South 
Slavonic  Literatures '  (St.  Petersburg,  Im- 
perial Academy  of  Sciences  Printing  Office, 
1901).  It  appears,  however,  that  education  in 
these  South  Slavonic  countries  owes  some- 
thing to  Russian  influence.  Aprilov,  one  of 
the  founders  of  modern  Bulgarian  schools, 
had  a  Russian  training,  and  the  school  in- 
struction-books were  translated  from  Russian. 

*  Why  do  we  in  England  use  the  unintelligible 
Polish  form  of  the  word  Cech  (pronounced  Chekh), 
French  Tcheque  ? 

(I  know  of  two  Russian  journalists  whose 
names  suggest  a  Balkanic  origin.)  Some 
teachers  wished  to  direct  the  youthful  Bul- 
garian mind  to  Greek  for  inspiration,  but 
others  found  a  community  of  religious  ideas 
between  themselves  and  theRussians.  Russian 
poetry  has  also  had  its  influence  on  the  Bul- 
garian national  poet  Vasov.  During  the 
Napoleonic  wars  the  Slovenes,  the  most 
western  of  the  Southern  Slavs,  became  ac- 
quainted with  the  Russians,  and  recognized 
a  Slav  language,  and  their  writers  acquired 
a  knowledge  of  general  European  literature 
by  means  of  Russian  translations,  these  being 
multiplied  with  the  spread  of  newspapers. 
On  p.  370  of  Prof.  Jagic's  work  the  Slovene 
poet  Vodnik  is  quoted  : — 

"  Whoever  desires  to  understand  the  meaning  of 
various  Krainski  names  must  know  the  Moxko- 
i'itar*ki  language.  The  Krainski  more  nearly  ap- 
proaches Moskovitarski  than  the  other  Slavonic 
languages.  The  Moskovitari  have  preserved  many 
words  which  have  been  forgotten  by  us  and  have 
gone  out  of  use."* 

For  critical  analyses  of  these  South 
Slavonic  translations  of  Pushkin's  master- 
pieces, 'Ruslan  and  Ludmila,"  'Boris  Godu- 
nov,'  'Eugene  Oniegin,1  <fec.,  and  the  ex- 
posure of  verbal  misunderstandings  into 
which  translators  have  fallen,  reference  must 
be  made  to  Prof.  Jagic's  book. 


Brixton  Hill. 

CLOPEDIA BRITANNICA.'  —  Nothing  can  be 
more  gratifying  to  a  Jew  saturated  in 
English  ideals  than  the  marvellous  growth 
and  expansion  of  the  scientific  pursuits 
which  characterize  the  brilliant  band  of 
Hebrew  litterateurs  on  the  '  Supplement.' 
So  far  as  I  know  there  were  only  four 
Jewish  writers  in  the  ninth  edition,  one 
of  whom  alone,  Sir  Philip  Magnus,  will  dis- 
cuss the  subject '  Technical  Education  '  anew, 
of  which  he  was  in  all  probability  the 
pioneer  in  this  country.  Prof.  Raphael  Mel- 
dola,  F.R.S.,  also  signalized  his  connexion 
with  that  edition  in  a  contribution  foreign 
to  Jewish  questions.  To-day  there  are  at 
least  thirteen  distinguished  contributors  of 
Jewish  extraction,  one  of  whom,  Mr.  Lucien 
Wolf,  has  put  together  an  able  summary  of 
'Anti-Semitism.'  Special  distinction  has  been 
conferred  upon  Mr.  M.  H.  Spielmann,  who  has 
charge  of  the  department  of  art,  to  which 
Dr.  Charles  Waldstein  will  add  some  nota- 

*  The  names  Krainski  and  Moskovitarski  for 
Slovene  and  Russian  are  unfamiliar.  The  extract 
is  given  in  Russian. 

s.  x.  AUG.  23, 1902.]       NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


bilia  in  archaeology,  &c.  Mr.  Edwin  O.  Sachs, 
the  authority  on  fire  prevention,  will  write 
on  this  and  cognate  topics.  Major  F.L.Nathan 
and  his  brother  Major  Matthew  Nathan  will 
discourse  on  military  matters.  Sir  Samuel 
Montagu  will  take  charge  of  currency  and 
bi-metallism ;  David  Schloss  will  furnish 
some  interesting  data  on  labour  questions ; 
Edward  Bernstein  is  engaged  on  Socialism  ; 
Mr.  G.  C.  Levey,  who  has  had  a  unique 
experience  in  the  management  of  exhibitions, 
will  show  the  wonders  of  our  Australian 
colonies  ;  Leopold  Hoffer  takes  chess ;  and 
Sidney  Lee  deals  with  Shakespeare. 

M.  L.  R.  BRESLAK. 
Percy  House,  South  Hackney. 

well-known  fact  that  the  Arab  dislikes  having 
his  portrait  painted,  from  the  belief  that  the 
person  who  thus  delineates  him  can  exercise 
upon  him  his  will.  I  find  an  interesting 
superstition  corresponding  to  this  mentioned 
as  existing  among  the  Irish  peasantry.  The 
incident  is  related  in  the  '  Reminiscences  of 
Frederick  Goodall,  R.A.,'  just  published. 
Mr.  Goodall  states  that  once,  when  sketching 
in  Galway,  he  had  a  conversation  with  a 
priest  on  the  subject.  The  immediate  cause 
of  the  colloquy  was  a  drawing  by  Mr. 
Goodall  of  a  village  girl.  The  reference  by 
the  artist  is  as  follows  : — 

"  The  kindly  priest  said,  '  That  girl  has  asked  me 
whether  it  was  a  good  trade  you  followed,  and  my 
answer  was,  "  If  you  work  all  your  life,  you  could 
not  do  what  he  is  doing.  It  is  a  gift  from  God."' 
This  completely  cured  them  of  the  ridiculous  fear 
they  had  cherished,  that  when  they  were  actually 
being  sketched,  their  names  were  being  put  down 
in  a  book  for  enlistment." 

W.  B. 

[The  idea  that  the  painter  of  a  portrait  has 
power  over  the  person  painted  is  widespread  among 
savages,  but  the  Irish  incident  related  above  is 
hardly  akin.] 

CROOKED  USAGE,  CHELSEA.— This  curious 
survival  has  on  a  former  occasion  attracted 
notice  in  c  N.  &  Q.'  Inquiry  was  made 
regarding  the  origin  of  this  and  other  London 
names  several  years  ago  (6th  S.  ix.  148),  and  a 
valued  correspondent,  H.  S.  G.  (the  late  Mr. 
H.  Sydney  Grazebrook),  replied  by  saying 
that  the  term  "usage"  was  equivalent  to 
user,  or  right  of  way.  At  that  time,  according 
to  H.  S.  G.,  the  passage  was  straight  from 
Lower  Stewart's  Grove  to  Britten  Road,  after 
which  it  made  an  elbow  and  ran  diagonally 
along  the  north-west  side  of  Chelsea  Work- 
house into  Arthur  Street,  King's  Road.  This 
description  will  apply  to  the  passage  at  the 
present  day,  if  we  remember  that  the 

thoroughfares  formerly  known  as  Stewart's 
Grove  and  Bond  Street -have  within  pecent 
years  been  renamed  Cale  Street.  The  land 
on  which  the  workhouse  was  built  consisted 
of  three-quarters  of  an  acre,  "  situate  opposite 
the  little  houses  near  the  Conduit  in  the 
King's  Road."*  The  site  of  the  Conduit  is 
uncertain,  but  it  is  probably  indicated  by 
Conduit  Court,  near  the  present  Oakley 
Street,  which  is  marked  on  Gary's  '  Map  of 
London,'  1819. 

The  Academy  for  12  July,  in  noticing 
Mr.  Mitton's  'Chelsea,'  recently  published 
the  series  called  "The  Fascination  of 
London,"  says  :— 

"  The  Chelsea  street-name  which  has  the  most 
picturesque  significance  and  the  greatest  value  for 
a  literary  mind  has  escaped  Mr.  Mitton's  notice. 
We  refer  to  Crooked  Usage,  a  narrow  lane  that 
skirts  the  Infirmary  in  Cale  Street.  Crooked  Usage 
takes  us  back  at  one  bound  to  days  when  the  plough 
and  spade  were  in  possession  of  Chelsea.  The 
straight  strips  of  ground  between  the  various 
holdings  of  land  were  known  as  usages,  and  to  the 
circumstance  that  one  of  these  cartways  or  usages 
was  crooked  we  pwe  the  name  which  so  curiously 
reminds  us  how  London  came  from  nature." 

It  will  be  seen  that  this  explanation  differs 
somewhat  from  that  given  by  H.  S.  G.,  and 
it  would  be  interesting  to  have  corroborative 
evidence  on  either  side. 

**     W.  F.  PRIDEAUX. 

WE  must  request  correspondents  desiring  infor- 
mation on  family  matters  of  only  private  interest 
to  affix  their  names  and  addresses  to  their  queries, 
in  order  that  the  answers  may  be  addressed  to  them 

SIR  CHARLES  ALDIS,  KNT.— In  Walford's 
'County  Families'  (1864)  it  is  stated  that 
Sir  Charles  was  created  a  knight  in  1821.  I 
can  find  no  mention  of  such  creation  in  any 
other  work  to  which  I  have  access  ;  but  I  have 
a  private  note  to  the  effect  that  he  was 
created  an  Irish  Knight  Bachelor.  Townsend, 
in  his  'Calendar  of  Knights' (1828),  gives  a 
list  of  such  Irish  knights,  which  list  he 
received,  from  Sir  William  Betham,  Ulster, 
and  James  Rock,  Dublin  Herald,  but  the 
name  of  Aldis  does  not  appear  therein.  Did 
Sir  Charles  neglect  to  pay  his  fees,  and  thus 
escape  notification  in  the  Gazette ;  or  was  he 
the  other  of  those  two  persons — one  of  whom 
was  dead  in  1828  —  who  surreptitiously 
obtained  the  honour  from  his  Majesty,  and 
who  were  alluded  to  in  a  royal  order  dated 

*  Vestry  Minutes,  quoted  by  Faulkner,  '  History 
of  Chelsea,3 1829,  ii.  25. 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.       [9*  s.  x.  AUG.  23, 1902. 

4  May,  1821,  mentioned  by  Townsend  in  his 
preface  (pp.  vi-vii)  ?    GEORGE  C.  PEACHEY. 

With  reference  to  the  reply  about  the  Wind- 
sor uniform  (9th  S.  ix.  292),  I  should  like  to 
know  what  is  meant  by  Court  dress  for 
gentlemen,  and  its  difference  from  ordinary 
evening  dress,  as  well  as  the  difference  between 
Court  dress  and  semi-Court  dress.  Is  any 
one  who  has  received  a  royal  command  to  a 
dinner  or  ball  at  Windsor  or  Buckingham 
Palace  with  the  mention  on  the  card  "  Court 
dress"  or  the  like  allowed  to  appear  in 
ordinary  evening  dress  ?  E.  A. 


[Court  dress  was  changed  in  the  mid- Victorian 
period  from  an  eighteenth-century  to  a  modern 
uniform,  different  for  "  full  dress "  and  "  Levee 
dress."  "  Full  dress  "  is  worn  for  balls  and  State 
concerts,  with  knee  breeches,  and  white  silk 
stockings  (black  for  clergy  and  lawyers) ;  also,  now, 
for  "Courts."  Royal  dinner  parties,  unless  "full 
dress"  or  "Levee  dress"  were  specified,  have 
hitherto  required  "frock  dress,"  the  nature  of 
which  was  explained  at  9th  S.  ix.  292,  and,  as  there 
stated,  it  is  rumoured  that  a  new  Buckingham 
Palace  dinner  dress  is  to  be  adopted.] 

GORDONS  OF  ROCHESTER.— Can  anybody  tell 
me  the  origin  of  this  family  1  George 
Gordon  was  Mayor  of  Rochester  in  1 740  and 
died  in  1760.  I  believe  the  family  is  still 
represented.  J.  M.  BULLOCH. 

SHETLAND  SONG. —  The  following  quota- 
tion has  come  into  my  hands  without 
a  reference.  Can  any  reader  of  '  N.  <fe  Q.' 
supply  it  ? — 

Gude  new'r  even,  gude  new'r  night, 

St.  Mary's  men  are  we  ; 
We  've  come  here  to  crave  our  right 
Before  our  Leddie. 

Versions  of  it  given  by  Gorrie  and  Chambers 
are  known  to  me  already.     N.  W.  THOMAS. 

SCOTTISH  COLLEGE.  —  I  should  be  much 
obliged  if  any  correspondent  would  inform 
me  if  there  is,  or  ever  was,  in  Rome  a  Scottish 
College,  founded  by  Pope  Clement  VIII.  (Aldo- 
brandini),  and  if  that  college  used  a  book- 
plate with  a  figure  of  St.  Andrew  in  an  oval, 
&c.,  with  the  Pope's  arms,  and  the  motto 
"  Clemen  ti  sidere  rovit." 


[Clement  founded  the  Scotch  College  in  1600.] 

CHARLES  DOYLE  was  at  Westminster  School 
in  1792,  and  is  described  in  the  list  of  Minor 
Candidates  for  that  year  as  the  son  of  William 
Doyle,  of  Dublin.  1  should  be  glad  to  obtain 
further  particulars  of  him.  G.  F.  11.  B. 

LACY  OR  DE  LACY  FAMILY.— The  castle  of 
Segewold  on  the  Aa,  in  Livland  (Russia),  was 
given  by  the  Empress  Anna,  in  the  year  1737, 
to  General  Field-Marshal  Count  Lacy,  since 
which  time  the  property  has  been  in  the  hands 
of  the  families  of  Lacy,  Browne,  and  Borch. 
The  present  owner  is  Prince  Krapotkin.  Is 
this  Lacy  one  of  the  same  family  as  the  De 
Lacies  who  were  formerly  powerful  in  Lan- 
cashire ?  If  so,  I  should  be  grateful  for  in- 
formation as  to  the  date  of  first  settlement 
in  Russia.  FRED.  G.  ACKERLEY. 

British  Vice-Consulate,  Libau,  Russia. 


I  should  be  glad  to  know  whether  a  clergy- 
man's legal  search  fees  (one  shilling  for  the 
first  year  and  sixpence  for  each  succeeding 
year)  cover  all  three  registers  —  baptisms, 
marriages,  and  burials — or  whether  he  is 
entitled  to  charge  separately  on  this  basis  for 
each  register  searched.  Most  clergymen 
assume,  I  believe,  that  the  latter  is  the  case, 
but  Mr.  Walter  Rye  (who  ought  to  know)  dis- 
tinctly states  the  contraiy.  Can  any  reader 
of  'N.  A  Q.'  settle  the  matter  authoritatively 
by  giving  a  reference  to  the  Act  of  Parliament 
by  which  these  fees  were  fixed— giving,  if 
possible,  the  words  of  the  Act  1  I  should  also 
like  to  know  whether,  if  one  sends  a  clergy- 
man his  legal  fee  for  a  search  extending  over 
a  definite  period,  one  is  entitled  to  demand 
that  the  search  be  made  and  the  results  sent, 
or  whether  the  making  of  the  search  is  simply 
an  act  of  grace  on  the  part  of  the  clergyman, 
who  may,  if  he  likes,  return  the  fee  and 
decline  to  make  the  search.  Again,  does  the 
search  fee  include  (uncertified)  copies  of 
entries  found  ;  or  can  the  clergyman  say,  " 
have  searched  the  registers  for  the  period 
asked  for,  and  have  found  three  entries," 
declining  to  give  particulars  unless  legal  fees 
for  certified  copies  are  sent1?  The  whole 
matter  is  looked  upon  in  such  different  ways 
by  different  people  that  an  authoritative 
statement  on  the  subject  would,  I  am  sure, 
be  of  great  interest  to  many  besides  myself. 
Moorside,  Far  Headingley,  Leeds. 

[See  lKt  S.  iv.,  v.,  vii.  ;  4th  S.  iii.] 

ESQUIRES.— "Barristers  rank  as  esquires." 
This  phrase  occurs  in  a  learned  article  in  the 
'Ency.  Brit.'  What  are  the  status,  dignity, 
and  property  qualification  in  law  and  in  social 
usage  to-day  1  The  matter  is  not  so  clearly 
defined  as  is  desirable.  The  nice  practice  of 
tacking  "  Esq."  to  the  names  of  one's  butcher 
or  tailor  has  not  improved  matters  in  regard 
to  fixity  or  certitude  of  definition.  What  is 
the  legal  basis  for  the  nebulous  title  1  When 

9«>s.x.AuG.23,i902.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


I  was  a  lad  my  head  master  used  to  tell  us 
that  the  possession  of  an  income  of  300£.  per 
annum  entitled  its  holder  to  the  dignity  of 
esquire  at  law.  M.  L.  R.  BRESLAR. 

[See  1st  S.  iii.  242,  &c.  Consult  also  Blackstone's 
'  Commentaries.'] 

WINE  IN  PUBLIC  CONDUITS.  —  "All  the 
streets  were  richly  adorned  with  tapestry, 
the  conduits  flowing  with  the  richest  wines" 
(Gumble's  '  Life  of  Monk  ')  on  the  return  of 
the  king.  Elsewhere  we  read  of  this  flow  of 
wine.  How  was  it  managed  1  Are  there  any 
illustrations  of  it1?  When  did  the  custom 
cease  1  R.  S. 

LAND.  —  Information  is  desired  of  date  of 
settlement  of  the  following  families  :  Loewis 
of  Menar,  Balfour  of  Balfour,  Von  Holtey. 
The  last  two  are  baronial  families  of  Kur- 
land.  Are  there  any  English  representatives 
at  the  present  day  of  the  Von  Holtey  family  ? 
Loewis  of  Menar  is  evidently  Welsh,  but 
where  or  what  is  Menar  ? 


British  Vice-Consulate,  Libau,  Russia. 

GLISSON.  —The  famous  Dr.  Francis  Glisson, 
President  of  the  Royal  College  of  Physicians 
in  the  reign  of  Charles  II.,  had,  with  five 
other  brothers,  Paul,  Israel,  and  James.  I 
should  like  to  know  what  became  of  them. 
Israel,  of  Holborn,  gentleman,  bachelor, 
cet.  forty,  1647,  had  licence  to  marry  Rose 
Cole,  spinster.  A  Mr.  Glisson,  of  Yeovil, 
executed  at  Sherborne  in  Dorset,  was  one  of 
the  victims  of  Judge  Jeffreys,  1685. 

A.  S.  ELLIS. 

who  lived  in  Milk  Street,  City,  and  gave  a 
divorce  to  the  millionaire  Jew,  David 
of  Oxford,  in  1242,  speaks  of  a  species  of 
confectionery  eaten  in  his  days,  called  "  tur- 
nures."  Is  there  any  record  extant  referring 
to  this  luxury  ?  M.  D.  DAVIS. 

DRYDEN'S  BROTHERS.—  Wanted,  any  infor- 
mation with  reference  to  James  Dryden  and 
Henry  Dryden,  brothers  of  the  poet.  Henry 
Dryden  is  said  to  have  died  in  Jamaica, 
leaving  a  son  Richard  living,  1708.  James 
Dryden,  "  widower,  aged  thirty-two,"  in  1680 
married,  secondly,  Mary  Dunch  (Bishop  of 
London's  Registry).  P.  M. 

the  account  in  the  'D.N.B.'  (xxxix.  92)  of 
Capt.  Thomas  Morris  there  is  a  small  error, 
due  to  the  fact  that  Mr.  Kirby  ('  Winchester 
Scholars,'  p.  244)  confused  this  Wykehamist 

with  a  namesake  of  Jesus  College,  Oxford, 
who  came  from  Ruthin,  co.  Denbigh,  in 
February,  1748/9,  and  took  the  degree  of 
B.A.  in  1753  (see  Dr.  Foster's  'Alumni 
Oxonienses  ')•  Capt.  Thomas  Morris  was 
never  either  a  graduate  or  an  undergraduate 
of  Oxford  University.  He  left  Winchester 
College  in  1747,  and  then,  after  spending 
some  months  in  London, 

"  he  obtained  a  pair  of  colours  by  purchase  in  what 
might  at  that  period  be  termed  the  family  regiment 
[the  17th  Foot],  at  the  age  of  sixteen,  and  he  joined 
it  in  Ireland,  on  its  return  from  Minorca,  in  the 
year  1748."—'  Public  Characters  of  1806,'  p.  326. 

I  should  be  grateful  for  information  (which 
the  'D.N.B.'  does  not  give)  as  to  the  date 
and  place  of  the  captain's  death  or  burial. 

H.  C. 

BRANSTILL  CASTLE. — Can  any  reader  tell 
me  in  what  parish  of  Herefordshire  Branstill 
Castle  was  situated  ?.  I  have  an  excellent 
engraving  (Buck,  1731)  of  this  castle.  The 
inscription  states  it  was  at  the  foot  of  the 
west  side  of  Malvern  Hills,  and  that  Thomas 
Rede,  Esq.,  was  its  then  proprietor.  Does  any 
trace  of  it  remain  1  W.  H.  QUARRELL. 

[Bartholomew's  '  Gazetteer'  gives  BransiV  Castle, 
near  Ledbury.] 

GRATTAN'S  PORTRAIT.  —  Can  you  or  any 
reader  guide  me  to*  the  best  portrait  of 
Grattan,  the  Irish  patriot?  AN  EDITOR. 

[See  Chaloner  Smith's  '  British  Mezzotinto  Por- 
traits,' ii.  556,  and  vol.  iv.,  additions  and  correc- 
tions (to  p.  632).  See  also  '  D.N.B.,'  vol.  xxii.  p.  424, 
under  '  Grattan,  Henry.'] 

"  BUT  AH  !   MAECENAS." — 
But  ah  !  Maecenas  is  yclad  in  claye 
And  great  Augustus  long  ygoe  is  dead, 
And  all  the  worthies  liggen  wrapt  in  lead 
That  matter  made  for  poets  or  to  playe. 

Who  is  the  author  of  the  above?  It  forms 
the  heading  to  chap.  xii.  of  '  Marius  the 
Epicurean,'  by  Walter  Pater.  M.  EASON. 

"AFTER  WEARISOME  TOIL."  — Who  is  the 
author  of  the  following  lines  ? — 

After  wearisome  toil  and  much  sorrow 

How  quietly  sleep  they  at  last ! 
Neither  dreading  nor  fearing  tho  morrow, 

Nor  vainly  bemoaning  the  past. 


BURIAL-PLACES  OF  PEERS.— I  shall  be  much 
obliged  if  any  reader  of  'N.  &  Q.'  will  inform 
me  where  any  of  the  under-mentioned  peers 
are  buried  : — 

Edward  Montagu,  Earl  Beaulieu,  who  is 
said  to  have  died  on  26  November,  1802,  and 
to  have  been  buried  on  2  December,  1802,  in 
the  family  vault  at  Beaulieu,  Bucks. 

George  Darner,  Earl  of  Dorchester,  who  is 


NOTES  AND  QUERIES.        [9<»  s.  x.  AUG.  23, 1902. 

said  to  have  died  on  6  March,  1808,  at  Dor- 
chester House.  Park  Lane. 

Alexander  Hood,  Viscount  Bridport,  who 
is  said  to  have  died  on  3  May,  1814,  at  Bath, 
and  to  have  been  buried  atButleigh,  Glaston- 

Henry  Stawell  Bilson  Legge,  Lord  Stawell, 
who  is  said  to  have  died  on  25  August,  1820, 
at  Grosvenor  Place. 

Alleyne  Fitzherbert,  Lord  St.  Helens,  who 
is  said  to  have  died  on  10  February,  1839,  at 
Grafton  Street,  Bond  Street. 

John  Hely  Hutchinson,  Lord  Hutchinson, 
who  is  said  to  have  died  on  29  June,  1832,  at 

Earl  Beaulieu  and  Viscount  Bridport  are 
not  buried  at  the  places  assigned. 


'THE  SOUL'S  ERRAND.'— This  quaint  old 
poem,  beginning 

Go,  soul,  the  body's  guest, 

is  generally,  I  believe,  attributed  to  Sir  Walter 
Raleigh.  But  I  find  it  in  my  copy  of  Syl- 
vester's '  Du  Bartas'  (Loud.,  1633):  it  appears 
as  the  last  of  the  '  Epigrams '  in  the  penulti- 
mate section  of  the  book,  which  bears  the 
title  '  Elegies,  Epistles,  and  Epitaphs,  written 
by  Joshua  Sylvester.'  Can  any  one  explain 
this  ?  According  to  dates  given  in  books  of 
reference  Raleigh  and  Sylvester  were  con- 
temporaries, both  dying  in  the  same  year. 


(9th  S.  ix.  369,  450 ;  x.  16,  89.) 

As  one  of  the  few  surviving  friends  of 
"Eden  Warwick,"  mentioned  at  p.  90,  the 
author  of  '  Notes  on  Noses,'  I  am  able  to  give 
your  correspondent  MR.  HAKE  the  informa- 
tion he  requires. 

The  real  name  of  "  Eden  Warwick "  was 
George  Jabet,  a  solicitor  of  Birmingham,  in 
the  literary  life  of  which  city  he  took  a 
prominent  part  until  his  death,  when  scarcely 
past  middle  age,  in  1873. 

'  Notes  on  Noses '  had  its  inception  in  a 
paper  communicated  to  a  small  literary 
society  which,  more  than  fifty  years  ago,  met 
at  Handsworth,  near  Birmingham,  and  of 
which  I  was  a  very  junior  member.  The 
paper  was  afterwards  expanded  into  a  book 
published  by  Bentley  in  1848,  under  the 
title  of  'Nasology.'  The  name  was  un- 
attractive, and  the  book  had  a  small  circula- 
tion until  Bentley  in  1859  brought  it  out  in 

a  cheaper  form,  and  under  the  more  taking 
title  of  '  Notes  on  Noses,'  when  it  became 
more  widely  read  and  appreciated.  The 
author  complained  to  me,  I  remember,  that 
Bentley  had  done  this  without  asking  his 
approval,  but  I  think  he  was  nevertheless 
pleased  at  the  increased  popularity  of  his 
little  work. 

He  was  also  the  author,  under  the  same 
assumed  name,  of  a  charming  book  that 
turns  up  frequently  in  the  booksellers'  cata- 
logues, entitled  'The  Poets'  Pleasaunce;  or, 
Garden  of  all  Sorts  of  Pleasant  Flowers 
which  our  Pleasant  Poets  have  in  Past  Time 
for  Pastime  Planted.'  This  book  was  beauti- 
fully illustrated  by  Noel  Humphreys,  and 
was  brought  out  by  Longmans  in  1847.  The 
author  has  there  collected,  under  the  heading 
of  the  different  flowers,  the  references  thereto 
by  the  English  poets,  with  whose  works, 
particularly  those  of  Spenser  and  Wordsworth, 
he  had  an  extraordinary  familiarity,  giving 
appropriate  selections  from  their  writings, 
and  each  page  having  illustrated  margins 
descriptive  of  the  flower  under  treatment. 
I  shall  be  glad  if  my  mention  of  this 
delightful  book  should  lead  to  its  being  more 
sought  after  and  read. 

Persistent  ill  health  was,  no  doubt,  the 
principal  cause  which  prevented  the  author 
from  giving  to  the  world  the  fruits  of  his 
wide  researches  in  other  departments  of 
learning.  Ethnology,  for  instance,  with  the 
distinctive  characteristics  of  races,  was  a 
favourite  study  of  his,  and  he  was  an 
accomplished  botanist,  but  beyond  some 
magazine  articles  these  two  works  alone 
exist  to  keep  his  name  in  remembrance.  He 
was  a  most  original  thinker  and  a  man  of 
the  widest  reading ;  and  retiring  compara- 
tively early  in  life  from  professional  practice, 
he  was  actively  engaged  in  promoting  all 
literary  and  educational  movements. 

He  was  the  first  secretary,  and  in  a  way  the 
founder,  of  the  Birmingham  Debating  Society, 
which,  when  united  with  the  more  local 
Edgbaston  Society,  became,  under  the  title 
of  the  Birmingham  and  Edgbaston  Debating 
Society,  the  famous  training  ground  in  which 
Mr.  Chamberlain  and  the  other  able  men  of 
my  generation,  who  have  made  Birmingham 
what  it  has  become  during  the  last  fifty  years, 
first  tried  their  strength  as  debaters. 

He  is,  too,  regarded  as  the  second  founder 
of  the  Birmingham  Old  Library,  the  most 
ancient  literary  institution  in  the  city, 
founded  by  Dr.  Priestley  more  than  a  century 
ago,  and  his  portrait  hangs  in  the  central 
room  of  the  new  handsome  building  which 
has  lately  taken  the  place  of  the  one  in  the 

9*  s.  x.  A™.  23, 1902.]        NOTES  AND  QUERIES. 


interests  of  which  he  worked  for  many  years 
with  such  zeal  and  success. 

Lastly,  he  was  a  very  dear  friend,  whose 
memory  I,  in  common  with  a  rapidly  diminish- 
ing number  of  Birmingham  men,  still  cherish 
and  respect.  C.  T.  SAUNDERS. 

Goethe  has  much  to  say  about  Lavater, 
with  whom  he  worked,  in  the  'Dichtung  und 
Wahrheit.'  The  following  remarks,  noted 
by  that  faithful  and  diligent  diarist  J.  P. 
Eckermann,  on  17  February,  1829,  are  interest- 
ing as  criticism : — 

"  Viel  iiber  den  Grosskophta  gesprochen.  '  Lava- 
ter,' sagte  Goethe,  '  glaubte  an  Uagliostro  und  dessen 
Wunder.  Als  man  ihn  als  einen  Betriiger  entlarot 
hatte,  behauptete  Lavater,  die*  sei  ein  anderer 
Cagliostro,  der  Wunderthiiter  Oagliostro  sei  eine 
heilige  Person." 

This  is  not  like  poor  disillusioned  Tom 
Pinch,  who  mournfully  concluded  "there 
never  had  been  a  Pecksniff."  When  Ecker- 
mann inquired  whether  Lavater  had  a  bent 
(Tendenz)  for  nature,  the  poet  replied  : — 

"Durchaus  nicht,  seine  Richtung  ging  bloss  auf 
das  Sittliche,  Religiose.  Was  in  Lavaters  '  Phy- 
siognomik'  iiber  Tierschadel  vorkommt,  ist  von 

Brixton  Hill. 

[Reply  also  from  C.  W.  S.] 

ARMS  ON  FIREBACK  (9th  S.  x.  29).— The 
Sussex  iron-masters  had  three  favourite  sets 
of  devices  for  these  chimney-backs,  namely, 
royal  or  other  armorial  bearings,  mytho- 
logical subjects,  and  Scriptural  stories,  so 
that  those  described  by  COLONEL  doubtless 
come  under  the  first  head  of  armorial  bear- 
ings. To  judge  from  their  frequent  resem- 
blance, so  far  as  the  objects  depicted  are  con- 
cerned, to  the  signboard,  the  designs  on  the 
fireback  were  probably  often  co-existent  with 
those  on  the  house-sign.  The  "  Rope  and 
Anchor,"  or  the  "  Anchor  and  Cable,"  as  it 
was  also  sometimes  called,  was  a  very  common 
sign,  being  generally  represented  with  a 
piece  of  cable  turned  round  the  stem  In 
the  scarce  print  of  Fish  Street  Hill  and  the 
Monument,  in  which  the  signs  are  distinctly 
affixed  to  the  houses,  the  "Anchor  and 
Cable "  is  the  fourth  house  from  the  Monu- 
ment, towards  Eastcheap.  An  early  leaden 
token  in  the  Beaufoy  Collection  bears  Gothic 
characters  on  its  obverse  side,  and  four  fleur- 
de-lis  pointing  i